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CAS Number: 629-80-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:211-111-0
Nikkaji Web:J1.704C
Beilstein Number:1772756
CoE Number:10336
XlogP3-AA:7.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:240.43024000
Formula:C16 H32 O
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:natural substances and extractives
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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DG SANTE Food Flavourings:05.152 hexadecanal
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white solid (est)
Assay: 97.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 33.00 to 36.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 297.00 to 298.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.001000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 282.00 °F. TCC ( 138.89 °C. )
logP (o/w): 7.027 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 0.04974 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. cardboard
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
For experimental / research use only.
For experimental / research use only.
Hexadecanal >97.0%(GC)
Chemical Sources Association
Need This Item for Flavor/Food?: You can contact the Chemical Sources Association
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
natural substances and extractives
Recommendation for hexadecanal usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 2.40 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 1500 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 3.0000015.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 2.0000010.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 3.0000015.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): 2.0000010.00000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 4.0000020.00000
Chewing gum (05.3): --
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 2.0000010.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 4.0000020.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 1.000005.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 1.000005.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 2.0000010.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 3.0000015.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 2.0000010.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 4.0000020.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 5.0000025.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 2.0000010.00000
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 2, Revision 1 (FGE.02) : Branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and related esters of primary alcohols and straight-chain carboxylic acids and one straight-chain aldehyde from chemical groups 1 and 2 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):629-80-1
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :984
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):984
Pubchem (sid):134976586
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00517
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01551
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00395
Export Tariff Code:2912.19.5000
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 coriander leaf oil @ 0.05-0.10%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lemon oil
Search Trop Picture
 lime oil expressed florida @ 0.1%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 milk - 0.003 mg/kg
Search PMC Picture
 witch hazel leaf oil @ 0.15%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 palmitic aldehyde
 palmitoyl aldehyde


PubMed:Optimization of volatile markers of lung cancer to exclude interferences of non-malignant disease.
PubMed:Chemical Composition and Phytotoxic Effects of Essential Oils Obtained from Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle Cultivated in Tunisia.
PubMed:[Preliminary analysis of bitter substances in spica of Prunella vulgaris].
PubMed:Reexamination of the female sex pheromone of the sweet potato vine borer moth: identification and field evaluation of a tricosatriene.
PubMed:Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.
PubMed:Disruption of foraging by a dominant invasive species to decrease its competitive ability.
PubMed:Identification of a natural source for the OR37B ligand.
PubMed:The fatty acyl-CoA reductase Waterproof mediates airway clearance in Drosophila.
PubMed:Microbial production of short-chain alkanes.
PubMed:Identification of amino acids conferring chain length substrate specificities on fatty alcohol-forming reductases FAR5 and FAR8 from Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:Aldehyde-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductase from cyanobacteria: expression, purification and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.
PubMed:Fatty alcohol production in engineered E. coli expressing Marinobacter fatty acyl-CoA reductases.
PubMed:Substrate specificity, plasma membrane localization, and lipid modification of the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3B1.
PubMed:Fatty acid composition of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) during maturation: effect of the lipid modulators trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA) and forskolin.
PubMed:Reduced plasmalogen concentration as a surrogate marker of oxidative stress in elderly septic patients.
PubMed:Manipulating catalytic pathways: deoxygenation of palmitic acid on multifunctional catalysts.
PubMed:Essential oils from the leaves of six medicinal plants of Nigeria.
PubMed:An electron-bifurcating caffeyl-CoA reductase.
PubMed:The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males.
PubMed:Phloretin ameliorates 2-chlorohexadecanal-mediated brain microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro.
PubMed:Identification of an Arabidopsis fatty alcohol:caffeoyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase required for the synthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamates in root waxes.
PubMed:Plant fatty acyl reductases: enzymes generating fatty alcohols for protective layers with potential for industrial applications.
PubMed:An overlooked component: (Z)-9-tetradecenal as a sex pheromone in Helicoverpa armigera.
PubMed:Optimization of fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway for selectively enhanced production of C12/14 and C16/18 fatty alcohols in engineered Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Comparative modeling of CCRL1, a key protein in masked immune diseases and virtual screening for finding inhibitor of this protein.
PubMed:Studying fatty aldehyde metabolism in living cells with pyrene-labeled compounds.
PubMed:Cracking the olfactory code of a butterfly: the scent of ageing.
PubMed:Development of single-dispenser pheromone suppression of Epiphyas postvittana, Planotortrix octo and Ctenopseustis obliquana in New Zealand stone fruit orchards.
