EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes


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CAS Number: 144-68-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:205-636-4
Nikkaji Web:J5.830K
XlogP3-AA:10.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:568.88472000
Formula:C40 H56 O2
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:color agents, nutrient supplements
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 140 Crystalline lutein View - notice PDF
GRN 481 Meso-zeaxanthin View - notice PDF
GRN 542 Lutein View - notice PDF
GRN 550 Meso-zeaxanthin View - notice PDF
GRN 588 Zeaxanthin from Capsicum annum (paprika) View - notice PDF
GRN 639 Zeaxanthin from marigold View - notice PDF
JECFA Food Additive: Zeaxanthin (Synthetic)
GSFA Codex: Zeaxanthin (synthetic) (161h(i))
Physical Properties:
Appearance:orange red crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 96.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 215.00 to 216.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
logP (o/w): 14.950 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 4.363e-011 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antioxidants
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Zeaxanthin 98%
American International Chemical, LLC.
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Odor: characteristic
Use: Zeaxanthin is one kind of carotenoid contained in the retina.
DSM Nutritional
OPTISHARP® (zeaxanthin)
For experimental / research use only.
Glentham Life Sciences
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
ZeaGold® natural zeaxanthin
Flavor: characteristc
ZeaGold® natural zeaxanthin is a paprika extract used as an ingredient for the global nutritional supplement industry. This product line is the only dietary zeaxanthin extract from paprika used for the improvement of ocular and skin health. Clinical research has shown the effectiveness of this ingredient in both product forms offered which include oleoresin and beadlets.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Zeaxanthin ≥98%
For experimental / research use only.
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
color agents, nutrient supplements
Recommendation for zeaxanthin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for zeaxanthin flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Statement on the safety of synthetic zeaxanthin as an ingredient in food supplements
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of lutein and zeaxanthin and improved vision under bright light conditions pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
View page or View pdf

NWT-02, a fixed combination of lutein, zeaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk and reduction of the loss of vision: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :5280899
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):5280899
Pubchem (sid):135048259
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C06098
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB02789
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
FDA Color Additive Status ListView
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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 onion bulb
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 zeaxanthin from capsicum annum (paprika)
 zeaxanthin from marigold


Info:Lutein and Zeaxanthin
PubMed:Increase in β-ionone, a carotenoid-derived volatile in zeaxanthin-biofortified sweet corn.
PubMed:UV-B radiation impacts shoot tissue pigment composition in Allium fistulosum L. cultigens.
PubMed:Fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and synergistic contribution to antioxidant activities.
PubMed:Determination of Lutein from Green Tea and Green Tea By-Products Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and UPLC.
PubMed:[Comparison of daily intake of lutein+zeaxanthin, serum concentration of lutein/zeaxanthin and lipids profile between age-related macular degeneration patients and controls].
PubMed:Provitamin A carotenoids in biofortified maize and their retention during processing and preparation of South African maize foods.
PubMed:Zeaxanthin Dipalmitate Therapeutically Improves Hepatic Functions in an Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model through Modulating MAPK Pathway.
PubMed:Xanthophyll content of selected vegetables commonly consumed in the Philippines and the effect of boiling.
PubMed:Unsaturated fatty acids promote bioaccessibility and basolateral secretion of carotenoids and α-tocopherol by Caco-2 cells.
PubMed:Adolescent Carotenoid Intake and Benign Breast Disease.
PubMed:Cooperative effects of soy isoflavones and carotenoids on osteoclast formation.
PubMed:Estimation of antioxidants dietary intake in wet age-related macular degeneration patients.
PubMed:Quality characteristics and lutein bioavailability from maize and vegetable-based health food.
PubMed:Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.
PubMed:Carotenoids of sea angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the perspective of the food chain.
PubMed:Carotenoid stability in fruits, vegetables and working standards - effect of storage temperature and time.
PubMed:Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.
PubMed:High-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry for the analysis of carotenoids in tomato fruit: validation and comparative evaluation towards UV-VIS and tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Total antioxidant capacity of diet and serum, dietary antioxidant vitamins intake, and serum hs-CRP levels in relation to depression scales in university male students.
PubMed:N-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and production of egg yolk powders: an increased risk of lipid oxidation?
PubMed:Carotenoids inhibit lipid peroxidation and hemoglobin oxidation, but not the depletion of glutathione induced by ROS in human erythrocytes.
PubMed:Reconstruction of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Cronobacter sakazakii BAA894 in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Review of nutrient actions on age-related macular degeneration.
PubMed:Wolfberries potentiate mitophagy and enhance mitochondrial biogenesis leading to prevention of hepatic steatosis in obese mice: The role of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 subunit.
PubMed:Wheat bran particle size influence on phytochemical extractability and antioxidant properties.
PubMed:Electron transfer from plant phenolates to carotenoid radical cations. Antioxidant interaction entering the Marcus theory inverted region.
PubMed:Genetic susceptibility, dietary antioxidants, and long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration in two populations.
PubMed:Serum lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, and the risk of Alzheimer's disease mortality in older adults.
PubMed:Comparative direct infusion ion mobility mass spectrometry profiling of Thermus thermophilus wild-type and mutant ∆cruC carotenoid extracts.
PubMed:Carotenoid composition of berries and leaves from six Romanian sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) varieties.
PubMed:Dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: a hospital based study.
