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gamma-tocopherol
3,4-dihydro-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyl tridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol

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Name:2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol
CAS Number: 7616-22-0Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:119-11-9
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:231-523-4
FDA UNII:ECY0XG64DO
Nikkaji Web:J34.135E
XlogP3-AA:10.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:416.68896000
Formula:C28 H48 O2
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:nutrient supplements
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Pubchem Patents:Search
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NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
EU SANCO Gamma-tocopherol View-review
DG SANTE Food Additives:gamma-tocopherol
 
Physical Properties:
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: -3.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 518.00 to 519.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 403.00 °F. TCC ( 206.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 10.724 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 1.069e-006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
ECSA Chemicals
gamma-Tocopherol (synthetic)
Company Profile
 
Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: nutrient supplements
Recommendation for gamma-tocopherol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for gamma-tocopherol flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Inability to assess the safety of beta-, gamma- and delta- tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and desmethyl-tocotrienol added for nutritional purposes as sources of beta-, gamma- and delta- tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and desmethyl- tocotrienol in food supplements and the bioavailability of beta-, gamma-, delta- tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and desmethyl-tocotrienol from the different sources, based on the supporting dossiers [1]
View page or View pdf

Opinion on mixed tocopherols, tocotrienol tocopherol and tocotrienols as sources for vitamin E added as a nutritional substance in food supplements[1] - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing aids and Materials in Contact with food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of tocopherol-rich extract (E 306), a-tocopherol (E 307), ?-tocopherol (E 308) and d-tocopherol (E 309) as food additives
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):7616-22-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :14986
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol
Chemidplus:0001406662
 
References:
 2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:7616-22-0
Pubchem (cid):14986
Pubchem (sid):134981326
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01492
FooDB:FDB002431
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
None Found
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 almond seed
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 barley
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 bean scarlet runner bean
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 caraway
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 cardamom seed
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 coconut
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 coconut oil
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 coffee bean
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 coriander
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 corn
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 corn oil
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 cranberry
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 evening-primrose seed
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 fennel
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 flax oil
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 flax seed oil
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 ginkgo biloba leaf
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 grape
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 lychee
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 marango seed
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 mustard field mustard oil
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 not found in nature
 oat
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 okra oil
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 olive oil
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 oregano leaf
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 peanut oil
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 peppermint leaf
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 pomegranate seed
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 rice
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 rice seed
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 roselle seed
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 rosemary
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 safflower oil
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 sesame seed oil
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 soybean cotyledon
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 soybean embryo
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 soybean oil
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 soybean seed
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 soybean seed coat
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 sunflower oil
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 wheat oil
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Synonyms:
3,4-dihydro-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyl tridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol
2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol
 

Articles:

PubMed:Final report on the safety assessment of Tocopherol, Tocopheryl Acetate, Tocopheryl Linoleate, Tocopheryl Linoleate/Oleate, Tocopheryl Nicotinate, Tocopheryl Succinate, Dioleyl Tocopheryl Methylsilanol, Potassium Ascorbyl Tocopheryl Phosphate, and Tocophersolan.
PubMed:Nutritional value, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and enrichment of cream cheese with chestnut mushroom Agrocybe aegerita (Brig.) Sing.
PubMed:Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.
PubMed:Wine grape pomace flour improves blood pressure, fasting glucose and protein damage in humans: a randomized controlled trial.
PubMed:Determination of tocopherols and sitosterols in seeds and nuts by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography.
PubMed:╬▒-Tocopherol Stereoisomers in Human Plasma Are Affected by the Level and Form of the Vitamin E Supplement Used.
PubMed:Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay.
PubMed:Promising new applications of Castanea sativa shell: nutritional composition, antioxidant activity, amino acids and vitamin E profile.
PubMed:Nutrition attributes and health effects of pistachio nuts.
PubMed:Melissa officinalis L. decoctions as functional beverages: a bioactive approach and chemical characterization.
PubMed:Ozone fumigation increases the abundance of nutrients in Brassica vegetables: broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis).
PubMed:Characteristics of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) cold-pressed oil and its oxidative stability studied by the differential scanning calorimetry method.
PubMed:A comparative study on edible Agaricus mushrooms as functional foods.
PubMed:Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular- and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
PubMed:Bioactive lignans from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.): evaluation of their antioxidant and antibacterial effects for food applications.
PubMed:Vitamin E status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea.
PubMed:Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.
PubMed:Singlet oxygen autoxidation of vegetable oils: evidences for lack of synergy between ╬▓-carotene and tocopherols.
PubMed:Serum tocopherol levels and vitamin E intake are associated with lung function in the normative aging study.
PubMed:Physicochemical characterisation and radical-scavenging activity of Cucurbitaceae seed oils.
PubMed:Purple grape juice supplementation in smokers and antioxidant status according to different types of GST polymorphisms.
