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nisin A

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CAS Number: 1414-45-5Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:215-807-5
XlogP3-AA:-6.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:3354.12550000
Formula:C143 H230 N42 O37 S7
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:antimicrobial agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 65 Nisin View - notice PDF
EU SANCO Nisin View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Nisin
GSFA Codex: Nisin (234)
DG SANTE Food Additives:nisin A
FDA Mainterm (SATF):977127-33-5 ; NISIN PREPARATION
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1538 Nisin preparation.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white ti pale brown powder (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
Soluble in:
Insoluble in:
 non-polar solvents
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antimicrobial agents
American International Chemical, LLC.
Anhui Haibei
Nisin From Streptococcus Lactis
Anhui Haibei
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Nisin 3%
Foodchem International
Glentham Life Sciences
Graham Chemical
Jiangyin Healthway
New functional food ingredients
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Nisin from Lactococcus lactis
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Nisin from Lactococcus lactis 2.5% (balance sodium chloride and denatured milk solids)
Sinofi Food Ingredients
Odor: characteristic
Use: Preservative, Cosmetics, Antibacterial, Bacon, Cheese, Canned Food, Cookie, Soft Drink, Meat, Dairy Product, Margarine, Sea Food, Egg Products, Fruit Juice, Sauces, Baking Food, Sauage, Beer, Wine, Flavoring Agent.
Tianjin Talent Chemical
United International
Nisin Nat.
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intravenous-mouse LD50 100 mg/kg
"CRC Handbook of Antibiotic Compounds," Vols.1- , Berdy, J., Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1980Vol. 4(2), Pg. 228, 1980.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
antimicrobial agents
Recommendation for nisin A usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for nisin A flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to the safety in use of nisin as a food additive in an additional category of liquid eggs
View page or View pdf

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to The use of nisin (E 234) as a food additive
View page or View pdf

Safety of nisin (E 234) as a food additive in the light of new toxicological data and the proposed extension of use
View page or View pdf

AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :16129667
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:1414-45-5
Pubchem (cid):16129667
Pubchem (sid):134978871
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 microgard MG 300
 nisin preparation


PubMed:Efficacy of nisin A and nisin V semi-purified preparations alone and in combination with plant essential oils to control Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Analysis method for determination of nisin A and nisin Z in cow milk by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Surface glycosaminoglycans protect eukaryotic cells against membrane-driven peptide bacteriocins.
PubMed:Behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in culture broth, in raw and thermized milk, and during processing and storage of traditional Greek Graviera cheese in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin A-producing raw milk isolate.
PubMed:Addition to thermized milk of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin a-producing strain, replaces the natural antilisterial activity of the autochthonous raw milk microbiota reduced by thermization.
PubMed:Bovicin HC5 and nisin reduce Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to polystyrene and change the hydrophobicity profile and Gibbs free energy of adhesion.
PubMed:Growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria in ham by nisin: a model approach.
PubMed:Antibacterial peptide nisin: a potential role in the inhibition of oral pathogenic bacteria.
PubMed:Evaluation of nisin-β-lactam antibiotics against clinical strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.
PubMed:Effect of natamycin, nisin and glycerol on the physicochemical properties, roughness and hydrophobicity of tapioca starch edible films.
PubMed:Cloning and optimization of a nisin biosynthesis pathway for bacteriocin harvest.
PubMed:Optimization of combinations of bactericidal and bacteriostatic treatments to control Listeria monocytogenes on cold-smoked salmon.
PubMed:Effects of intracanal irrigant MTAD Combined with nisin at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels on Enterococcus faecalis growth and the expression of pathogenic genes.
PubMed:Efficacy of commercial natural antimicrobials alone and in combinations against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms.
PubMed:Nisin A extends the shelf life of high-fat chilled dairy dessert, a milk-based pudding.
PubMed:Inactivation of naturally occurring microbiota in cucumber juice by pressure treatment.
PubMed:Pediococcus acidilactici UL5 and Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 are able to survive and express their bacteriocin genes under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.
PubMed:Intensive mutagenesis of the nisin hinge leads to the rational design of enhanced derivatives.
PubMed:Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Piperaceae extracts and nisin on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.
PubMed:SmbFT, a putative ABC transporter complex, confers protection against the lantibiotic Smb in Streptococci.