PubMed:Food predictors of plasma carotenoids.
PubMed:Determination of egg yolk xanthophylls by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Chlorella is an effective dietary source of lutein for human erythrocytes.
PubMed:Molecular characterisation and the light-dark regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).
PubMed:Phytochemical profiles of black, red, brown, and white rice from the Camargue region of France.
PubMed:Carotenoid profiling in tubers of different potato (Solanum sp) cultivars: accumulation of carotenoids mediated by xanthophyll esterification.
PubMed:Phytochemical profile of a Japanese black-purple rice.
PubMed:The effect of domestic processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from chili peppers (Capsicum species).
PubMed:Protective effects of dietary carotenoids on risk of hip fracture in men: the Singapore Chinese Health Study.
PubMed:Dietary intake of phytonutrients in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in Korea.
PubMed:Studies on meso-zeaxanthin for potential toxicity and mutagenicity.
PubMed:Degradation of carotenoids in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) during drying process.
PubMed:Increase in β-ionone, a carotenoid-derived volatile in zeaxanthin-biofortified sweet corn.
PubMed:Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.
PubMed:Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.
PubMed:Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.
PubMed:Molecular characterization of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases and the effect of gibberellin, abscisic acid, and sodium chloride on the expression of genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and carotenoid accumulation in the callus of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.
PubMed:Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities.
PubMed:Hass avocado composition and potential health effects.
PubMed:Nutrients from fruit and vegetable consumption reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer.
PubMed:Dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids and their role in eye health.
PubMed:Distribution of carotenoids in endosperm, germ, and aleurone fractions of cereal grain kernels.
PubMed:Structural elucidation of possible lutein oxidation products mediated through peroxyl radical inducer 2,2'-Azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride: antioxidant and cytotoxic influence of oxidized lutein in HeLa cells.
PubMed:Dietary wolfberry upregulates carotenoid metabolic genes and enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in the retina of db/db diabetic mice.
PubMed:Thermal degradation kinetics of xanthophylls from blood orange in model and real food systems.
PubMed:Maize kernel antioxidants and their potential involvement in Fusarium ear rot resistance.
PubMed:Macular pigment optical density in young adults of South Asian origin.
PubMed:Blood antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers acute responses to a 1000-m kayak sprint in elite male kayakers.
PubMed:Nutrient reference values for bioactives: new approaches needed? A conference report.
PubMed:A simple HPLC method for the comprehensive analysis of cis/trans (Z/E) geometrical isomers of carotenoids for nutritional studies.
PubMed:Carotenoid intake and risk of colorectal adenomas in a cohort of male health professionals.
PubMed:Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample.
PubMed:Dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle correlates of serum carotenoids in postmenopausal women.
PubMed:Optimization of clean extraction methods to isolate carotenoids from the microalga Neochloris oleoabundans and subsequent chemical characterization using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Serum and macular responses to multiple xanthophyll supplements in patients with early age-related macular degeneration.
PubMed:Assessment of phytochemical content in human milk during different stages of lactation.
PubMed:Effect of domestic cooking methods on egg yolk xanthophylls.
PubMed:Analysis of Anabaena vaginicola and Nostoc calcicola from Northern Iran, as rich sources of major carotenoids.
PubMed:[Carotenoid data base to assess dietary intake of carotenes, xanthophyls and vitamin A; its use in a comparative study of vitamin A nutritional status in young adults].
PubMed:Influence of exogenously applied abscisic acid on carotenoid content and water uptake in flowers of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).
PubMed:β-Carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to plasma carotenoid and retinol concentrations in women of European descent.
PubMed:Egg intake improves carotenoid status by increasing plasma HDL cholesterol in adults with metabolic syndrome.
PubMed:Effects of formulation on the bioavailability of lutein and zeaxanthin: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, comparative, single-dose study in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Validation of the effects of molecular marker polymorphisms in LcyE and CrtRB1 on provitamin A concentrations for 26 tropical maize populations.
PubMed:Effect of heat processing on the profile of pigments and antioxidant capacity of green and red jalapeño peppers.
PubMed:[Serum retinol and carotenoid of rural infants and young children in Linyi of Shangdong Province and analysis on their related influencing dietary factors].
PubMed:Effects of sodium alginate bead encapsulation on the storage stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2.
PubMed:Comprehensive profiling of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in milk from different animal species by LC-DAD-MS/MS hyphenation.
PubMed:Effect of microfluidization on bioaccessibility of carotenoids from Chlorella ellipsoidea during simulated digestion.
PubMed:Chemical composition and functional characterisation of commercial pumpkin seed oil.
PubMed:Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative activities of wheat flour.
PubMed:Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration.
PubMed:Serum carotenoids in relation to risk factors for development of atherosclerosis.
PubMed:Improvement of retinal function in early age-related macular degeneration after lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial.
PubMed:Identification and quantitative analysis of carotenoids and their esters from sarsaparilla (Smilax aspera L.) berries.
PubMed:The association of consumption of fruits/vegetables with decreased risk of glaucoma among older African-American women in the study of osteoporotic fractures.
PubMed:Assessment of vitamin and carotenoid concentrations of emerging food products: edible microgreens.
PubMed:Genotypic abundance of carotenoids and polyphenolics in the hull of field pea (Pisum sativum L.).
PubMed:Identification of carotenoids with high antioxidant capacity produced by extremophile microorganisms.
