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CAS Number: 34424-57-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
FDA UNII: Search
XlogP3-AA:7.20 (est)
Molecular Weight:272.47504000
Formula:C20 H32
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:natural substances and extractives
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 92.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 343.00 to 345.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.000139 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 338.00 °F. TCC ( 170.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 8.377 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 0.002009 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Kaurene 95%
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
natural substances and extractives
Recommendation for kaurene usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for kaurene flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :3033942
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):3033942
Pubchem (sid):135021585
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 mangrove bark red oil cuba @ 1.10%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 witch hazel leaf oil @ 0.02%
Data GC Search Trop Picture


PubMed:The volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus.
PubMed:Biochemical characterization of the castor bean ent-kaurene synthase(-like) family supports quantum chemical view of diterpene cyclization.
PubMed:Determination and pharmacokinetic study of the novel anti-tumor candidate drug DG-7 in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on tanshinone production and biosynthetic gene expression in transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots.
PubMed:Blue-light irradiation up-regulates the ent-kaurene synthase gene and affects the avoidance response of protonemal growth in Physcomitrella patens.
PubMed:Total synthesis of (±)-cafestol: a late-stage construction of the furan ring inspired by a biosynthesis strategy.
PubMed:Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.
PubMed:Gibberellin oxidase activities in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids.
PubMed:Transcriptome analysis of medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza and identification of genes related to tanshinone biosynthesis.
PubMed:Functional conservation of the capacity for ent-kaurene biosynthesis and an associated operon in certain rhizobia.
PubMed:Nighttime sugar starvation orchestrates gibberellin biosynthesis and plant growth in Arabidopsis.
PubMed:1.55Å-resolution structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase and exploration of general acid function by site-directed mutagenesis.
PubMed:Anti-tumour activity of longikaurin A (LK-A), a novel natural diterpenoid, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
PubMed:Isolation and characterisation of a dwarf rice mutant exhibiting defective gibberellins biosynthesis.
PubMed:Enhancing isoprenoid production through systematically assembling and modulating efflux pumps in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Effects of combined elicitors on tanshinone metabolic profiling and SmCPS expression in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures.
PubMed:Discovery and structure-activity relationships of ent-Kaurene diterpenoids as potent and selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors: potential impact in diabetes.
PubMed:Mapping the leaf proteome of Miscanthus sinensis and its application to the identification of heat-responsive proteins.
PubMed:Glycosylation of ent-kaurene derivatives and an evaluation of their cytotoxic activities.
PubMed:Whitening and antioxidant activities of bornyl acetate and nezukol fractionated from Cryptomeria japonica essential oil.
PubMed:Enmein-type diterpenoid analogs from natural kaurene-type oridonin: Synthesis and their antitumor biological evaluation.
PubMed:Jaridonin, a novel ent-kaurene diterpenoid from Isodon rubescens, inducing apoptosis via production of reactive oxygen species in esophageal cancer cells.
PubMed:Library construction and biological evaluation of enmein-type diterpenoid analogues as potential anticancer agents.
PubMed:Transcriptional profiling of Zea mays roots reveals roles for jasmonic acid and terpenoids in resistance against Phytophthora cinnamomi.
PubMed:Kaurene diterpene induces apoptosis in U87 human malignant glioblastoma cells by suppression of anti-apoptotic signals and activation of cysteine proteases.
PubMed:Synthesis of spirolactone-type diterpenoid derivatives from kaurene-type oridonin with improved antiproliferative effects and their apoptosis-inducing activity in human hepatoma Bel-7402 cells.
PubMed:Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models.
PubMed:Functional characterization of wheat ent-kaurene(-like) synthases indicates continuing evolution of labdane-related diterpenoid metabolism in the cereals.
PubMed:Functional characterization of wheat copalyl diphosphate synthases sheds light on the early evolution of labdane-related diterpenoid metabolism in the cereals.
PubMed:Overexpression of rice LRK1 restricts internode elongation by down-regulating OsKO2.
PubMed:Strategies for strain improvement in Fusarium fujikuroi: overexpression and localization of key enzymes of the isoprenoid pathway and their impact on gibberellin biosynthesis.
PubMed:New kaurene diterpenoid glycosides from fenugreek seeds.