PubMed:Non-targeted 1H-NMR-metabolomics suggest the induction of master regulators of energy metabolism in the liver of vitamin E-deficient rats.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities of tocopherols/tocotrienols and lipophilic antioxidant capacity of wheat, vegetable oils, milk and milk cream by using photochemiluminescence.
PubMed:Hormonal and dietary characteristics in obese human subjects with and without food addiction.
PubMed:Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.
PubMed:Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a marine functional source of gamma-tocopherol.
PubMed:A correlation between tocopherol content and antioxidant activity in seeds and germinating seeds of soybean cultivars.
PubMed:The relationship of antioxidant components and antioxidant activity of sesame seed oil.
PubMed:Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.
PubMed:Influence of deficit irrigation strategies on fatty acid and tocopherol concentration of almond (Prunus dulcis).
PubMed:Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.
PubMed:Unique variability of tocopherol composition in various seed oils recovered from by-products of apple industry: rapid and simple determination of all four homologues (╬▒, ╬▓, ╬│ and ╬┤) by RP-HPLC/FLD.
PubMed:Consumption of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol lowering foods improves blood lipids without affecting concentrations of fat soluble compounds.
PubMed:Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma ╬▒- and ╬│-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.
PubMed:Nutraceutical properties of chestnut flours: beneficial effects on skeletal muscle atrophy.
PubMed:Cluster-determinant 36 (CD36) impacts on vitamin E postprandial response.
PubMed:Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.
PubMed:Formulation and characterisation of wheat bran oil-in-water nanoemulsions.
PubMed:Nutritional quality of fresh and heated Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seed oil: trans-fatty acid isomers profiles and antioxidant properties.
PubMed:Buckwheat achenes antioxidant profile modulates Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.
PubMed:High environmental stress yields greater tocotrienol content while changing vitamin e profiles of wild emmer wheat seeds.
PubMed:Determination of the antiradical properties of olive oils using an electrochemical method based on DPPH radical.
PubMed:Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.
PubMed:Fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and synergistic contribution to antioxidant activities.
PubMed:Characterization of white Mahlab (Prunus mahaleb L.) seed oil: a rich source of ╬▒-eleostearic acid.
PubMed:Excess ╬▒-tocopherol decreases extrahepatic phylloquinone in phylloquinone-fed rats but not menaquinone-4 in menaquinone-4-fed rats.
PubMed:Plasma antioxidants, genetic variation in SOD2, CAT, GPX1, GPX4, and prostate cancer survival.
PubMed:Chamaerops humilis L. var. argentea Andr├ę date palm seed oil: a potential dietetic plant product.
PubMed:The role of antioxidants and pro-oxidants in colon cancer.
PubMed:Quantification of ╬│- and ╬▒-tocopherol isomers in combination with pattern recognition model as a tool for differentiating dry-cured shoulders of Iberian pigs raised on different feeding systems.
PubMed:Characteristics, composition and oxidative stability of Lannea microcarpa seed and seed oil.
PubMed:Effect of Roasting Process on Total Phenolic Compounds and ╬│-tocopherol Contents of Iranian Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum).
PubMed:Quantification and bioaccessibility of california pistachio bioactives.
PubMed:Nitrogen-bisphosphonate therapy is linked to compromised coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E status in postmenopausal women.
PubMed:Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction.
PubMed:╬▒-Tocopherol transfer protein is not required for the discrimination against ╬│-tocopherol in vivo but protects it from side-chain degradation in vitro.
PubMed:Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.
PubMed:Phytochemicals in sweet sorghum ( Dura ) and their antioxidant capabilities against lipid oxidation.
PubMed:Effects of different culture conditions on biological potential and metabolites production in three Penicillium isolates.
PubMed:Effect of dietary alfalfa on the fatty acid composition and indexes of lipid metabolism of rabbit meat.
PubMed:Different tocopherol isoforms vary in capacity to scavenge free radicals, prevent inflammatory response, and induce apoptosis in both adult- and fetal-derived intestinal epithelial cells.
PubMed:Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.
PubMed:Summer (subarctic) versus winter (subtropic) production affects spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf bionutrients: vitamins (C, E, Folate, K1, provitamin A), lutein, phenolics, and antioxidants.
PubMed:[Enrichment effect of vitamin-deficient diet of rats by polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 on vitamin biomarkers and antioxidant status].
PubMed:Validation of an FFQ to assess antioxidant intake in overweight postmenopausal women.
PubMed:Validation of a fast and accurate chromatographic method for detailed quantification of vitamin E in green leafy vegetables.
PubMed:A novel oral nutraceutical formula of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with vitamins (PLP10) in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept clinical trial.
PubMed:Antioxidant effectiveness of vegetable powders on the lipid and protein oxidative stability of cooked Turkey meat patties: implications for health.
PubMed:Characterization of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamins and antioxidant activities of selected Malaysian wild edible plants.
PubMed:Antioxidative activities of Ginkgo biloba extract on oil/water emulsion system prepared from an enzymatically modified lipid containing alpha-linolenic acid.
PubMed:Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects tissue vitamin e and malondialdehyde levels but does not change antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).