PubMed:Identification of newly zeaxanthin-producing bacteria isolated from sponges in the Gulf of Thailand and their zeaxanthin production.
PubMed:[Determination of lutein and zeaxanthin in serum by high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Novel zeaxanthin-producing bacteria isolated from a radioactive hot spring water.
PubMed:Isolation, characterization, and diversity of novel radiotolerant carotenoid-producing bacteria.
PubMed:An improved high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method for determination of carotenoids and their precursors phytoene and phytofluene in human serum.
PubMed:Seasonal variations of biochemical, pigment, fatty acid, and sterol compositions in female Crassostrea corteziensis oysters in relation to the reproductive cycle.
PubMed:Identification and quantification, by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from the Amazonian fruit Caryocar villosum.
PubMed:Determination of carotenoids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of Arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh), an Amazonian fruit.
PubMed:Determination of carotenoids in Taraxacum formosanum by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS and preparation by column chromatography.
PubMed:Serum carotenoids and pulmonary function in older community-dwelling women.
PubMed:Provitamin A carotenoids are independently associated with matrix metalloproteinase-9 in plasma samples from a general population.
PubMed:Determination of carotenoids and their esters in fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS.
PubMed:Carotenoids and DNA damage.
PubMed:Interactions of dietary carotenoids with singlet oxygen (1O2) and free radicals: potential effects for human health.
PubMed:Synthesis of highly 13C enriched carotenoids: access to carotenoids enriched with 13C at any position and combination of positions.
PubMed:The relation between serum lipids and lutein and zeaxanthin in the serum and retina: results from cross-sectional, case-control and case study designs.
PubMed:Carotenoids and polyphenols in nutricosmetics, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals.
PubMed:Spirulina is an effective dietary source of zeaxanthin to humans.
PubMed:The effect of lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich foods v. supplements on macular pigment level and serological markers of endothelial activation, inflammation and oxidation: pilot studies in healthy volunteers.
PubMed:Carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies.
PubMed:Effect of orange juice's processing on the color, particle size, and bioaccessibility of carotenoids.
PubMed:Diets rich in fruits and vegetables suppress blood biomarkers of metabolic stress in overweight women.
PubMed:Consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces severity and duration of selected upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and increases plasma vitamin C concentration in healthy older adults.
PubMed:Interactions of dietary carotenoids with activated (singlet) oxygen and free radicals: potential effects for human health.
PubMed:Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with the prevalence but not incidence of age-related hearing loss.
PubMed:Down-regulation of β-carotene hydroxylase increases β-carotene and total carotenoids enhancing salt stress tolerance in transgenic cultured cells of sweetpotato.
PubMed:A review of the evidence germane to the putative protective role of the macular carotenoids for age-related macular degeneration.
PubMed:The SigB σ factor regulates multiple salt acclimation responses of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
PubMed:Effect of fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative stress and inflammation in COPD: a randomised controlled trial.
PubMed:Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture.
PubMed:[Serum carotenoid concentrations in some Chinese adults from urban, suburban and rural communities].
PubMed:Food-frequency questionnaire-based estimates of total antioxidant capacity and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
PubMed:Lutein and zeaxanthin intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PubMed:Biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake in human intervention studies: a systematic review.
PubMed:Safety assessment of lutein and zeaxanthin (Lutemax 2020): subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies.
PubMed:High serum level of lutein may be protective against early atherosclerosis: the Beijing atherosclerosis study.
PubMed:The association between macular pigment optical density and CFH, ARMS2, C2/BF, and C3 genotype.
PubMed:Effects of eggs on plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations.
PubMed:Risk of endometrial cancer in relation to individual nutrients from diet and supplements.
PubMed:The effects of dietary carotenoid supplementation and retinal carotenoid accumulation on vision-mediated foraging in the house finch.
PubMed:Carotenoid composition in Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz as determined by HPLC-MS and affected by freeze-drying and hot-air-drying.
PubMed:Reducing the genetic risk of age-related macular degeneration with dietary antioxidants, zinc, and ω-3 fatty acids: the Rotterdam study.
PubMed:Microwave-assisted hydrolysis of lutein and zeaxanthin esters in marigold (Tagetes erecta L.).
PubMed:A pilot study to gauge nutritional behavior regarding eye health in an urban community health center population.
PubMed:Carotenoid and anthocyanin contents of grains of Brazilian maize landraces.
PubMed:Production of caloxanthin 3'-β-D-glucoside, zeaxanthin 3,3'-β-D-diglucoside, and nostoxanthin in a recombinant Escherichia coli expressing system harboring seven carotenoid biosynthesis genes, including crtX and crtG.
PubMed:[Comparison of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene level in raw and cooked foods consumed in Beijing].
PubMed:Racial differences in correlations between reported dietary intakes of carotenoids and their concentration biomarkers.
PubMed:Supercritical carbon dioxide micronization of zeaxanthin from moderately thermophilic bacteria Muricauda lutaonensis CC-HSB-11T.
PubMed:Carotenoids and their isomers: color pigments in fruits and vegetables.
PubMed:Contribution of major lipophilic antioxidants to the antioxidant activity of basil extracts: an EPR study.
PubMed:Nutritional influences on visual development and function.
PubMed:The interrelationship between the lower oxygen limit, chlorophyll fluorescence and the xanthophyll cycle in plants.
PubMed:Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study.