PubMed:Efficacy of nisin and/or natamycin to improve the shelf-life of Galotyri cheese.
PubMed:Effects of bacteriocins on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.
PubMed:Expression and delivery of an endolysin to combat Clostridium perfringens.
PubMed:Three distinct two-component systems are involved in resistance to the class I bacteriocins, Nukacin ISK-1 and nisin A, in Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:Involvement of the novel two-component NsrRS and LcrRS systems in distinct resistance pathways against nisin A and nukacin ISK-1 in Streptococcus mutans.
PubMed:Zirex: a novel zinc-regulated expression system for Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Nisin adsorption on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces: evidence of its interactions and antibacterial activity.
PubMed:Synergistic effect between colistin and bacteriocins in controlling Gram-negative pathogens and their potential to reduce antibiotic toxicity in mammalian epithelial cells.
PubMed:Characterization of a wild, novel nisin a-producing Lactococcus strain with an L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotype and an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype, isolated from Greek raw milk.
PubMed:Saturation mutagenesis of lysine 12 leads to the identification of derivatives of nisin A with enhanced antimicrobial activity.
PubMed:Secretory expression of lacticin Q fused with SUMO in Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:In vivo activity of nisin A and nisin V against Listeria monocytogenes in mice.
PubMed:[Characteristics and identification of bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 194-K].
PubMed:[Effect of overexpressing Nisin A structural gene nisA on Nisin A production].
PubMed:Growth, acid production and bacteriocin production by probiotic candidates under simulated colonic conditions.
PubMed:Bioengineered nisin A derivatives with enhanced activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens.
PubMed:Proteomic response of Bacillus subtilis to lantibiotics reflects differences in interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane.
PubMed:[Antibacterial metabolites of lactic acid bacteria: their diversity and properties].
PubMed:Bioluminescence-based identification of nisin producers - a rapid and simple screening method for nisinogenic bacteria in food samples.
PubMed:Heterologous expression and purification of NisA, the precursor peptide of lantibiotic nisin from Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Interaction of type A lantibiotics with undecaprenol-bound cell envelope precursors.
PubMed:Lantibiotics from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.
PubMed:Bioengineered nisin derivatives with enhanced activity in complex matrices.
PubMed:Technological characterization of bacteriocin producing Lactococcus lactis strains employed to control Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.
PubMed:Outgrowth inhibition of Clostridium beijerinckii spores by a bacteriocin-producing lactic culture in ovine milk cheese.
PubMed:Analysis of nisin A, nisin Z and their degradation products by LCMS/MS.
PubMed:Potential application of the nisin Z preparation of Lactococcus lactis W8 in preservation of milk.
PubMed:Gene encoded antimicrobial peptides, a template for the design of novel anti-mycobacterial drugs.
PubMed:Complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CV56, a probiotic strain isolated from the vaginas of healthy women.
PubMed:Detection of nisin and fibrinogen adsorption on poly(ethylene oxide) coated polyurethane surfaces by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS).
PubMed:Bioengineering of a Nisin A-producing Lactococcus lactis to create isogenic strains producing the natural variants Nisin F, Q and Z.
PubMed:Immunomodulatory efficacy of nisin--a bacterial lantibiotic peptide.
PubMed:Studies with bioengineered Nisin peptides highlight the broad-spectrum potency of Nisin V.
PubMed:The activity of bacteriocins from Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL307 against gram-negative bacteria in combination with EDTA treatment.
PubMed:Expression of nisin genes in cheese--a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction approach.
PubMed:Requirements of the engineered leader peptide of nisin for inducing modification, export, and cleavage.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of class I and IIa bacteriocins combined with polymyxin E against resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Optimization of nisin production by Lactococcus lactis UQ2 using supplemented whey as alternative culture medium.
PubMed:Bacteriocins produced by wild Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from traditional, starter-free cheeses made of raw milk.
PubMed:Lactococcal membrane-permeabilizing antimicrobial peptides.
PubMed:A 90-day oral toxicity study of nisin A, an anti-microbial peptide derived from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, in F344 rats.
PubMed:Evolved Lactococcus lactis strains for enhanced expression of recombinant membrane proteins.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of plantaricin ASM1: a new bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum A-1.
PubMed:Nukacin ISK-1, a bacteriostatic lantibiotic.