PubMed:Antioxidant capacity of tomato seed oil in solution and its redox properties in cultured macrophages.
PubMed:The antioxidant status response to low-fat and walnut paste-enriched meat differs in volunteers at high cardiovascular Risk carrying different PON-1 polymorphisms.
PubMed:Lipid composition of Castanea sativa Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum fruit oils.
PubMed:Validation of an FFQ to assess short-term antioxidant intake against 30 d food records and plasma biomarkers.
PubMed:Optimization of hull-less pumpkin seed roasting conditions using response surface methodology.
PubMed:Profiles of lipid components, fatty acid distributions of triacylglycerols and phospholipids in Jack beans (Canavalia gladiata DC.).
PubMed:Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.
PubMed:Involvement of de novo ceramide synthesis in gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Comprehensive profiling of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in milk from different animal species by LC-DAD-MS/MS hyphenation.
PubMed:Effects of heat treatment on the carotenoid and tocopherol composition of tomato.
PubMed:Chemical composition and functional characterisation of commercial pumpkin seed oil.
PubMed:[Nutritional value and functional properties of flaxseed].
PubMed:Simple and fast HPLC method for simultaneous determination of retinol, tocopherols, coenzyme Q(10) and carotenoids in complex samples.
PubMed:Assessment of vitamin and carotenoid concentrations of emerging food products: edible microgreens.
PubMed:Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).
PubMed:Effect of production system on physical-chemical, antioxidant and fatty acids composition of Longissimus dorsi and Serratus ventralis muscles from Iberian pig.
PubMed:Effects of flaxseed oil on anti-oxidative system and membrane deformation of human peripheral blood erythrocytes in high glucose level.
PubMed:Increased ╬▒-tocotrienol content in seeds of transgenic rice overexpressing Arabidopsis ╬│-tocopherol methyltransferase.
PubMed:Bioactive compounds in lipid fractions of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) seeds for use in food.
PubMed:Can agricultural cultivation methods influence the healthfulness of crops for foods?
PubMed:Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.
PubMed:Suppressive effect of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls transfer from feed to eggs of laying hens by activated carbon as feed additive.
PubMed:Bioactive compounds and nutritional significance of virgin argan oil--an edible oil with potential as a functional food.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of chestnut cultivars from three consecutive years: chemometrics and contribution for authentication.
PubMed:Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin with Cinnamomum camphora seed oil to produce zero-trans medium-chain triacylglycerols-enriched plastic fat.
PubMed:Concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk during the first months of lactation and in infant formulas.
PubMed:Two by-products of the olive oil extraction industry as oleic acid supplement source for Iberian pigs: effect on the meat's chemical composition and induced lipoperoxidation.
PubMed:Development of a method for oral administration of hydrophobic substances to Caenorhabditis elegans: pro-longevity effects of oral supplementation with lipid-soluble antioxidants.
PubMed:Acute and chronic watercress supplementation attenuates exercise-induced peripheral mononuclear cell DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.
PubMed:[Effects of multi-nutrients supplementation on the nutritional status and antioxidant capability of healthy adults].
PubMed:Lipid and cholesterol oxidation in chicken meat are inhibited by sage but not by garlic.
PubMed:Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits.
PubMed:Comparison of the chemical compositions and nutritive values of various pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae) species and parts.
PubMed:Acute toxicity study of liposomal antioxidant formulations containing N-acetylcysteine, ╬▒-tocopherol, and ╬│-tocopherol in rats.
PubMed:Metabolite profiling based on lipophilic compounds for quality assessment of perilla (Perilla frutescens) cultivars.
PubMed:Fatty acids, tocopherols, selenium and total carotene of pistachios (P. vera L.) from Diyarbakir (Southeastern Turkey) and walnuts (J. regia L.) from Erzincan (Eastern Turkey).
PubMed:Tocopherols in rose hips (Rosa spp.) during ripening.
PubMed:Effects of vitamin E on bone turnover markers among US postmenopausal women.
PubMed:The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.).
PubMed:Determination of tocopherol and tocotrienol content of Greek barley varieties under conventional and organic cultivation techniques using validated reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method.
PubMed:Varying quality of fish oil capsules: fatty acids and tocopherol.
PubMed:Effects of high temperature stress at different development stages on soybean isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil.
PubMed:The relationship between plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration and vitamin E intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PubMed:Dietary lipids modulate methylmercury toxicity in Atlantic salmon.
PubMed:New vitamin E isomers (gamma-tocomonoenol and alpha-tocomonoenol) in seeds, roasted seeds and roasted seed oil from the Slovenian pumpkin variety 'Slovenska golica'.
PubMed:Determination of tocopherol contents of some olive varieties harvested at different ripening periods.
PubMed:[Nutritional value of sesame seeds].
PubMed:Supercritical COÔééextraction of oleoresin from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) flowers and determination of its antioxidant components with online HPLC-ABTS(┬Ě+) assay.
PubMed:Assessing the effects of gamma irradiation and storage time in energetic value and in major individual nutrients of chestnuts.