PubMed:Evaluation of a method based on liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry for a rapid and comprehensive characterization of the fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid profile of selected plant foods.
PubMed:Healthy lifestyles related to subsequent prevalence of age-related macular degeneration.
PubMed:Reliability and validity of food frequency questionnaire and nutrient biomarkers in elders with and without mild cognitive impairment.
PubMed:Geographical trends in the yolk carotenoid composition of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).
PubMed:Chemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.
PubMed:The importance of nutrition in the prevention of ocular disease with special reference to cataract.
PubMed:Simultaneous HPLC-DAD-MS (ESI+) determination of structural and geometrical isomers of carotenoids in mature grapes.
PubMed:Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity.
PubMed:[Micronutrients and their relevance for the eye--function of lutein, zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids].
PubMed:Stability of lutein in wholegrain bakery products naturally high in lutein or fortified with free lutein.
PubMed:Gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron-fortified breakfast cereal meal improves iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16-week randomised controlled trial.
PubMed:Can the Mediterranean diet lower HbA1c in type 2 diabetes? Results from a randomized cross-over study.
PubMed:Purified canola lutein selectively inhibits specific isoforms of mammalian DNA polymerases and reduces inflammatory response.
PubMed:Effect of n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and organic eggs on serum lutein in free-living lacto-ovo vegetarians.
PubMed:Relationships between dietary carotenoids, body tissue carotenoids, parasite burden, and health state in wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings.
PubMed:The carotenoids of some food stuffs in Saudi Arabia.
PubMed:Impact of postharvest handling on carotenoid concentration and composition in high-carotenoid maize (Zea mays L.) kernels.
PubMed:A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking.
PubMed:Relationship of serum carotenoids and retinol with anaemia among pre-school children in the northern mountainous region of Vietnam.
PubMed:HPLC-PAD-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS metabolite profiling of cytotoxic carotenoids from the echinoderm Marthasterias glacialis (spiny sea-star).
PubMed:The respective relationships between lipoprotein profile, macular pigment optical density, and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin.
PubMed:Serum carotenoids and atopy among children of different ethnic origin living in Germany.
PubMed:Carotenoid and chlorophyll-derived compounds in some wine grapes grown in Apulian region.
PubMed:Antioxidant intake and risks of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus in women.
PubMed:The influence of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin on visual performance.
PubMed:Effect on orange juice of batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave oven.
PubMed:Comparison of 3 spectrophotometric methods for carotenoid determination in frequently consumed fruits and vegetables.
PubMed:Dietary patterns of antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid intake associated with bone mineral density: findings from post-menopausal Japanese female subjects.
PubMed:Timing of cluster light environment manipulation during grape development affects C13 norisoprenoid and carotenoid concentrations in Riesling.
PubMed:Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.
PubMed:Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand.
PubMed:Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification.
PubMed:Antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of oxidized lutein in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa).
PubMed:Bioactive compounds in cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernels: effect of different shelling methods.
PubMed:Effect of natural pigments on the oxidative stability of sausages stored under refrigeration.
PubMed:Screening sweetcorn for enhanced zeaxanthin concentration.
PubMed:Effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on aspects of eye health.
PubMed:Changes in the main nutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activity in yellow corn grain during maturation.
PubMed:gamma-Irradiation dose: effects on baby-leaf spinach ascorbic acid, carotenoids, folate, alpha-tocopherol, and phylloquinone concentrations.
PubMed:[Impact of eating habits on macular pathology assessed by macular pigment optical density measure].
PubMed:Bioactive compounds of four hot pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum L.), antioxidant capacity, and intestinal bioaccessibility.
PubMed:Relationship between fresh-packaged spinach leaves exposed to continuous light or dark and bioactive contents: effects of cultivar, leaf size, and storage duration.
PubMed:Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with macular pigment optical density.
PubMed:Influence of pasteurization, spray- and freeze-drying, and storage on the carotenoid content in egg yolk.
PubMed:Biochemical validation of food frequency questionnaire-estimated carotenoid, alpha-tocopherol, and folate intakes among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study.
PubMed:Regional variation in the levels of macular xanthophylls and carotenoids in dietary components: comparing North and South India.
PubMed:A large scale method for preparation of plant thylakoids for use in body weight regulation.
PubMed:Miniprimer PCR assay targeting multiple genes: a new rapid and reliable tool for genotyping Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.
PubMed:Antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and damage in elite trained kayakers and canoeists and sedentary controls.
PubMed:Influence of the production method on phytochemical concentrations in whole wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): a comparative study.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for astaxanthin production and oxidative stress tolerance.
PubMed:High dietary antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.
PubMed:Antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and damage in elite kayakers after 1 year of training and competition in 2 seasons.
PubMed:Egg contribution towards the diet of pregnant Latinas.
PubMed:Antioxidants do not prevent postexercise peroxidation and may delay muscle recovery.
PubMed:Augmentation of macular pigment following implantation of blue light-filtering intraocular lenses at the time of cataract surgery.
PubMed:Women's Health Initiative diet intervention did not increase macular pigment optical density in an ancillary study of a subsample of the Women's Health Initiative.
PubMed:Site-specific concentrations of carotenoids in adipose tissue: relations with dietary and serum carotenoid concentrations in healthy adults.
PubMed:Smoking attenuates the negative association between carotenoids consumption and colorectal cancer risk.