PubMed:Upstream sequence of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR6) of Arabidopsis thaliana drives wound-inducible and stem-specific expression.
PubMed:Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds.
PubMed:Characterization of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8: a bacterial enzyme catalyzing the reduction of fatty acyl-CoA to fatty alcohol.
PubMed:A prokaryotic acyl-CoA reductase performing reduction of fatty acyl-CoA to fatty alcohol.
PubMed:Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.
PubMed:Molecular and functional analysis of three fatty acyl-CoA reductases with distinct substrate specificities in copepod Calanus finmarchicus.
PubMed:New sex pheromone blend for the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana.
PubMed:Photosynthesis driven conversion of carbon dioxide to fatty alcohols and hydrocarbons in cyanobacteria.
PubMed:Characterization of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase activity by electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry quantitation of (2E)-hexadecenal.
PubMed:Multivariate data analysis of erythrocyte membrane phospholipid Fatty Acid profiles in the discrimination between normal blood tissue and various disease States.
PubMed:Three Arabidopsis fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductases, FAR1, FAR4, and FAR5, generate primary fatty alcohols associated with suberin deposition.
PubMed:A fatty acyl-CoA reductase highly expressed in the head of honey bee (Apis mellifera) involves biosynthesis of a wide range of aliphatic fatty alcohols.
PubMed:Evolution of multicomponent pheromone signals in small ermine moths involves a single fatty-acyl reductase gene.
PubMed:Identification of critical secondary components of the sex pheromone of the navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).
PubMed:Inhibition of goiter growth and of cyclic AMP formation in rat thyroid by 2-iodohexadecanal.
PubMed:Functional expression of five Arabidopsis fatty acyl-CoA reductase genes in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:The male sex pheromone of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: towards an evolutionary analysis.
PubMed:Attraction of female Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) to odors from chicken feces.
PubMed:Quantification of pentafluorobenzyl oxime derivatives of long chain aldehydes by GC-MS analysis.
PubMed:Characterisation of recombinant human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase: implications for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.
PubMed:Potential of hexadecane-utilizing soil-microorganisms for growth on hexadecanol, hexadecanal and hexadecanoic acid as sole sources of carbon and energy.
PubMed:Analytical approaches to characterising fish tainting potential of oil sands process waters.
PubMed:Support for (Z)-11-hexadecanal as a pheromone antagonist in Ostrinia nubilalis: flight tunnel and single sensillum studies with a New York population.
PubMed:Synthesis of an experimental glycolipoprotein vaccine against Lyme disease.
PubMed:CER4 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase involved in cuticular wax production in Arabidopsis.
PubMed:Analysis of fatty aldehyde composition, including 12-methyltridecanal, in plasmalogens from longissimus muscle of concentrate- and pasture-fed bulls.
PubMed:Profiling candidate genes involved in wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana by microarray analysis.
PubMed:Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of very long chain fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, phytanic acid and plasmalogen for the screening of peroxisomal disorders.
PubMed:Eosinophil peroxidase-derived reactive brominating species target the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens generating a novel chemoattractant, alpha-bromo fatty aldehyde.
PubMed:Electrophysiological studies and identification of possible sex pheromone components of Brazilian populations of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis.
PubMed:Identification, syntheses, and characterization of the geometric isomers of 9,11-hexadecadienal from female pheromone glands of the sugar cane borer Diatraea saccharalis.
PubMed:Characterization of germination-specific lipid transfer proteins from Euphorbia lagascae.
PubMed:Pheromone components of the wheat stem sawfly: identification, electrophysiology, and field bioassay.
PubMed:Wax ester production from n-alkanes by Acinetobacter sp. strain M-1: ultrastructure of cellular inclusions and role of acyl coenzyme A reductase.
PubMed:Detection of sex pheromone components in Manduca sexta (L.).
PubMed:Sex pheromone components of the buck moth Hemileuca maia.
PubMed:Reactive chlorinating species produced by myeloperoxidase target the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens: identification of 2-chlorohexadecanal.
PubMed:Detection of plasmalogen from plasma low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein in carp, Cyprinus carpio, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.
PubMed:Sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling in mammalian cells.
PubMed:Purification of a jojoba embryo fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase and expression of its cDNA in high erucic acid rapeseed.
PubMed:Oxygenation cascade in conversion of n-alkanes to alpha,omega-dioic acids catalyzed by cytochrome P450 52A3.
PubMed:Isolation of animal cell mutants defective in long-chain fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase. Sensitivity to fatty aldehydes and Schiff's base modification of phospholipids: implications for Sj-ogren-Larsson syndrome.