PubMed:Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of fruits and leaves of paprika (Capsicum Annuum L., var. special) cultivated in Korea.
PubMed:Tocopherol concentration in almond oil: genetic variation and environmental effects under warm conditions.
PubMed:Comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants from in vivo and in vitro grown Coriandrum sativum.
PubMed:Characterization of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)-enriched seed oil from Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and its oxidative stability.
PubMed:Antioxidant-rich food intakes and their association with blood total antioxidant status and vitamin C and E levels in community-dwelling seniors from the Quebec longitudinal study NuAge.
PubMed:Evaluation of a method based on liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry for a rapid and comprehensive characterization of the fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid profile of selected plant foods.
PubMed:Influence of dietary sesamin, a bioactive compound on fatty acids and expression of some lipid regulating genes in Baltic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles.
PubMed:Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the oxidized derivatives of stigmasterol in the U937 human monocytic cell line.
PubMed:Temperature dependence of autoxidation of perilla oil and tocopherol degradation.
PubMed:Oxidative stress and nutritional factors in hepatitis C virus-positive liver recipients, controls, and hepatitis C virus-positive nontransplant patients.
PubMed:Antioxidant properties of edible basidiomycete Phellinus igniarius in submerged cultures.
PubMed:Selenium, but not lycopene or vitamin E, decreases growth of transplantable dunning R3327-H rat prostate tumors.
PubMed:Bioactive compounds in cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernels: effect of different shelling methods.
PubMed:Should the amazigh diet (regular and moderate argan-oil consumption) have a beneficial impact on human health?
PubMed:Vitamin E forms in Alzheimer's disease: a review of controversial and clinical experiences.
PubMed:Secondary plant substances in various extracts of the leaves, fruits, stem and bark of Caraipa densifolia Mart.
PubMed:Regulation of xenobiotic metabolism, the only signaling function of alpha-tocopherol?
PubMed:Dietary and demographic correlates of serum beta-glucuronidase activity.
PubMed:Modulatory effects of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols on 4-hydroxyestradiol induced oxidative stresses in MCF-10A breast epithelial cells.
PubMed:Relationships among dietary nutrients and subjective sleep, objective sleep, and napping in women.
PubMed:Lipophilic antioxidants and some carpometric characteristics of fruits of ten processing tomato varieties, grown in different climatic conditions.
PubMed:Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress is Greater in Korean Patients with Coronary Artery Disease than Healthy Subjects.
PubMed:Anticancer actions of natural and synthetic vitamin E forms: RRR-alpha-tocopherol blocks the anticancer actions of gamma-tocopherol.
PubMed:Antiproliferation properties of grain sorghum dry distiller's grain lipids in Caco-2 cells.
PubMed:Fatty acids and lignans in unground whole flaxseed and sesame seed are bioavailable but have minimal antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects in postmenopausal women.
PubMed:The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after acute coffee intake is not associated with endogenous non-enzymatic antioxidant components.
PubMed:Antioxidant capacity and lipid characterization of six Georgia-grown pomegranate cultivars.
PubMed:High-temperature natural antioxidant improves soy oil for frying.
PubMed:Ellagic acid and its methyl-derivatives inhibit a newly found nitratase activity.
PubMed:Inhibition of lung cancer growth in mice by dietary mixed tocopherols.
PubMed:High fruit and vegetable intake is positively correlated with antioxidant status and cognitive performance in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Effect of infrared heating on the formation of sesamol and quality of defatted flours from Sesamum indicum L.
PubMed:Feasibility for improving phytonutrient content in vegetable crops using conventional breeding strategies: case study with carotenoids and tocopherols in sweet corn and broccoli.
PubMed:Vitamin E profile as a reliable authenticity discrimination factor between chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars.
PubMed:Carotenoid and tocopherol composition of leaves, buds, and flowers of Capparis spinosa grown wild in Tunisia.
PubMed:High tocopherol and triacylglycerol contents in Pinus pinea L. seeds.
PubMed:Evaluation of an FFQ for assessment of antioxidant intake using plasma biomarkers in an ethnically diverse population.
PubMed:Dietary flavonoids do not affect vitamin E status in growing rats.
PubMed:Dietary vitamin E, brain redox status and expression of Alzheimer's disease-relevant genes in rats.
PubMed:Screening and comparing tocopherols in the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.
PubMed:Effect of Ramadan fasting on markers of oxidative stress and serum biochemical markers of cellular damage in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Vitamin E inadequacy observed in a group of 2- to 6-year-old children living in Kwangju, Republic of Korea.
PubMed:A combination of aspirin and gamma-tocopherol is superior to that of aspirin and alpha-tocopherol in anti-inflammatory action and attenuation of aspirin-induced adverse effects.
PubMed:Dietary marine-derived tocopherol has a higher biological availability in mice relative to alpha-tocopherol.
PubMed:Subcutaneous and intramuscular lipid traits as tools for classifying Iberian pigs as a function of their feeding background.
PubMed:Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.