PubMed:Increase in nutritionally important sweet corn kernel carotenoids following Mesotrione and atrazine applications.
PubMed:Dietary vitamin C, E, and carotenoid intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma.
PubMed:Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and carotenoids and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies.
PubMed:Feasibility for improving phytonutrient content in vegetable crops using conventional breeding strategies: case study with carotenoids and tocopherols in sweet corn and broccoli.
PubMed:Contents of vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in the subtropical plant species Cyphostemma digitatum as affected by processing.
PubMed:RNAi-mediated suppression of DET1 alters the levels of carotenoids and sinapate esters in seeds of Brassica napus.
PubMed:Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the age-related eye disease study.
PubMed:Evaluation of an FFQ for assessment of antioxidant intake using plasma biomarkers in an ethnically diverse population.
PubMed:Eggs distinctly modulate plasma carotenoid and lipoprotein subclasses in adult men following a carbohydrate-restricted diet.
PubMed:Timing and biosynthetic potential for carotenoid accumulation in genetically diverse germplasm of maize.
PubMed:Acculturation and serum nutrients thought to be involved with cancer prevention among Mexican American men in the United States.
PubMed:A multifactorial test of the effects of carotenoid access, food intake and parasite load on the production of ornamental feathers and bill coloration in American goldfinches.
PubMed:Digestive stability of xanthophylls exceeds that of carotenes as studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal system.
PubMed:Characterization of maize germplasm for the chemical composition of the grain.
PubMed:Associations between lutein, zeaxanthin, and age-related macular degeneration: an overview.
PubMed:Plasma micronutrient status is improved after a 3-month dietary intervention with 5 daily portions of fruits and vegetables: implications for optimal antioxidant levels.
PubMed:Development and validation of a food frequency index using nutritional biomarkers in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.
PubMed:Changes in some carotenoids and apocarotenoids during flower development in Boronia megastigma (Nees).
PubMed:Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.
PubMed:Macular zeaxanthins and lutein -- a review of dietary sources and bioavailability and some relationships with macular pigment optical density and age-related macular disease.
PubMed:Influence of the farming system on the xanthophyll content of soft and hard wheat.
PubMed:Serum lipid and antioxidant responses in hypercholesterolemic men and women receiving plant sterol esters vary by apolipoprotein E genotype.
PubMed:Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4-y change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.
PubMed:Carotenoids: actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans.
PubMed:Serum carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations vary by dietary pattern among African Americans.
PubMed:Carotenoids in raw and parboiled brown and milled rice.
PubMed:Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.
PubMed:Inconsistencies and gaps in evidence concerning vitamins and risk of cataract.
PubMed:Kinetics of carotenoids degradation during the storage of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) flours.
PubMed:Bioaccessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids is minimally affected by non pro-vitamin a xanthophylls in maize (Zea mays sp.).
PubMed:Long-term plant stanol and sterol ester-enriched functional food consumption, serum lutein/zeaxanthin concentration and macular pigment optical density.
PubMed:Esterification of xanthophylls by human intestinal Caco-2 cells.
PubMed:Antiproliferative effects of carotenoids extracted from Chlorella ellipsoidea and Chlorella vulgaris on human colon cancer cells.
PubMed:Carotenoid bioaccessibility from whole grain and degermed maize meal products.
PubMed:Effects of mesotrione on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) carotenoid concentrations under varying environmental conditions.
PubMed:Functional characterization of FaCCD1: a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase from strawberry involved in lutein degradation during fruit ripening.
PubMed:[Lutein and eye health--current state of discussion].
PubMed:Tree nuts and peanuts as components of a healthy diet.
PubMed:Biological diversity, dietary diversity, and eye health in developing country populations: establishing the evidence-base.
PubMed:Structure-dependent photodegradation of carotenoids accelerated by dimethyl tetrasulfide under UVA irradiation.
PubMed:Dietary intake of selected micronutrients and gastric cancer risk: an Italian case-control study.
PubMed:Possible degradation/biotransformation of lutein in vitro and in vivo: isolation and structural elucidation of lutein metabolites by HPLC and LC-MS (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization).
PubMed:Development of a high-performance liquid chromatography-based assay for carotenoids in human red blood cells: application to clinical studies.
PubMed:Dietary intake of carotenoid isomers in Israel.
PubMed:Comparison of nutritional traits variability in selected eighty-seven inbreds from Chinese maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm.
PubMed:The xanthophyll composition of biofortified maize (Zea mays Sp.) does not influence the bioefficacy of provitamin a carotenoids in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).
PubMed:Dietary intake of carotenoids and retinol and endometrial cancer risk in an Italian case-control study.
PubMed:[The macular pigment: short- and intermediate-term changes of macular pigment optical density following supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin and co-antioxidants. The LUNA Study].
PubMed:Prospective study of lutein/zeaxanthin intake and risk of age-related macular degeneration.
PubMed:Phytochemical composition of nuts.
PubMed:Determination of carotenoids and their esters in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS.
PubMed:No differences in DNA damage and antioxidant capacity between intervention groups of healthy, nonsmoking men receiving 2, 5, or 8 servings/day of vegetables and fruit.
PubMed:[Protective role of lutein on light-damage of retina].
PubMed:A supplementation study in human subjects with a combination of meso-zeaxanthin, (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin and (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein.
PubMed:Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes.