PubMed:Effect of some ent-kaurenes on the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
PubMed:Antispasmodic effects of a new kaurene diterpene isolated from Croton argyrophylloides on rat airway smooth muscle.
PubMed:Melanogenesis inhibitors from Rabdosia japonica.
PubMed:Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of the labdane diterpene Z-abienol in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) glandular trichomes.
PubMed:Production of miltiradiene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Natural variation in GA1 associates with floral morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:A conformationally restricted uniconazole analogue as a specific inhibitor of rice ent-kaurene oxidase, CYP701A6.
PubMed:Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants.
PubMed:New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.
PubMed:Phytochemistry and chemotaxonomy of Sideritis species from the Mediterranean region.
PubMed:IeCPS2 is potentially involved in the biosynthesis of pharmacologically active Isodon diterpenoids rather than gibberellin.
PubMed:The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), their constituents and the analyses thereof: a review.
PubMed:CYP701A8: a rice ent-kaurene oxidase paralog diverted to more specialized diterpenoid metabolism.
PubMed:Mutational analysis of white spruce (Picea glauca) ent-kaurene synthase (PgKS) reveals common and distinct mechanisms of conifer diterpene synthases of general and specialized metabolism.
PubMed:Terpenoids from Maytenus species and assessment of their reversal activity against a multidrug-resistant Leishmania tropica line.
PubMed:Genetic evidence for natural product-mediated plant-plant allelopathy in rice (Oryza sativa).
PubMed:[Research advances of diterpene synthase].
PubMed:Domain loss has independently occurred multiple times in plant terpene synthase evolution.
PubMed:Evolution of diterpene metabolism: Sitka spruce CYP720B4 catalyzes multiple oxidations in resin acid biosynthesis of conifer defense against insects.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of sesqui- and diterpenes by the gibberellin producer Fusarium fujikuroi.
PubMed:The genes for gibberellin biosynthesis in wheat.
PubMed:Dedicated ent-kaurene and ent-atiserene synthases for platensimycin and platencin biosynthesis.
PubMed:The tomato terpene synthase gene family.
PubMed:Rice ethylene-response AP2/ERF factor OsEATB restricts internode elongation by down-regulating a gibberellin biosynthetic gene.
PubMed:Hepatotoxicity of kaurene glycosides from Xanthium strumarium L. fruits in mice.
PubMed:Genome-wide identification of gibberellins metabolic enzyme genes and expression profiling analysis during seed germination in maize.
PubMed:Structure and mechanism of the diterpene cyclase ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase.
PubMed:The molecular mechanism and evolution of the GA-GID1-DELLA signaling module in plants.
PubMed:The CYP701B1 of Physcomitrella patens is an ent-kaurene oxidase that resists inhibition by uniconazole-P.
PubMed:The family of terpene synthases in plants: a mid-size family of genes for specialized metabolism that is highly diversified throughout the kingdom.
PubMed:Two new diterpenoids and other constituents from Isodon rubescens.
PubMed:Synthesis of rabdokunmin C analogues and their inhibitory effect on NF-κB activation.
PubMed:Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of ent-kaurene derivatives.
PubMed:Mutation of rice BC12/GDD1, which encodes a kinesin-like protein that binds to a GA biosynthesis gene promoter, leads to dwarfism with impaired cell elongation.
PubMed:bZIP transcription factor RSG controls the feedback regulation of NtGA20ox1 via intracellular localization and epigenetic mechanism.
PubMed:Enzymatic total synthesis of gibberellin A₄ from acetate.
PubMed:Stevioside and related compounds - molecules of pharmaceutical promise: a critical overview.
PubMed:Identification of the single amino acid involved in quenching the ent-kauranyl cation by a water molecule in ent-kaurene synthase of Physcomitrella patens.
PubMed:Abscinazole-E1, a novel chemical tool for exploring the role of ABA 8'-hydroxylase CYP707A.
PubMed:Candidate genes involved in tanshinone biosynthesis in hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza revealed by cDNA microarray.
PubMed:Genomic and in vivo evidence of synergy of a herbal extract compared to its most active ingredient: Rabdosia rubescens vs. oridonin.
PubMed:Molecular cloning and expression profile analysis of three sunflower (Helianthus annuus) diterpene synthase genes.
PubMed:Pharicin B stabilizes retinoic acid receptor-α and presents synergistic differentiation induction with ATRA in myeloid leukemic cells.