PubMed:Comparison of nutritional traits variability in selected eighty-seven inbreds from Chinese maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm.
PubMed:Comparison of extraction methods for quantifying vitamin E from animal tissues.
PubMed:Sex differences in the inhibition of gamma-tocopherol metabolism by a single dose of dietary sesame oil in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals.
PubMed:Plasma vitamins E and A and risk of bladder cancer: a case-control analysis.
PubMed:Genetic possibilities for altering sunflower oil quality to obtain novel oils.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo evaluation of anticancer actions of natural and synthetic vitamin E forms.
PubMed:Supplementation of alpha-tocopherol improves cardiovascular risk factors via the insulin signalling pathway and reduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in type II diabetic rats.
PubMed:Both alpha- and beta-carotene, but not tocopherols and vitamin C, are inversely related to 15-year cardiovascular mortality in Dutch elderly men.
PubMed:Effect of apoE genotype and vitamin E on biomarkers of oxidative stress in cultured neuronal cells and the brain of targeted replacement mice.
PubMed:Hydroxymatairesinol and sesaminol act differently on tocopherol concentrations in rats.
PubMed:Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, phytosterol, and tocopherol variations in kernel oil of Malatya apricots from Turkey.
PubMed:Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil is a rich source of gamma-tocopherol.
PubMed:Overexpression of Arabidopsis homogentisate phytyltransferase or tocopherol cyclase elevates vitamin E content by increasing gamma-tocopherol level in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).
PubMed:Extensive feeding versus oleic acid and tocopherol enriched mixed diets for the production of Iberian dry-cured hams: Effect on chemical composition, oxidative status and sensory traits.
PubMed:Bioactive components of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) from Sicily and antioxidant effects in a red meat simulated gastric digestion.
PubMed:Total alpha-tocopherol intakes are associated with serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations in African American adults.
PubMed:Ozone enhancement of lower airway allergic inflammation is prevented by gamma-tocopherol.
PubMed:Effect of a blueberry nutritional supplement on macronutrients, food group intake, and plasma vitamin E and vitamin C in US athletes.
PubMed:Influence of growth temperature on the amounts of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and gamma-oryzanol in brown rice.
PubMed:Comprehensive analysis of vitamin E constituents in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Isolation and identification of novel estrogenic compounds in yam tuber (Dioscorea alata Cv. Tainung No. 2).
PubMed:Gamma-tocopherol as a marker of Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) adulteration by corn.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of standard reference material 3276, carrot extract in oil.
PubMed:Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars.
PubMed:Plasma micronutrients are associated with dietary intake and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in a paediatric population.
PubMed:Quantitative NMR analysis of a sesamin catechol metabolite in human urine.
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, and EDTA affect lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched salad dressing differently.
PubMed:Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in US men.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components.
PubMed:Fatty acid profiles, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant activities of heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Var. cordiformis) and Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.).
PubMed:Selected quality parameters of salmon and meat when fried with or without added fat.
PubMed:Study of potential systemic oxidative stress animal models for the evaluation of antioxidant activity: status of lipid peroxidation and fat-soluble antioxidants.
PubMed:Enrichment of tocopherols and phytosterols in canola oil during seed germination.
PubMed:Antioxidant intake, oxidative stress and inflammation among immigrant women from the Middle East living in Sweden: associations with cardiovascular risk factors.
PubMed:Bioavailability of carotenoids and tocopherols from broccoli: in vivo and in vitro assessment.
PubMed:Carotenoid and tocopherol estimates from the NCI diet history questionnaire are valid compared with multiple recalls and serum biomarkers.
PubMed:Antioxidant value addition in human diets: genetic transformation of Brassica juncea with gamma-TMT gene for increased alpha-tocopherol content.
PubMed:Bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E from their main dietary sources.
PubMed:Genetic basis for natural variation in seed vitamin E levels in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:Vitamin E content of foods: comparison of results obtained from food composition tables and HPLC analysis.
PubMed:Reinvestigation of the effect of heat pretreatment of corn fiber and corn germ on the levels of extractable tocopherols and tocotrienols.
PubMed:Non-radioactive and colorimetric quantification of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in early atherogenesis.
PubMed:Quantitation of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in turpentine (Pistacia terebinthus Chia) growing wild in Turkey.
PubMed:Nutritional approach for designing meat-based functional food products with nuts.
PubMed:Does gamma-tocopherol play a role in the primary prevention of heart disease and cancer? A review.
PubMed:Postprandial levels of the natural vitamin E tocotrienol in human circulation.
PubMed:Lipids and tocopherols in serum and liver of female rats fed diets containing corn oil or cottonseed oil.
PubMed:Coenzyme Q concentration and total antioxidant capacity of human milk at different stages of lactation in mothers of preterm and full-term infants.
PubMed:Dietary habits are major determinants of the plasma antioxidant status in healthy elderly subjects.
PubMed:Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the cytotoxic and apoptotic potential of phytosterol oxidation products with their corresponding cholesterol oxidation products.