PubMed:Nubsella zeaxanthinifaciens gen. nov., sp. nov., a zeaxanthin-producing bacterium of the family Sphingobacteriaceae isolated from freshwater.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of cataract in women: a prospective study.
PubMed:Development and validation of a brief food frequency questionnaire for dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake assessment in Italian women.
PubMed:Nutrition and the prevention of cataracts.
PubMed:Carotenoid intakes, assessed by food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs), are associated with serum carotenoid concentrations in the Jackson Heart Study: validation of the Jackson Heart Study Delta NIRI Adult FFQs.
PubMed:Influence of nitrogen and sulfur on biomass production and carotenoid and glucosinolate concentrations in watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.).
PubMed:Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin.
PubMed:Processed and prepared corn products as sources of lutein and zeaxanthin: compositional variation in the food chain.
PubMed:Intake of zinc and antioxidant micronutrients and early age-related maculopathy lesions.
PubMed:Plasma and dietary carotenoids are associated with reduced oxidative stress in women previously treated for breast cancer.
PubMed:Impact of fatty acyl composition and quantity of triglycerides on bioaccessibility of dietary carotenoids.
PubMed:Carotenoid coloration in greenfinches is individually consistent irrespective of foraging ability.
PubMed:Phytochemical profile of main antioxidants in different fractions of purple and blue wheat, and black barley.
PubMed:Enhancing the carotenoid content of Brassica napus seeds by downregulating lycopene epsilon cyclase.
PubMed:The relationship of dietary carotenoid and vitamin A, E, and C intake with age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS Report No. 22.
PubMed:Enhanced carnosic acid levels in two rosemary accessions exposed to cold stress conditions.
PubMed:Dietary lutein, zeaxanthin, and fats and the progression of age-related macular degeneration.
PubMed:Carotenoids in white- and red-fleshed loquat fruits.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed:Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.
PubMed:Antioxidant properties of carotenoids: QSAR prediction of their redox potentials.
PubMed:Effect of antioxidants on knee cartilage and bone in healthy, middle-aged subjects: a cross-sectional study.
PubMed:Lutein and zeaxanthin in leafy greens and their bioavailability: olive oil influences the absorption of dietary lutein and its accumulation in adult rats.
PubMed:Comparative in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids from relevant contributors to carotenoid intake.
PubMed:[Legislation and risk potential of harmful use of complementary nutrition supplements].
PubMed:[The source of antioxidants].
PubMed:Comparison of the uptake and secretion of carotene and xanthophyll carotenoids by Caco-2 intestinal cells.
PubMed:Carotenoid accumulation in Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.): molecular analysis of carotenogenic gene expression and ethylene regulation.
PubMed:The influence of di-acetylation of the hydroxyl groups on the anti-tumor-proliferation activity of lutein and zeaxanthin.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids and risk of breast cancer in Chinese women.
PubMed:Changes in carotenoid intake from fruit and vegetables in the Spanish population over the period 1964-2004.
PubMed:Characterization of carotenoid pigments in mature and developing kernels of selected yellow-endosperm sorghum varieties.
PubMed:Comparison of the absorption efficiency of alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin in female Wistar rats.
PubMed:Vitamin A, retinol, and carotenoids and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.
PubMed:Partial synthesis of (3R,6'R)-alpha-cryptoxanthin and (3R)-beta-cryptoxanthin from (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of seed carotenoids in selected wheat species.
PubMed:Progress on molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways of C(30), C(35), C(40), C(45), C(50) carotenoids.
PubMed:The relationships between macular pigment optical density and its constituent carotenoids in diet and serum.
PubMed:Rare carotenoids, (3R)-saproxanthin and (3R,2'S)-myxol, isolated from novel marine bacteria (Flavobacteriaceae) and their antioxidative activities.
PubMed:Pigments in avocado tissue and oil.
PubMed:Characterization of a beta-carotene hydroxylase of Adonis aestivalis and its expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of four carotenoids in health products by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Prospective study of vitamins C, E, and A and carotenoids and risk of oral premalignant lesions in men.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies.
PubMed:Micronutrients and the risk of renal cell cancer: a case-control study from Italy.
PubMed:Chronic ingestion of (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin in the female rhesus macaque.
PubMed:The effect of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation on metabolites of these carotenoids in the serum of persons aged 60 or older.
PubMed:Dose-ranging study of lutein supplementation in persons aged 60 years or older.
PubMed:Carotenoid and tocopherol estimates from the NCI diet history questionnaire are valid compared with multiple recalls and serum biomarkers.
PubMed:Lutein and zeaxanthin intakes and risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts: an evaluation using the Food and Drug Administration's evidence-based review system for health claims.
PubMed:Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment.
PubMed:Cocoa flavanol-enriched snack bars containing phytosterols effectively lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
PubMed:Do carotenoid-based sexual traits signal the availability of non-pigmentary antioxidants?
PubMed:Quantification of 3R,3'R-zeaxanthin in plant derived food by a diastereomeric dilution assay applying chiral high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the Italian population--results of an Italian total diet study.
PubMed:Evaluation of analytical methods for carotenoid extraction from biofortified maize (Zea mays sp.).
PubMed:Generation of saffron volatiles by thermal carotenoid degradation.
PubMed:Lutein and zeaxanthin and the risk of cataract: the Melbourne visual impairment project.