PubMed:Chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae of essential oils from four Guarea species.
PubMed:Characterization of the kaurene oxidase CYP701A3, a multifunctional cytochrome P450 from gibberellin biosynthesis.
PubMed:ent-Kaurene diterpenoids from Blepharispermum hirtum.
PubMed:Pharicin A, a novel natural ent-kaurene diterpenoid, induces mitotic arrest and mitotic catastrophe of cancer cells by interfering with BubR1 function.
PubMed:AFLP-based transcript profiling for cassava genome-wide expression analysis in the onset of storage root formation.
PubMed:Endogenous diterpenes derived from ent-kaurene, a common gibberellin precursor, regulate protonema differentiation of the moss Physcomitrella patens.
PubMed:Rearranged diterpenoids from the biotransformation of ent-trachyloban-18-oic acid by Rhizopus arrhizus.
PubMed:Regulation of cell division and growth in roots of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings by the Ent-Kaurene diterpenoid rabdosin B.
PubMed:Formation of beyerene, kaurene, trachylobane, and atiserene diterpenes by rearrangements that avoid secondary carbocations.
PubMed:Identification and functional characterization of monofunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate and ent-kaurene synthases in white spruce reveal different patterns for diterpene synthase evolution for primary and secondary metabolism in gymnosperms.
PubMed:Meta-analysis of transcripts associated with race-specific resistance to stripe rust in wheat demonstrates common induction of blue copper-binding protein, heat-stress transcription factor, pathogen-induced WIR1A protein, and ent-kaurene synthase transcripts.
PubMed:Cytotoxic and anticarcinogenic activity of the ent-kaurene diterpenoid, melissoidesin, from Isodon wightii (Bentham) H. Hara.
PubMed:[Two en-kaurene diterpenoids from Tibetan medicine Caryopteris toroetii].
PubMed:Abscinazole-F1, a conformationally restricted analogue of the plant growth retardant uniconazole and an inhibitor of ABA 8'-hydroxylase CYP707A with no growth-retardant effect.
PubMed:Comparison of cytotoxicity and DNA damage potential induced by ent-kaurene diterpenoids from Isodon plant.
PubMed:Effects of three diterpenoids on tumour cell proliferation and telomerase activity.
PubMed:Cryptomeria japonica essential oil inhibits the growth of drug-resistant skin pathogens and LPS-induced nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
PubMed:Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases in wheat: insight into the evolution of rice phytoalexin biosynthetic genes.
PubMed:Production of taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene by transgenic Physcomitrella patens.
PubMed:A novel pathway for sesquiterpene biosynthesis from Z,Z-farnesyl pyrophosphate in the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites.
PubMed:Gibberellin biosynthesis in bacteria: separate ent-copalyl diphosphate and ent-kaurene synthases in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.
PubMed:Gibberellin precursor is involved in spore germination in the moss Physcomitrella patens.
PubMed:Functional identification of a rice ent-kaurene oxidase, OsKO2, using the Pichia pastoris expression system.
PubMed:Regulation of carotenogenesis and secondary metabolism by nitrogen in wild-type Fusarium fujikuroi and carotenoid-overproducing mutants.
PubMed:Loss of gibberellin production in Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi MP-A) is due to a deletion in the gibberellic acid gene cluster.
PubMed:Phytotoxic effects of leukamenin E (an ent-kaurene diterpenoid) on root growth and root hair development in Lactuca sativa L. seedlings.
PubMed:[Optimizing expression and purification of recombinant Salvia miltiorrhiza copalyl diphosphate synthase protein in E. coli and preparation of rabbit antiserum against SmCPS].
PubMed:Determination of ent-kaurene in subcutaneous fat of Iberian pigs by gas chromatography multi-stage mass spectrometry with the aim to differentiate between intensive and extensive fattening systems.
PubMed:Germination of photoblastic lettuce seeds is regulated via the control of endogenous physiologically active gibberellin content, rather than of gibberellin responsiveness.
PubMed:Accumulation of prenyl alcohols by terpenoid biosynthesis inhibitors in various microorganisms.
PubMed:Chemical constituents of Aristolochia constricta: antispasmodic effects of its constituents in guinea-pig ileum and isolation of a diterpeno-lignan hybrid.