PubMed:Fruits, vegetables, and antioxidants and risk of gastric cancer among male smokers.
PubMed:Less than adequate vitamin E status observed in a group of preschool boys and girls living in the United States.
PubMed:Glucosinolates and fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol composition of seed oils from Capparis spinosa Var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. Var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood.
PubMed:Beyond vitamin E supplementation: an alternative strategy to improve vitamin E status.
PubMed:Vitamin E composition of walnuts (Juglans regia L.): a 3-year comparative study of different cultivars.
PubMed:Protection against oxidation of fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions through addition of rapeseed oil or antioxidants.
PubMed:Costa Rican adolescents have a deleterious nutritional profile as compared to adults in terms of lower dietary and plasma concentrations of antioxidant micronutrients.
PubMed:Consumption of sesame oil muffins decreases the urinary excretion of gamma-tocopherol metabolites in humans.
PubMed:Effect of processing on the antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant capacity of Vigna sinensis Var. Carilla.
PubMed:Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to cognitive change.
PubMed:More optimal forms of vitamin E.
PubMed:Tocopherol measurement in edible products of vegetable origin.
PubMed:Increased intake of fruit and vegetables and a low-fat diet, with and without low-fat plant sterol-enriched spread consumption: effects on plasma lipoprotein and carotenoid metabolism.
PubMed:Changes in contents of carotenoids and vitamin E during tomato processing.
PubMed:Calibration of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in early pregnancy.
PubMed:Cigarette smokers have decreased lymphocyte and platelet alpha-tocopherol levels and increased excretion of the gamma-tocopherol metabolite gamma-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman (gamma-CEHC).
PubMed:Chemopreventive effect of dietary d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate supplementation on precancer colon aberrant crypt formation and vitamin E analogue levels in young and old rats.
PubMed:Effect of dietary tocopherols and tocotrienols on the antioxidant status and lipid stability of chicken.
PubMed:Gamma-tocopherol--an underestimated vitamin?
PubMed:I read recently that foods high in vitamin E may be more beneficial than supplements containing vitamin E. Please explain.
PubMed:Gamma-tocopherol as a possible marker for nutrition-related risk: results from four National Diet and Nutrition Surveys in Britain.
PubMed:Effect of flavonoids and vitamin E on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription.
PubMed:Yeast-leavened oat breads with high or low molecular weight beta-glucan do not differ in their effects on blood concentrations of lipids, insulin, or glucose in humans.
PubMed:Use of Tween 40 and Tween 80 to deliver a mixture of phytochemicals to human colonic adenocarcinoma cell (CaCo-2) monolayers.
PubMed:Phenolic antioxidants and the protection of low density lipoprotein from peroxynitrite-mediated oxidations at physiologic CO2.
PubMed:Tocopherol composition of deodorization distillates and their antioxidative activity.
PubMed:Accumulation of vitamin E metabolites in the blood of renal failure patients.
PubMed:Dietary fat type affects vitamins C and E and biomarkers of oxidative status in peripheral and brain tissues of golden Syrian hamsters.
PubMed:Cereal alkylresorcinols elevate gamma-tocopherol levels in rats and inhibit gamma-tocopherol metabolism in vitro.
PubMed:Vitamin E delivery to human skin: studies using deuterated alpha-tocopherol measured by APCI LC-MS.
PubMed:Comparative effects of flaxseed and sesame seed on vitamin E and cholesterol levels in rats.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of vitamin E homologs in chicken meat by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
PubMed:Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes.
PubMed:Effects of alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols on the autoxidation of purified rapeseed oil triacylglycerols in a system containing low oxygen.
PubMed:Engineering vitamin E content: from Arabidopsis mutant to soy oil.
PubMed:Vitamin E supplementation increases circulating vitamin E metabolites tenfold in end-stage renal disease patients.
PubMed:Selected nutritional biomarkers predict diet quality.
PubMed:Dietary (+)-catechin and BHT markedly increase alpha-tocopherol concentrations in rats by a tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase-independent mechanism.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds and fatty acids from acorns (Quercus spp.), the main dietary constituent of free-ranged Iberian pigs.
PubMed:Antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress in a randomized, controlled, parallel, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
PubMed:Dietary supplement use in old age: associations with childhood IQ, current cognition and health.
PubMed:Optimized and validated HPLC method for alpha- and gamma-tocopherol measurement in Laurus nobilis leaves. New data on tocopherol content.
PubMed:Normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals.
PubMed:Toxicity of cholesterol oxidation products to Caco-2 and HepG2 cells: modulatory effects of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol.
PubMed:Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to glucose metabolism in subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the Botnia Dietary Study.
PubMed:Degradation of ╬│- and ╬▒-tocopherol and formation of 5-nitro-╬│-tocopherol induced by peroxynitrite in liposomes and skeletal muscle.
PubMed:Alpha-tocopherol modulates the low density lipoprotein receptor of human HepG2 cells.
PubMed:Dependence of tocopherol stability on different cooking procedures of food.