PubMed:Carotenoid content of pandanus fruit cultivars and other foods of the Republic of Kiribati.
PubMed:Enhanced bioavailability of zeaxanthin in a milk-based formulation of wolfberry (Gou Qi Zi; Fructus barbarum L.).
PubMed:Intake of the major carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of Botryococcus braunii extract elucidated in vitro models.
PubMed:Vegetables, fruit, and antioxidant-related nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a National Cancer Institute-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based case-control study.
PubMed:Xanthophylls in commercial egg yolks: quantification and identification by HPLC and LC-(APCI)MS using a C30 phase.
PubMed:Hydrolysis of zeaxanthin esters by carboxyl ester lipase during digestion facilitates micellarization and uptake of the xanthophyll by Caco-2 human intestinal cells.
PubMed:Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of surgically treated benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case-control study from Italy.
PubMed:Quantification of zeaxanthin dipalmitate and total carotenoids in Lycium fruits (Fructus Lycii).
PubMed:Supercritical CO2 extraction of beta-carotene from a marine strain of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus species.
PubMed:Enhanced lutein bioavailability by lyso-phosphatidylcholine in rats.
PubMed:Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease.
PubMed:Improved high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa.
PubMed:Low levels of carotenoids and retinol in involutional osteoporosis.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives.
PubMed:Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
PubMed:Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: ecological-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
PubMed:Inter-population variation of carotenoids in Galápagos land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus).
PubMed:Characterization of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in red pepper pods (Capsicum annuum L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Carotenoid, tocopherol, phenolic acid, and antioxidant properties of Maryland-grown soft wheat.
PubMed:An improved HPLC method for determination of carotenoids in human serum.
PubMed:Microbial xanthophylls.
PubMed:Chromatographic analysis of carotenol fatty acid esters in Physalis alkekengi and Hippophae rhamnoides.
PubMed:Fruit and vegetable intake during pregnancy and risk for development of sporadic retinoblastoma.
PubMed:Isolation of carotenoids from plant materials and dietary supplements by high-speed counter-current chromatography.
PubMed:Hispanic and non-Hispanic white elders from Massachusetts have different patterns of carotenoid intake and plasma concentrations.
PubMed:Evaluation of brief dietary questions to estimate vegetable and fruit consumption - using serum carotenoids and red-cell folate.
PubMed:Dietary modulation of lens zeaxanthin in quail.
PubMed:Determination of major carotenoids in a few Indian leafy vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Food carotenoids: analysis, composition and alterations during storage and processing of foods.
PubMed:Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of milled fractions of different wheat varieties.
PubMed:Effects of blood orange juice intake on antioxidant bioavailability and on different markers related to oxidative stress.
PubMed:Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry; Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial.
PubMed:Fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils.
PubMed:Serum carotenoids and vitamins in relation to markers of endothelial function and inflammation.
PubMed:Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.).
PubMed:Increased intake of fruit and vegetables and a low-fat diet, with and without low-fat plant sterol-enriched spread consumption: effects on plasma lipoprotein and carotenoid metabolism.
PubMed:Do dietary lycopene and other carotenoids protect against prostate cancer?
PubMed:Biochemical and molecular analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis in flavedo of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) during fruit development and maturation.
PubMed:Macular pigment and percentage of body fat.
PubMed:Estimated phytochemical content of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet is higher than in the Control Study Diet.
PubMed:Improved normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for the determination of carotenoids in cereals.
PubMed:Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties in wheat bran.
PubMed:Determination of carotenoid stereoisomers in commercial dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Retinol, carotenoids and the risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study from Italy.
PubMed:Assessment of lutein bioavailability from meals and a supplement using simulated digestion and caco-2 human intestinal cells.
PubMed:Differential accumulation and pigmenting ability of dietary carotenoids in colorful finches.
PubMed:Dietary glycemic load and risk of age-related cataract.
PubMed:Assessment of carotenoid bioavailability of whole foods using a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with an in vitro digestion.
PubMed:Dietary sources of vitamin C, vitamin E and specific carotenoids in Spain.
PubMed:Patient information. Eggs: big nutrition in a small package.
PubMed:Comparison of plasma responses in human subjects after the ingestion of 3R,3R'-zeaxanthin dipalmitate from wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) and non-esterified 3R,3R'-zeaxanthin using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Evaluation of some carotenoids in grapes by reversed- and normal-phase liquid chromatography: a qualitative analysis.
PubMed:Serum carotenoid and retinol levels during childhood infections.
PubMed:The science behind lutein.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids and risk of colon cancer: case-control study.
PubMed:Six carotenoids in plasma used to assess recommended intake of fruits and vegetables in a controlled feeding study.
PubMed:Carotenogenesis during tuber development and storage in potato.
PubMed:Relationship between colour and aroma of olive oil and nutritional content.
PubMed:Intakes of antioxidants in coffee, wine, and vegetables are correlated with plasma carotenoids in humans.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in a pooled analysis of seven cohort studies.
PubMed:A comparison of lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in formula and human milk samples from Northern Ireland mothers.
PubMed:Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of wheat varieties.
PubMed:Application of tristimulus colorimetry to estimate the carotenoids content in ultrafrozen orange juices.
PubMed:Dietary intake and risk of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: the Ludwig-McGill HPV Natural History Study.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of zeaxanthin esters in plants using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Low dietary quality among older adults with self-perceived ill-fitting dentures.