PubMed:1-Alkenyl group of ethanolamine plasmalogen derives mainly from de novo-synthesized fatty alcohol within peroxisomes, but not extraperoxisomal fatty alcohol or fatty acid.
PubMed:Isolation of mutants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus deficient in wax ester synthesis and complementation of one mutation with a gene encoding a fatty acyl coenzyme A reductase.
PubMed:Cysteine-286 as the site of acylation of the Lux-specific fatty acyl-CoA reductase.
PubMed:Resolution and purification of an aldehyde-generating and an alcohol-generating fatty acyl-CoA reductase from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.).
PubMed:Lipid biosynthesis in peroxisomes.
PubMed:The integral role of triacyl glycerols in the biosynthesis of the aldehydic sex pheromones of Manduca sexta (L).
PubMed:Fumonisin toxicity and sphingolipid biosynthesis.
PubMed:Solubilization and purification of aldehyde-generating fatty acyl-CoA reductase from green alga Botryococcus braunii.
PubMed:Plasmalogen phospholipid hydrolysis during hypoxic injury of rabbit proximal tubules.
PubMed:Solubilization, purification and characterization of fatty acyl-CoA reductase from duck uropygial gland.
PubMed:Sphinganine 1-phosphate metabolism in cultured skin fibroblasts: evidence for the existence of a sphingosine phosphatase.
PubMed:Inhibition of thyroid NADPH-oxidase by 2-iodohexadecanal in a cell-free system.
PubMed:In vitro evaluation of cumulative release of valproic acid and vitamin E from hexadecanol microspheres. Part 2: Antiepileptic agents.
PubMed:Female sex pheromone of oriental tobacco budworm,Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Identification and field testing.
PubMed:Mandibular gland secretions of the male beewolvesPhilanthus crabroniformis, P. barbatus, andP. pulcher (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).
PubMed:Performance criteria and specifications for laminated plastic sex pheromone dispenser forHelicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
PubMed:Role of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidation in phospholipid biosynthesis.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity.
PubMed:Effect of release rate and ratio of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol from synthetic pheromone blends on trap capture ofHeliothis subflexa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
PubMed:Erythrocyte membrane changes associated with nutrition and aging--the role of plasmalogens.
PubMed:4-Thia-trans-2-alkenoyl-CoA derivatives: properties and enzymatic reactions.
PubMed:Female sex pheromone components ofHeliothis peltigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) : Chemical identification from gland extracts and male response.
PubMed:Covalent reaction of cerulenin at the active site of acyl-CoA reductase of Photobacterium phosphoreum.
PubMed:Participation of microsomal aldehyde reductase in long-chain fatty alcohol synthesis in the rat brain.
PubMed:Components of female sex pheromone of spotted bollworm,Earias vittella F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Identification and field evaluation in Pakistan.
PubMed:Differential regulation of enzyme activities involved in aldehyde metabolism in the luminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi.
PubMed:Properties of the enzymes catalyzing the biosynthesis of lysophosphatidate and its ether analog in cultured fibroblasts from Zellweger syndrome patients and normal controls.
PubMed:Intersubunit transfer of fatty acyl groups during fatty acid reduction.
PubMed:Modulation of myelin basic protein-induced aggregation and fusion of liposomes by cholesterol, aliphatic aldehydes and alkanes.
PubMed:Identification of the sex attractant pheromone of the southwestern corn borerDiatraea grandiosella Dyar.
PubMed:Acyl-CoA reductase and acyl-CoA: fatty alcohol acyl transferase in the microsomal preparation from the bovine meibomian gland.
PubMed:Characterization of microsomal NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase from rat brain.
PubMed:Testosterone induction of microsomal acyl-CoA reductase and a cytosolic regulatory protein in mouse preputial glands.
PubMed:Female sex pheromone of the pickleworm,Diaphania nitidalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).
PubMed:Female sex pheromone of the melonworm,Diaphania hyalinata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and analysis of male responses to pheromone in a flight tunnel.
PubMed:Chemical and behavioral analyses of volatile sex pheromone components released by callingHeliothis virescens (F.) females (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
PubMed:The rate of formation of surface membrane ether lipids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells: kinetic considerations.
PubMed:Enzymatic reduction of fatty acids and acyl-CoAs to long chain aldehydes and alcohols.
PubMed:Propheromones that release pheromonal carbonyl compounds in light.
PubMed:Arachidonate metabolism, 5-hydroxytryptamine release and aggregation in human platelets activated by palmitaldehyde acetal phosphatidic acid.