PubMed:Effects of gassericins A and T, bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus gasseri, with glycine on custard cream preservation.
PubMed:Identification of nisin-producing strains by nisin-controlled gene expression system.
PubMed:Biosynthetic characterization and biochemical features of the third natural nisin variant, nisin Q, produced by Lactococcus lactis 61-14.
PubMed:Oxidation of lanthionines renders the lantibiotic nisin inactive.
PubMed:Lacticin Q, a lactococcal bacteriocin, causes high-level membrane permeability in the absence of specific receptors.
PubMed:Utilization of fermented barley extract obtained from a by-product of barley shochu for nisin production.
PubMed:Incidence of nisin Z production in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TFF 221 isolated from Thai fermented foods.
PubMed:Complete covalent structure of nisin Q, new natural nisin variant, containing post-translationally modified amino acids.
PubMed:Effect of antimicrobial peptides divergicin M35 and nisin A on Listeria monocytogenes LSD530 potassium channels.
PubMed:Cloning and heterologous production of Hiracin JM79, a Sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus hirae DCH5, in lactic acid bacteria and Pichia pastoris.
PubMed:Elucidation of the antimicrobial mechanism of mutacin 1140.
PubMed:Chimeras of mature pediocin PA-1 fused to the signal peptide of enterocin P permits the cloning, production, and expression of pediocin PA-1 in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:In vitro inhibition activity of nisin A, nisin Z, pediocin PA-1 and antibiotics against common intestinal bacteria.
PubMed:Dissection and modulation of the four distinct activities of nisin by mutagenesis of rings A and B and by C-terminal truncation.
PubMed:Class I/Class IIa bacteriocin cross-resistance phenomenon in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Epsilon-poly-L-lysine and nisin A act synergistically against Gram-positive food-borne pathogens Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Cloning, production and expression of the bacteriocin enterocin A produced by Enterococcus faecium PLBC21 in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Structural analysis and characterization of lacticin Q, a novel bacteriocin belonging to a new family of unmodified bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria.
PubMed:Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bifidobacteria as affected by oxgall, acid, and hydrogen peroxide stress.
PubMed:An alternative bactericidal mechanism of action for lantibiotic peptides that target lipid II.
PubMed:Investigation of the cytotoxicity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.
PubMed:Molecular and genetic characterization of a novel nisin variant produced by Streptococcus uberis.
PubMed:High-level heterologous production and functional expression of the sec-dependent enterocin P from Enterococcus faecium P13 in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:A novel type of immunity protein, NukH, for the lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1 produced by Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1.
PubMed:Combined effect of high-pressure treatments and bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw-milk cheese.
PubMed:Effect of milk inoculation with bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria on a Lactobacillus helveticus adjunct cheese culture.
PubMed:Assembly and stability of nisin-lipid II pores.
PubMed:High-level coproduction of the bacteriocins nisin A and lactococcin A by Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Lipid II-mediated pore formation by the peptide antibiotic nisin: a black lipid membrane study.
PubMed:Modified alginate matrices for the immobilization of bioactive agents.
PubMed:Structural characterization of lacticin 3147, a two-peptide lantibiotic with synergistic activity.
PubMed:Identification of the lantibiotic nisin Q, a new natural nisin variant produced by Lactococcus lactis 61-14 isolated from a river in Japan.
PubMed:Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut produce by treatment with lytic bacteriophages and a bacteriocin.
PubMed:Identification and characteristics of nisin Z-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolated from Kimchi.
PubMed:PEGylation of the antimicrobial peptide nisin A: problems and perspectives.
PubMed:Lactococcus lactis as host for overproduction of functional membrane proteins.
PubMed:Antagonism of Helicobacter pylori by bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Frequency of bacteriocin resistance development and associated fitness costs in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Production and characterization of anti-nisin Z monoclonal antibodies: suitability for distinguishing active from inactive forms through a competitive enzyme immunoassay.
PubMed:Comparison of the activity spectra against pathogens of bacterial strains producing a mutacin or a lantibiotic.
PubMed:The effects of cultivating lactic starter cultures with bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Natural variation in susceptibility of Listeria strains to class IIa bacteriocins.
PubMed:Occurrence of nisin Z production in Lactococcus lactis BFE 1500 isolated from wara, a traditional Nigerian cheese product.
PubMed:MICs of mutacin B-Ny266, nisin A, vancomycin, and oxacillin against bacterial pathogens.