PubMed:Non-nutritive bioactive food constituents of plants: tocopherols (vitamin E).
PubMed:Gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, decreases proinflammatory eicosanoids and inflammation damage in rats.
PubMed:Infants discriminate between natural and synthetic vitamin E.
PubMed:Plasma retinol and tocopherol levels in relation to demographic, lifestyle and nutritional factors of plant origin in Greece.
PubMed:Enhancing quality and oxidative stability of aged fried food with gamma-tocopherol.
PubMed:Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail.
PubMed:Effects of dietary anthocyanins on tocopherols and lipids in rats.
PubMed:Frequent intake of tropical fruits that are rich in beta-cryptoxanthin is associated with higher plasma beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations in Costa Rican adolescents.
PubMed:Warm temperatures or drought during seed maturation increase free alpha-tocopherol in seeds of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).
PubMed:Modulation of antioxidant compounds in organic vs conventional fruit (peach, Prunus persica L., and pear, Pyrus communis L.).
PubMed:DNA damage and antioxidants; fluctuations through the year in a central European population group.
PubMed:Effect of sesaminol on plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol concentrations in rats fed a vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols.
PubMed:A longitudinal evaluation of oxidative stress in trauma patients.
PubMed:Dietary sesame seed and its lignans inhibit 2,7,8-trimethyl- 2(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman excretion into urine of rats fed gamma-tocopherol.
PubMed:Supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato processing byproducts.
PubMed:Muscle lipids, vitamins E and A, and lipid oxidation as affected by diet and RN genotype in female and castrated male Hampshire crossbreed pigs.
PubMed:Development and validation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay for lipophilic antioxidants using randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin as the solubility enhancer.
PubMed:Comparison of LDL fatty acid and carotenoid concentrations and oxidative resistance of LDL in volunteers from countries with different rates of cardiovascular disease.
PubMed:Dietary and adipose tissue gamma-tocopherol and risk of myocardial infarction.
PubMed:Original study of the biochemical and oil composition of the Cambodia nut Irvingia malayana.
PubMed:Gamma-tocopherol is less effective than alpha-tocopherol in preventing oxidant-induced sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster V79 cells.
PubMed:Which plasma antioxidants are most related to fruit and vegetable consumption?
PubMed:Antioxidants and total peroxyl radical-trapping ability of olive and seed oils.
PubMed:alpha-Tocopherol, but not gamma-tocopherol inhibits 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol-induced apoptosis in human U937 cells.
PubMed:Dietary sesame seeds elevate alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol concentrations in skin and adipose tissue of rats fed the tocotrienol-rich fraction extracted from palm oil.
PubMed:Relationship between fatty acid profile and vitamin E content in maize hybrids (Zea mays L.).
PubMed:Effects of dietary sesame seeds on plasma tocopherol levels.
PubMed:Population-based study of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma and adipose tissue as biomarkers of intake in Costa Rican adults.
PubMed:Relationship between dietary intake, antioxidant status and smoking habits in female Austrian smokers.
PubMed:Comparison of oil and phytosterol levels in germplasm accessions of corn, teosinte, and Job's tears.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and gamma-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride.
PubMed:Removal of fat from cow's milk decreases the vitamin E contents of the resulting dairy products.
PubMed:Alteration of fatty acid composition, tocopherol content and peroxide value in margarine during storage at various temperatures.
PubMed:Effect of meal fat quality on oxidation resistance of postprandial VLDL and LDL particles and plasma triacylglycerol level.
PubMed:Gamma-linolenic acid and tocopherol contents in the seed oil of 47 accessions from several Ribes species.
PubMed:Correlates of serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in the Women's Health Initiative.
PubMed:Natural tocopherols in a dietary supplement of lutein affect tissue distribution of tocopherols in young rats.
PubMed:Moderate consumption of beer, red wine and spirits has counteracting effects on plasma antioxidants in middle-aged men.
PubMed:Analysis of olive and hazelnut oil mixtures by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols and gas-liquid chromatography of non-saponifiable compounds (tocopherols and sterols).
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of malt rootlet extracts.
PubMed:Lipoprotein carotenoid profiles and the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidative modification in healthy elderly volunteers.
PubMed:Changes in tocopherol and plastochromanol-8 contents in seeds and oil of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) during storage as influenced by temperature and air oxygen.
PubMed:Lipid oxidation in a chicken muscle model system: oxidative response of lipid classes to iron ascorbate or methemoglobin catalysis.
PubMed:Relationship between vitamin E requirement and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in man: a review.
PubMed:Effects of various tocopherol-containing diets on tocopherol secretion into bile.
PubMed:Dietary vitamin A modulates the concentrations of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in plasma lipoproteins from calves fed milk replacer.
PubMed:Ascorbate is depleted by smoking and repleted by moderate supplementation: a study in male smokers and nonsmokers with matched dietary antioxidant intakes.
PubMed:Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise.