PubMed:Antiacetylcholinesterase and antioxidant ent-Kaurene diterpenoid, melissoidesin from Isodon wightii (Bentham) H. Hara.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene cluster in Sphaceloma manihoticola.
PubMed:Identification of diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters and functional analysis of labdane-related diterpene cyclases in Phomopsis amygdali.
PubMed:Increasing complexity of a diterpene synthase reaction with a single residue switch.
PubMed:Oridonin promotes CD4+/CD25+ Treg differentiation, modulates Th1/Th2 balance and induces HO-1 in rat splenic lymphocytes.
PubMed:Comparison of the enzymatic properties of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins and gibberellins in rice.
PubMed:A single residue switch converts abietadiene synthase into a pimaradiene specific cyclase.
PubMed:Isolation and biological activity of new and known isolation and biological activity of new and known diterpenoids from Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.
PubMed:16-Aza-ent-beyerane and 16-Aza-ent-trachylobane: potent mechanism-based inhibitors of recombinant ent-kaurene synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:[Functional genomics studies of Salvia miltiorrhiza II--gene expression profiling of different stage of hairy root].
PubMed:A modular approach for facile biosynthesis of labdane-related diterpenes.
PubMed:Following evolution's lead to a single residue switch for diterpene synthase product outcome.
PubMed:Synergistic substrate inhibition of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase: a potential feed-forward inhibition mechanism limiting gibberellin metabolism.
PubMed:Fusicoccins are biosynthesized by an unusual chimera diterpene synthase in fungi.
PubMed:A New Rosmarinic Acid Derivative from Isodon oresbius.
PubMed:An ent-kaurene that inhibits mitotic chromosome movement and binds the kinetochore protein ran-binding protein 2.
PubMed:Functional analysis of eubacterial ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase and pimara-9(11),15-diene synthase with unique primary sequences.
PubMed:Functional characterization of the rice kaurene synthase-like gene family.
PubMed:Potential anti-allergic ent-kaurene diterpenes from the bark of Suregada multiflora.
PubMed:gid1, a gibberellin-insensitive dwarf mutant, shows altered regulation of probenazole-inducible protein (PBZ1) in response to cold stress and pathogen attack.
PubMed:Identification and functional analysis of bifunctional ent-kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens.
PubMed:Synthesis of 1-O-monoacyl or 12-O-monoacyl, 1-,12-O-diacyl-, and 11,12-dehydrated excisanin A 7,14-acetonides and their cytotoxic activity.
PubMed:Spatial organisation of four enzymes from Stevia rebaudiana that are involved in steviol glycoside synthesis.
PubMed:Cytotoxic ent-kaurene diterpenoids from Isodon phyllostachys.
PubMed:Characterization and quantification of the hydrocarbons fraction of the subcutaneous fresh fat of Iberian pig by off-line combination of high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography.
PubMed:ent-7alpha,18-Hydroxykaur-16-ene ethanol solvate.
PubMed:Biochemical and molecular analyses of gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi.
PubMed:Kaurene diterpenes from Laetia thamnia inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro.
PubMed:Induction of apoptosis by new ent-kaurene-type diterpenoids isolated from the New Zealand liverwort Jungermannia species.
PubMed:The maize An2 gene is induced by Fusarium attack and encodes an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase.
PubMed:The rice dwarf virus P2 protein interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases in vivo, leading to reduced biosynthesis of gibberellins and rice dwarf symptoms.
PubMed:Distinct immunosuppressive effect by Isodon serra extracts.
PubMed:Metabolic flux analysis of diterpene biosynthesis pathway in rice.
PubMed:Restoration of gibberellin production in Fusarium proliferatum by functional complementation of enzymatic blocks.
PubMed:NMR assignments and X-ray diffraction spectra for two unusual kaurene diterpenes from Erythroxylum barbatum.
PubMed:Regulation of the early GA biosynthesis pathway in pea.
PubMed:Diterpenoids from the Chinese herb Caryopteris terniflora and their antibacterial and antitumor activity.
PubMed:[Studies on biosynthetic genes and enzymes of isoprenoids produced by actinomycetes].
PubMed:Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase during ent-11alpha-hydroxy-16-kauren-15-one-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells.
PubMed:Functional characterization of two cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes, P450-1 and P450-4, of the gibberellic acid gene cluster in Fusarium proliferatum (Gibberella fujikuroi MP-D).