PubMed:The lantibiotic nisin, a special case or not?
PubMed:Enhanced production of pediocin PA-1 and coproduction of nisin and pediocin PA-1 by Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Post-translational modification of nisin. The involvement of NisB in the dehydration process.
PubMed:Nisin A depletes intracellular ATP and acts in bactericidal manner against Mycobacterium smegmatis.
PubMed:Detection of specific bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria by colony hybridization.
PubMed:Analysis of nisin A and some of its variants using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Structural features of the final intermediate in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic nisin. Influence of the leader peptide.
PubMed:One-step purification of nisin A by immunoaffinity chromatography.
PubMed:Structure-function relations of variant and fragment nisins studied with model membrane systems.
PubMed:Structure and biological activity of chemically modified nisin A species.
PubMed:Cell wall changes in nisin-resistant variants of Listeria innocua grown in the presence of high nisin concentrations.
PubMed:Generation of polyclonal antibodies against nisin: immunization strategies and immunoassay development.
PubMed:Studies of the degradation products of nisin, a peptide antibiotic, using capillary electrophoresis with off-line mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Genetic determinants for the biosynthesis of nisin, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Protein engineering of lantibiotics.
PubMed:Genetics of subtilin and nisin biosyntheses: biosynthesis of lantibiotics.
PubMed:[Nisin, a potential preservative for topical preparations].
PubMed:Nisin Z, mutant nisin Z and lacticin 481 interactions with anionic lipids correlate with antimicrobial activity. A monolayer study.
PubMed:Improvement of solubility and stability of the antimicrobial peptide nisin by protein engineering.
PubMed:Elucidation of the primary structure of the lantibiotic epilancin K7 from Staphylococcus epidermidis K7. Cloning and characterisation of the epilancin-K7-encoding gene and NMR analysis of mature epilancin K7.
PubMed:Isolation of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains from dry fermented sausages.
PubMed:Detection and characterization of lactose-utilizing Lactococcus spp. in natural ecosystems.
PubMed:The codon usage of the nisZ operon in Lactococcus lactis N8 suggests a non-lactococcal origin of the conjugative nisin-sucrose transposon.
PubMed:Distribution and evolution of nisin-sucrose elements in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Biosynthesis and secretion of a precursor of nisin Z by Lactococcus lactis, directed by the leader peptide of the homologous lantibiotic subtilin from Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:Characterization of the nisin gene cluster nisABTCIPR of Lactococcus lactis. Requirement of expression of the nisA and nisI genes for development of immunity.
PubMed:The effect of a mouthrinse based on nisin, a bacteriocin, on developing plaque and gingivitis in beagle dogs.
PubMed:Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis nisin A operon genes nisP, encoding a subtilisin-like serine protease involved in precursor processing, and nisR, encoding a regulatory protein involved in nisin biosynthesis.
PubMed:15N- and 13C-labeled media from Anabaena sp. for universal isotopic labeling of bacteriocins: NMR resonance assignments of leucocin A from Leuconostoc gelidum and nisin A from Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Properties of nisin Z and distribution of its gene, nisZ, in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Engineering dehydrated amino acid residues in the antimicrobial peptide nisin.
PubMed:Solution structures of nisin A and its two major degradation products determined by n.m.r.
PubMed:[Study of nisin, a polypeptide antibiotic produced by a culture of Streptococcus lactis, strain MSU].
PubMed:Some chemical and physical properties of nisin, a small-protein antibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Nisin, a peptide antibiotic: cloning and sequencing of the nisA gene and posttranslational processing of its peptide product.
PubMed:Structure, expression, and evolution of a gene encoding the precursor of nisin, a small protein antibiotic.
PubMed:The effect of certain antibiotics on the keeping quality of bolti fish (Tilapia nilotica).
PubMed:Nisin: a possible alternative or adjunct to nitrite in the preservation of meats.
PubMed:Observations on the molecular weight and chemical composition of nisin A.
a 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by streptococcus lactis. it has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese. Food preservative, esp. for cheese. Active against Gram-positive bacteria - particularly Clostridium and Bacillus (the antibacterial action applies to both spores and vegetative cells), but also Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria. Nisin does not affect Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds. It has been used for over 50 years commercially as a food preservative without any evidence of bacterial resistance [DFC]
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