a group of flavonoids derived from flavonols, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. they are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. the conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants. Plant pigments of the flavonoid class; they are glycosides that on hydrolysis yield coloured aglycons called anthocyanidins. [ChEBI] Aglycons of anthocyanins; they are oxygenated derivatives of flavylium (2-phenylchromenylium) salts. [ChEBI]
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anthocyanins (Click)
CAS Number: 11029-12-2Picture of molecule
Other: 39405-56-6
Beilstein Number: 1426787
Molecular Weight: 207.25187000
Formula: C15 H11 O
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: coloring agents, antioxidants
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 93 Grape seed extract and grape skin extract View-notice PDF
EU SANCO Anthocyanins View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Grape Skin Extract
GSFA Codex: Grape skin extract (163(ii))
DG SANTE Food Additives: anthocyanins
FDA Regulation:
Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina).
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Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 2.805e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Description:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: cosmetic colorants
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Amax Nutrasource
Grape Skin Extract, 30% Polyphenols
Blue Pacific Flavors
Grape Skin Extract 2x (ENO Liquid)
Changsha Organic Herb
Bilberry Extract Anthocyanins
Changsha Organic Herb
Blueberry Extract Anthocyanosides Anthocyanidin
Changsha Organic Herb
Elderberry Extract
Changsha Organic Herb
Grape Skin Extract Polyphenols
Chr. Hansen A/S
Flavor: characteristic
Anthocyanin is the international food and beverage industry’s preferred natural food colors in shades ranging from orange, red, pink and purple to blue. Chr. Hansen offers a full range of anthocyanin natural food color solutions as well as a range of fruit juice and vegetable concentrates. Anthocyanins offer good light, heat and pH stability in most applications and can withstand pasteurization and ultra-heat treatment (UHT).
Chr. Hansen A/S
Flavor: characteristic
ColorFruit® is our range of transparent anthocyanins and carotenes, especially suitable for beverages, but also very used in confectionery, fruit preparations, dairy and ice cream. ColorFruit® shades are bright and range from yellow, orange, red and pink to purple and are excellent replacers of artificial yellows and reds. ColorFruit® offers excellent light, heat and pH stability.
Chr. Hansen A/S
Ultra Stable Red™
Flavor: characteristic
Chr. Hansen introduces the most stable natural red colors for beverages on the market. No longer should beverage producers accept fading, murky colors in their drinks.
George Uhe Company
Grapeskin Extract
Kalsec® Anthocyanins
Food Coloring
Mission flavors & fragrances
Enocianina Solution
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
Rung International
Anthocyanin Colour Powder
Skyherb Technologies
Grape Skin Extract, Anthocyanidins 5%,10%
Synthite Industries
E-books and Brochures
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Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: coloring agents, antioxidants
Recommendation for anthocyanins usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for anthocyanins flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
EPI System: View search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 11029-12-2
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 145858
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
Chemidplus: 0011029122
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NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 11029-12-2
Pubchem (cid): 145858
Pubchem (sid): 135318096
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C15549
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB31460
FooDB: FDB007538
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
 coloring agents 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 basil leaf
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 bean black bean seed
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 bean black bean testa
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 bilberry leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 cacao bean
Search Trop  Picture
 cranberry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 currant black currant fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 fig fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 grape fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 grape leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 grape pericarp
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 onion bulb
Search Trop  Picture
 peach fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 pokeweed fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 pomegranate fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 roselle calyx
Search Trop  Picture
 soybean seed
Search Trop  Picture
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kalsec anthocyanins
1-benzopyrylium, 2-phenyl-
anthocyanins brassica oleracea linne extract
red cabbage color (powdered san red RC)
red cabbage color (san red RC-DS 51; liquid)
 enocianina grape skin extract single strength
 enocianina grapeskin extract double strength
 enocianina powder
 enocianina solution
anthocyanins grape skin extract
 grape skin extract 2x (ENO liquid)
 grape skin extract, 30% polyphenols
 grape skin extract, anthocyanidins 5%,10%
 grapeskin extract
anthocyanins ipomoea batatas poiret extract
 ultra stable red
anthocyanins vitis vinifera skin extract
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PubMed: Opportunities and challenges in application of forward osmosis in food processing.
PubMed: Consumer sensory analysis of high flavonoid transgenic tomatoes.
PubMed: Influence of preheating on antioxidant activity of the water extract from black soybean and color and sensory properties of black soybean decoction.
PubMed: Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of several peach cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in Spain.
PubMed: QTL involved in the modification of cyanidin compounds in black and red raspberry fruit.
PubMed: Metabolic engineering in strawberry fruit uncovers a dormant biosynthetic pathway.
PubMed: Use of a custom array to study differentially expressed genes during blood orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) ripening.
PubMed: Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay.
PubMed: Enhancing the retention of phytochemicals and organoleptic attributes in muscadine grape juice through a combined approach between dense phase CO2 processing and copigmentation.
PubMed: Study of anticancer activities of muscadine grape phenolics in vitro.
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