PubMed:Presence of copalyl diphosphate synthase gene in an actinomycete possessing the mevalonate pathway.
PubMed:Plants with increased expression of ent-kaurene oxidase are resistant to chemical inhibitors of this gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of a Ds-tagged rice (Oryza sativa L.) GA-responsive dwarf mutant defective in an early step of the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway.
PubMed:Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi: genes, enzymes, evolution, and impact on biotechnology.
PubMed:Rice contains two disparate ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases with distinct metabolic functions.
PubMed:Emission of ent-kaurene, a diterpenoid hydrocarbon precursor for gibberellins, into the headspace from plants.
PubMed:An ent-kaurene diterpene enhances apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor in human leukemia cells.
PubMed:Biological functions of ent- and syn-copalyl diphosphate synthases in rice: key enzymes for the branch point of gibberellin and phytoalexin biosynthesis.
PubMed:A rice semi-dwarf gene, Tan-Ginbozu (D35), encodes the gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme, ent-kaurene oxidase.
PubMed:Identification of (+)-phyllocladene, (--)-sandaracopimaradiene, and (+)-kaurene as new fungal metabolites from fusicoccin-producing Phomopsis amygdali F6.
PubMed:Functional identification of rice syn-copalyl diphosphate synthase and its role in initiating biosynthesis of diterpenoid phytoalexin/allelopathic natural products.
PubMed:Mono and diterpene production in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Studies on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Sideritis candicans Ait. var. eriocephala Webb aerial part.
PubMed:Kaurene diterpene induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells partly through a caspase-8-dependent pathway.
PubMed:A comparison of apoptosis and necrosis induced by ent-kaurene-type diterpenoids in HL-60 cells.
PubMed:ent-Kaurene diterpenoids from Isodon oresbius.
PubMed:An overview of gibberellin metabolism enzyme genes and their related mutants in rice.
PubMed:Excisanin H, a novel cytotoxic 14,20-epoxy-ent-kaurene diterpenoid, and three new ent-kaurene diterpenoids from Rabdosia excisa.
PubMed:Involvement of endogenous gibberellins in potato tuber dormancy and early sprout growth: a critical assessment.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of ent-kaurene diterpenoids from Rabdosia rosthornii.
PubMed:GROWTH RETARDANTS: Effects on Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Other Metabolic Pathways.
PubMed:The pea gene LH encodes ent-kaurene oxidase.
PubMed:The microbiological transformation of two 15beta-hydroxy-ent-kaurene diterpenes by Gibberella fujikuroi.
PubMed:New ent-kaurene-type diterpenoids possessing cytotoxicity from the New Zealand liverwort Jungermannia species.
PubMed:Thermoinduction of genes encoding the enzymes of gibberellin biosynthesis and a putative negative regulator of gibberellin signal transduction in Eustoma grandiflorum.
PubMed:Overexpression of AtCPS and AtKS in Arabidopsis confers increased ent-kaurene production but no increase in bioactive gibberellins.
PubMed:On the ent-kaurene diterpenes from Sideritis athoa.
PubMed:[Apoptosis-inducing properties of ent-kaurene-type diterpenoids from the liverwort Jungermannia truncata].
PubMed:Bioactive kaurane diterpenes and coumarins from Fortunella margarita.
PubMed:AREA directly mediates nitrogen regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi, but its activity is not affected by NMR.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of stevioside on tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.
PubMed:Leaf Ests from Stevia rebaudiana: a resource for gene discovery in diterpene synthesis.
PubMed:Abscisic acid, phaseic acid and gibberellin contents associated with dormancy and germination in barley.
PubMed:Characterization of cis-regulatory regions responsible for developmental regulation of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene GA1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:Taibaijaponicains C and D: two new diterpenoids from Isodon japonica.
PubMed:Antisense and chemical suppression of the nonmevalonate pathway affects ent-kaurene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
PubMed:Natural products as targeted modulators of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway.
PubMed:Ceriopsin E, a new epoxy ent-kaurene diterpenoid from Ceriops decandra.
PubMed:The gibberellin 20-oxidase of Gibberella fujikuroi is a multifunctional monooxygenase.
PubMed:Licamichauxiioic-A and -B acids--two ent-kaurene diterpenoids from Licania michauxii.