PubMed:Localization of the initial steps in alkoxyphospholipid biosynthesis in glycosomes (microbodies) of Trypanosoma brucei.
PubMed:In vitro synthesis of mycolic acids by the fluffy layer fraction of Bacterionema matruchotii.
PubMed:Differential acylation in vitro with tetradecanoyl coenzyme A and tetradecanoic acid (+ATP) of three polypeptides shown to have induced synthesis in Photobacterium phosphoreum.
PubMed:Behavioral responses of maleHeliothis zea moths in sustained-flight tunnel to combinations of 4 compounds identified from female sex pheromone gland.
PubMed:Purification and properties of an NADPH-linked aldehyde reductase from rat kidney.
PubMed:Synthesis and antiallergenic properties of 3-n-pentadecyl- and 3-n-heptadecylcatechol esters.
PubMed:Behavioral responses of maleHeliothis virescens in a sustained-flight tunnel to combinations of seven compounds identified from female sex pheromone glands.
PubMed:Acetal phosphatidic acids: novel platelet aggregating agents.
PubMed:Purification of the acyl coenzyme A reductase component from a complex responsible for the reduction of fatty acids in bioluminescent bacteria. Properties and acyltransferase activity.
PubMed:Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects : XIII. Kairomonal activity forTrichogramma spp. of abdominal tips, excretion, and a synthetic sex pheromone blend ofHeliothis zea (Boddie) moths.
PubMed:Effects of vinblastine on malondialdehyde formation, serotonin release and aggregation in human platelets.
PubMed:Effects of anticonvulsants on aldehyde reductase and acyl-CoA reductase: implications for the biosynthesis of ether-linked glycerolipids in brain.
PubMed:Resolution of the fatty acid reductase from Photobacterium phosphoreum into acyl protein synthetase and acyl-CoA reductase activities. Evidence for an enzyme complex.
PubMed:Regulation of acyl coenzyme A reductase by a heat-stable cytosolic protein during preputial gland development.
PubMed:Properties of microsomal acyl coenzyme A reductase in mouse preputial glands.
PubMed:Metabolism of palmitaldehyde in human cardiac muscle-II. Fatty chain elongation and shortening.
PubMed:Identification of a sex pheromone ofHeliothis subflexa (GN.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and field trapping studies using different blends of components.
PubMed:Mechanism and specificity of formation of long chain alcohols by developing rat brain.
PubMed:On the role of long-chain aldehydes in mammalian plasmalogen biosynthesis.
PubMed:Trace chemicals: the essence of sexual communication systems in heliothis species.
PubMed:Digestion and absorption of bovine milk xanthine oxidase and its role as an aldehyde oxidase.
PubMed:Sphingolipid base metabolism. Stereospecific uptake of proton in the enzymatic conversion of sphinganine 1-phosphate to ethanolamine 1-phosphate.
PubMed:Fatty acids and fatty aldehydes of buffalo seminal plasma and sperm lipid.
PubMed:Metabolism of palmitaldehyde in human cardiac muscle.
PubMed:The aldehyde content of luminous bacteria and of an "aldehydeless" dark mutant.
PubMed:Long-chain cyclic acetals of glycerol: metabolism of the stereomeric 1,3-dioxanes and 1,3-dioxolanes in myelinating rat brain.
PubMed:Conversion of dihydrosphingosin to palmitaldehyde and palmitic acid with cell-free preparations of guinea pig intestinal mucosa.
PubMed:Metabolism of sphingosine bases. IX. Degradation in vitro of dihydrospingosine and dihydrospingosine phosphate to palmitaldehyde and ethanolamine phosphate.
PubMed:Application of the Rosenmund reaction to the synthesis of saturated fatty aldehydes.
PubMed:Metabolism of palmitaldehyde-1-14C in the rat brain.
PubMed:Isolation and analysis of free fatty aldehydes from rat, dog, and bovine heart muscle.
PubMed:Conversion of fatty aldehyde dimethyl acetals to the corresponding alk-1-enyl methyl ethers (substituted vinyl ethers) during gas-liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Fatty acids of glycerophosphatides in developing chick embryonic brain and liver.
PubMed:Synthesis of DL-1,2-dihydroxyhexadecane, DL-erythro-1,2,3,-trihydroxyhexadecane, and DL-1,2-dihydroxy[1,3,4-3H]hexadecane. Metabolism of [1,2-3H]palmitaldehyde and DL-1,2-dihydroxy[1,3,4-3H]hexadecane.
Isol. from lemon oil (Citrus limon) Palmitaldehyde is an intermediate in the metabolism of Glycosphingolipid. It is a substrate for Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1.
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