PubMed:Effect of heat pretreatment on the yield and composition of oil extracted from corn fiber.
PubMed:Quantification of carotenoid and tocopherol antioxidants in Zea mays.
PubMed:Carotene, tocopherol, and ascorbate contents in subspecies of Brassica oleracea.
PubMed:Molecular mechanism of cellular uptake and intracellular translocation of alpha-tocopherol: role of tocopherol-binding proteins.
PubMed:Concentrations of tocopherols and carotenoids in maternal and cord blood plasma.
PubMed:An esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis model for esophageal adenocarcinogenesis in rats and enhancement by iron overload.
PubMed:Vitamin E: function and metabolism.
PubMed:Value assignment of retinol, retinyl palmitate, tocopherol, and carotenoid concentrations in Standard Reference Material 2383 (Baby Food Composite).
PubMed:Changes in the contents of fat-soluble vitamins and provitamins during tempe fermentation.
PubMed:Pregnancy-induced hypertension: maternal and neonatal plasma lipid-soluble antioxidant levels and its relationship with fatty acid unsaturation.
PubMed:In vivo antioxidant activity of Okara Koji, a fermented okara, by Aspergillus oryzae.
PubMed:Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals. A real time kinetic study of antioxidant hierarchy.
PubMed:Influence of the oxidative quality of dietary oil on broiler meat storage stability.
PubMed:Real time detection of reactions between radicals of lycopene and tocopherol homologues.
PubMed:Tocopherols and the etiology of colon cancer.
PubMed:Serum micronutrients and prostate cancer in Japanese Americans in Hawaii.
PubMed:Certification of nutrients in Standard Reference Material 1846: infant formula.
PubMed:Diet and dietary markers in Kiruna and Uppsala, Sweden--a comparison.
PubMed:A rapid method for the determination of vitamin E forms in tissues and diet by high-performance liquid chromatography using a normal-phase diol column.
PubMed:Racial group differences in plasma concentrations of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids in hemodialysis patients.
PubMed:Effect of extreme fish consumption on dietary and plasma antioxidant levels and fatty acid composition.
PubMed:Variability of fatty acid content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.).
PubMed:Changes in the vitamin status of elderly Europeans: plasma vitamins A, E, B-6, B-12, folic acid and carotenoids. SENECA Investigators.
PubMed:The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols.
PubMed:Variability of vitamin E content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.).
PubMed:Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in male long-term tobacco chewers, smokers and nonusers.
PubMed:Supplementation of broiler diets with all-rac-alpha- or a mixture of natural source RRR-alpha-,gamma-,delta-tocopheryl acetate. 2. Effect on the oxidative stability of raw and precooked broiler meat products.
PubMed:Tissue distribution of alpha-tocopherol following dietary supplementation in the rat: effects of concomitant cholesterol feeding.
PubMed:Sesamin (a compound from sesame oil) increases tocopherol levels in rats fed ad libitum.
PubMed:Seasonal variations in plasma micronutrients and antioxidants.
PubMed:Haemorrhagic toxicity of a large dose of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols, ubiquinone, beta-carotene, retinol acetate and L-ascorbic acid in the rat.
PubMed:The influence of dietary ethoxyquin on the vitamin E status in broilers.
PubMed:Effect of gamma radiation on total tocopherols in fresh chicken breast muscle.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic method for the determination of carotenoids, retinoids and tocopherols in human serum and in food.
PubMed:Sesame seed lignans and gamma-tocopherol act synergistically to produce vitamin E activity in rats.
PubMed:Carotenoids, retinol, and vitamin E and risk of proliferative benign breast disease and breast cancer.
PubMed:Isolation and properties of gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase in Euglena gracilis.
PubMed:Effect of ionizing radiation on unesterified tocopherols in fresh chicken breast muscle.
PubMed:Lipid and tocopherol composition of farm-raised striped and hybrid striped bass.
PubMed:Effects of the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and foods on serum concentrations of carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in healthy inhabitants living in a rural area of Hokkaido.
PubMed:Alpha and gamma tocopherols in pooled mature human milk after storage.
PubMed:Vitamin E in foods from high and low linoleic acid diets.
PubMed:[Anti-oxidant activity and tissue accumulation of tocopherols from a new source].
PubMed:Tocopherols and tocotrienols in Finnish foods: human milk and infant formulas.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols and its application to diets and plasma of Finnish men. II. Applications.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols and its application to diets and plasma of Finnish men. I. Analytical method.
PubMed:The effect of dietary gamma-tocopherol on serum tocopherols in formulated infants.
 
Notes:
a collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2h-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. they are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation. Occurs in many nut and other vegetable oils such as soya and sunflower oil. Used as antioxidant food additive. Member of Vitamin E group. Added to fats and oils to prevent rancidity. The naturally occurring tocopherol is a single steroisomer; synthetic forms are a mixt. of all eight possible isomers [DFC] gamma-Tocopherol is one of the chemical compounds that is considered vitamin E. As a food additive, it has E number E308. [Wikipedia]
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