PubMed:Diterpenes from Sideritis trojana.
PubMed:Pseudoirroratin A, a new cytotoxic ent-kaurene diterpene from Isodon pseudo-irrorata.
PubMed:Distinct cell-specific expression patterns of early and late gibberellin biosynthetic genes during Arabidopsis seed germination.
PubMed:A plastid envelope location of Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase links the plastid and endoplasmic reticulum steps of the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway.
PubMed:Cardiovascular and diuretic activity of kaurene derivatives of Xylopia aethiopica and Alepidea amatymbica.
PubMed:The P450-4 gene of Gibberella fujikuroi encodes ent-kaurene oxidase in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway.
PubMed:Microbial transformation of ent-kaurenoic acid and its 15-hydroxy derivatives by the SG138 mutant of Gibberella fujikuroi.
PubMed:Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.
PubMed:Inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) pathway by tetracyclic kaurene diterpenes in macrophages. Specific effects on NF-kappa B-inducing kinase activity and on the coordinate activation of ERK and p38 MAPK.
PubMed:[The absolute configuration of 13-hydroxy-entkaurenoids].
PubMed:Diterpenes from Sideritis argyrea.
PubMed:Antibacterial ent-kaurene from Brazilian propolis of native stingless bees.
PubMed:[Chemical constituents of Cuscuta austrolis R.Br].
PubMed:ent-Kaurene and squalene synthesis in Fusarium fujikuroi cell-free extracts.
PubMed:ent-Kaurene diterpenoids from Isodon rubescens.
PubMed:Cloning of a full-length cDNA encoding ent-kaurene synthase from Gibberella fujikuroi: functional analysis of a bifunctional diterpene cyclase.
PubMed:The steam volatile oil of Wollemia nobilis and its comparison with other members of the Araucariaceae (Agathis and Araucaria).
PubMed:A new diterpene glycoside from Rabdosia rubescens.
PubMed:Functional analysis of the two interacting cyclase domains in ent-kaurene synthase from the fungus Phaeosphaeria sp. L487 and a comparison with cyclases from higher plants.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of gibberellins in Gibberella fujikuroi: biomolecular aspects.
PubMed:Diterpene synthesis in Stevia rebaudiana: recruitment and up-regulation of key enzymes from the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway.
PubMed:Deletions in the gibberellin biosynthesis gene cluster of Gibberella fujikuroi by restriction enzyme-mediated integration and conventional transformation-mediated mutagenesis.
PubMed:Regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis genes during flower and early fruit development of tomato.
PubMed:Megathyrin B: a cytotoxic diterpene from Isodon megathyrsus.
PubMed:Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase catalyzes three steps of gibberellin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Gibberellin biosynthetic pathway in Gibberella fujikuroi: evidence for a gene cluster.
PubMed:The first step of gibberellin biosynthesis in pumpkin is catalyzed by at least two copalyl diphosphate synthases encoded by differentially regulated genes.
PubMed:Gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi: cloning and characterization of the copalyl diphosphate synthase gene.
PubMed:Cloning of the Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase gene GA3.
PubMed:Identification and sequencing of a cytochrome P450 gene cluster from Bradyrhizobium japonicum.
PubMed:The GA2 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes ent-kaurene synthase of gibberellin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Ent-kaurene synthase from the fungus Phaeosphaeria sp. L487. cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of a bifunctional diterpene cyclase in fungal gibberellin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Developmental regulation of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene GA1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:GIBBERELLIN BIOSYNTHESIS: Enzymes, Genes and Their Regulation.
PubMed:The LS locus of pea encodes the gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme ent-kaurene synthase A.
PubMed:Subtractive hybridization between cDNAs from untreated and AMO-1618-treated cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi.
PubMed:Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene synthase B from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.).
PubMed:Biosynthesis of cyclic diterpene hydrocarbons in rice cell suspensions: conversion of 9,10-syn-labda-8(17),13-dienyl diphosphate to 9beta-pimara-7,15-diene and stemar-13-ene.
PubMed:Diacetylamethystoidin A protects isolated working rat heart against myocardial reperfusion injury.
PubMed:Bioactive ent-kaurene diterpenoids from Annona senegalensis.
PubMed:Cell-cycle specific cytotoxicity mediated by rearranged ent-kaurene diterpenoids isolated from Parinari curatellifolia.
PubMed:Purification and Properties of ent-Kaurene Synthase B from Immature Seeds of Pumpkin.
PubMed:Cytotoxic ent-kaurene diterpenoids from Isodon gesneroides.
PubMed:Effects of gibberellins on seed germination of phytochrome-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:Gibberellin biosynthesis in gib mutants of Gibberella fujikuroi.
PubMed:Cloning and characterization of the maize An1 gene.
PubMed:Cytotoxic ent-kaurene diterpenoids from three Isodon species.
PubMed:The Arabidopsis GA1 locus encodes the cyclase ent-kaurene synthetase A of gibberellin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Glutamine Involvement in Nitrogen Control of Gibberellic Acid Production in Gibberella fujikuroi.
PubMed:Thermoinductive Regulation of Gibberellin Metabolism in Thlaspi arvense L. (II. Cold Induction of Enzymes in Gibberellin Biosynthesis).
PubMed:ent-kaurene biosynthesis is enhanced by long photoperiods in the long-day plants Spinacia oleracea L. and Agrostemma githago L.
PubMed:Inhibition of Gibberellin Production in the Fungi Gibberella fujikuroi and Sphaceloma manihoticola by Plant Growth Retardants.
PubMed:Gibberellin Is Required for Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana under Short Days.
PubMed:Purification of ent-kaurene oxidase from Gibberella fujikuroi and Cucurbita maxima.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of rice phytoalexins: identification of putative diterpene hydrocarbon precursors.
PubMed:Metabolism of ent-Kaurene to Gibberellin A(12)-Aldehyde in Young Shoots of Normal Maize.
PubMed:ent-Kaurene Biosynthesis in Germinating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv Himalaya) Caryopses and Its Relation to alpha-Amylase Production.
PubMed:Separation of Light-Induced [C]ent-Kaurene Metabolism and Light-Induced Germination in Grand Rapids Lettuce Seeds.
PubMed:Light-Stimulated Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi.
PubMed:Selection and Characterization of a Gibberellin-Deficient Mutant of Thlaspi arvense L.
PubMed:Characterization of ent-kaurene oxidase activity from Gibberella fujikuroi.
PubMed:Comparison of Biological Activities of Gibberellins and Gibberellin-Precursors Native to Thlaspi arvense L.
PubMed:In Vivo Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. Seeds.
PubMed:Two toxic kaurene glycosides from the burrs of Xanthium pungens.
PubMed:[Coetsoidin A, a new diterpenoid from Rabdosia coetsoides C. Y. Wu].
PubMed:Synthesis and biological activity of an azido derivative of paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Influence of manganese deficiency and toxicity on isoprenoid syntheses.
PubMed:Effects of Chilling and ABA on [H]Gibberellin A(4) Metabolism in Somatic Embryos of Grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele).
PubMed:Internode Length in Pisum: Gene na May Block Gibberellin Synthesis between ent-7alpha-Hydroxykaurenoic Acid and Gibberellin A(12)-Aldehyde.
PubMed:ent-Kaurene Biosynthesis in Cell-Free Extracts of Excised Parts of Tall and Dwarf Pea Seedlings.
PubMed:Sites of gibberellin biosynthesis in pea seedlings.
PubMed:The zoapatle. VI. Revisited.
PubMed:A phytochemical screening procedure for sweet ent-kaurene glycosides in the genus Stevia.
PubMed:Kaurene Synthetase Activity in Helianthus annuus L. : Increases in Enzyme Activity after Storage of Seedlings in Liquid Nitrogen.
PubMed:Endogenous Gibberellin-Like Substances in Somatic Embryos of Grape (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rupestris) in Relation to Embryogenesis and the Chilling Requirement for Subsequent Development of Mature Embryos.
PubMed:Potential sweetening agents of plant origin. III. Organoleptic evaluation of Stevia leaf herbarium samples for sweetness.
PubMed:Comparative Effects of Substituted Pyrimidines on Growth and Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi.
PubMed:Comparative Effects of Ancymidol and Its Analogs on Growth of Peas and Ent-Kaurene Oxidation in Cell-Free Extracts of Immature Marah macrocarpus Endosperm.
PubMed:Ent-Kaurene Biosynthesis in Extracts of Helianthus annuus L. Seedlings.
PubMed:Properties of Kaurene Synthetase from Marah macrocarpus Endosperm: Evidence for the Participation of Separate but Interacting Enzymes.
PubMed:Isolation of a kaurene synthetase inhibitor from castor bean seedlings and cell suspension cultures.
PubMed:Relationship between Chloroplast Development and ent-Kaurene Biosynthesis in Peas.
PubMed:Studies on the Specificity and Site of Action of alpha-Cyclopropyl-alpha-[p-methoxyphenyl]-5-pyrimidine Methyl Alcohol (Ancymidol), a Plant Growth Regulator.
PubMed:Effects of Protein Synthesis Inhibitors on ent-Kaurene Biosynthesis during Photomorphogenesis of Etiolated Pea Seedlings.
PubMed:Regulation of the Biosynthesis of Ent-Kaurene from Mevalonate in the Endosperm of Immature Marah macrocarpus Seeds by Adenylate Energy Charge.
PubMed:Properties of Kaurene Synthetase from Marah macrocarpus.
PubMed:Properties of the System for the Mixed Function Oxidation of Kaurene and Kaurene Derivatives in Microsomes of the Immature Seed of Marah macrocarpus: Electron Transfer Components.
PubMed:Properties of the System for the Mixed Function Oxidation of Kaurene and Kaurene Derivatives in Microsomes of the Immature Seed of Marah macrocarpus: Cofactor Requirements.
PubMed:Antitumor activity of the Isodon diterpenoids: structural requirements for the activity.
PubMed:Inhibition of ent-Kaurene Oxidation and Growth by alpha-Cyclopropyl-alpha-(p-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine Methyl Alcohol.
PubMed:Comparison between Biosynthesis of ent-Kaurene in Germinating Tomato Seeds and Cell Suspension Cultures of Tomato and Tobacco.
PubMed:Proceedings: Biosynthesis of ent-kaurene in plant cell cultures.
PubMed:Kaurene synthetase from plastids of developing plant tissues.
PubMed:Correlations of Growth Rate and De-etiolation with Rate of Ent-Kaurene Biosynthesis in Pea (Pisum sativum L.).
PubMed:[Comparative study of the metabolism of H3-(--)-kaurene in a culture of Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. on different culture media].
PubMed:[Terpenoids. 23. Reduction of kaurene with hydrazine and hydrazine hydrocloride].
PubMed:Purification and properties of kaurene synthetase from Fusarium moniliforme.
PubMed:Incorporation of C-Kaurene into the Gibberellin of a Higher Plant (Pharbitis nil Chois).
PubMed:Similarities between gibberellins and related compounds in inducing Acid phosphatase and reducing sugar release from barley endosperm.
PubMed:Apparent changes in rate of kaurene biosynthesis during the development of pea seeds.
PubMed:The role of mixed function oxidases in kaurene metabolism in Echinocystis macrocarpa Greene endosperm.
PubMed:Effect of gibberellins A3, A 4+7 and A 13 and of (-)-kaurene on flowering and extension growth of Impatiens balsamina under different photoperiods.
PubMed:The enzymic preparation of (14)C-kaurene.
PubMed:The action of plant growth retardants on terpenoid biosynthesis : Inhibition of gibberellic-acid production inFusarium moniliforme by CCC and AMO-1618; Action of these retardants on sterol biosynthesis.
PubMed:Time of initiation of the barley endosperm response to gibberellin A3, gibberellin A 14 and kaurene.
PubMed:Synthesis of bridged steroids. II. Steroids having a bridged bicyclo[3.2.1]octane ring system of the kaurene type.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of (-)-Kaurene in Cell-free Extracts of Immature Pea Seeds.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of gibberellins. 3. The conversion of (-)-kaurene to (-)-kauren-19-oic acid in endosperm of Echinocystis macrocarpa Greene.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of gibberellins. II. Enzymic cyclization of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to kaurene.
PubMed:Effect of Photoperiodic Floral Induction on the Metabolism of a Gibberellin Precursor, (-)-Kaurene, in Pharbitis nil.
PubMed:Experiments directed toward the total synthesis of terpenes. 8. The total synthesis of (+or-)-kaurene and,(+or-)-atisirene.
PubMed:Growth Response of the d-5 and an-1 Mutants of Maize to Some Kaurene Derivatives.
PubMed:Diterpenes; the identity of kaurene with podocarprene.
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