PubMed:Synthetic and tomato-based lycopene have identical bioavailability in humans.
PubMed:Thermal processing of vegetables increases cis isomers of lutein and zeaxanthin.
PubMed:Dietary cryptoxanthin and reduced risk of lung cancer: the Singapore Chinese Health Study.
PubMed:Micronutrients and laryngeal cancer risk in Italy and Switzerland: a case-control study.
PubMed:Antioxidant intake and primary open-angle glaucoma: a prospective study.
PubMed:Influences of gamma-irradiation and storage on the carotenoids of sun-dried and dehydrated paprika.
PubMed:A routine high-performance liquid chromatography method for carotenoid determination in ultrafrozen orange juices.
PubMed:Plasma carotenoid levels in relation to the Mediterranean diet in Greece.
PubMed:Low plasma concentrations of diet-derived antioxidants in association with microalbuminuria in Indigenous Australian populations.
PubMed:Multinational study of major breast milk carotenoids of healthy mothers.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids and risk of coronary artery disease in women.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids, vegetables, and lung cancer risk in women: the Missouri women's health study (United States).
PubMed:Serum carotenoids and mortality from lung cancer: a case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study.
PubMed:Quantification of carotenoids in chicken plasma after feeding free or esterified lutein and capsanthin using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.
PubMed:Genetic engineering of a zeaxanthin-rich potato by antisense inactivation and co-suppression of carotenoid epoxidation.
PubMed:Decreased carotenoid concentrations due to dietary sucrose polyesters do not affect possible markers of disease risk in humans.
PubMed:Distribution of lutein, zeaxanthin, and related geometrical isomers in fruit, vegetables, wheat, and pasta products.
PubMed:Interaction of body mass index and attempt to lose weight in a national sample of US adults: association with reported food and nutrient intake, and biomarkers.
PubMed:Carotenoids in cancer chemoprevention.
PubMed:An efficient conversion of (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein to (3R,3'S,6'R)-lutein (3'-epilutein) and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin.
PubMed:Vitamin C, provitamin A carotenoids, and other carotenoids in high-pressurized orange juice during refrigerated storage.
PubMed:Carotenoid pigments in GAC fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG).
PubMed:Eating well: ageing gracefully!
PubMed:Dietary antioxidant intake and incidence of early age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.
PubMed:Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail.
PubMed:Intakes of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamins A, E, C in relation to the risk of bladder cancer in the ATBC cohort study.
PubMed:Carotenoids and carotenoid esters in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.): new insights into an ancient vegetable.
PubMed:Chemistry, distribution, and metabolism of tomato carotenoids and their impact on human health.
PubMed:Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models.
PubMed:Spectrophotometric determination of yellow pigment content and evaluation of carotenoids by high-performance liquid chromatography in durum wheat grain.
PubMed:Frequent intake of tropical fruits that are rich in beta-cryptoxanthin is associated with higher plasma beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations in Costa Rican adolescents.
PubMed:Analysis of xanthophylls in corn by HPLC.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study.
PubMed:Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin.
PubMed:A prospective cohort study on intake of retinol, vitamins C and E, and carotenoids and prostate cancer risk (Netherlands).
PubMed:Neovascular age-related macular degeneration and its relationship to antioxidant intake.
PubMed:An innovative approach to the determination of safety for a dietary ingredient derived from a new source: case study using a crystalline lutein product.
PubMed:The role of carotenoids in human health.
PubMed:Spinach and tomato consumption increases lymphocyte DNA resistance to oxidative stress but this is not related to cell carotenoid concentrations.
PubMed:Individual carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma as biomarkers of dietary intake.
PubMed:DNA damage and antioxidants; fluctuations through the year in a central European population group.
PubMed:Vitamin C is associated with reduced risk of cataract in a Mediterranean population.
PubMed:The intake of carotenoids in an older Australian population: The Blue Mountains Eye Study.
PubMed:A longitudinal evaluation of oxidative stress in trauma patients.
PubMed:Effect of dietary zeaxanthin on tissue distribution of zeaxanthin and lutein in quail.
PubMed:Micronutrients and ovarian cancer: a case-control study in Italy.
PubMed:Macular pigment density is reduced in obese subjects.
PubMed:Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of different geometrical isomers of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, and zeaxanthin.
PubMed:Relation between dietary intake, serum concentrations, and retinal concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in adults in a Midwest population.
PubMed:Rapid electrochemical method for the evaluation of the antioxidant power of some lipophilic food extracts.
PubMed:Applying science to changing dietary patterns.
PubMed:Structure-reactivity relationship in the oxidation of carotenoid pigments of the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).
PubMed:Are retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and carotenoids intake associated with bladder cancer risk? Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study.
PubMed:Improvements in circulating cholesterol, antioxidants, and homocysteine after dietary intervention in an Australian Aboriginal community.
PubMed:Serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and the carotenoids are influenced by diet, race and obesity in a sample of healthy adolescents.
PubMed:Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities.
PubMed:Intakes of carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E and MS risk among two large cohorts of women.
PubMed:Serum carotenoids as biomarkers of fruit and vegetable consumption in the New York Women's Health Study.
PubMed:A vegetable/fruit concentrate with high antioxidant capacity has no effect on biomarkers of antioxidant status in male smokers.
PubMed:[Separation and determination of carotenoids in Fructus lycii by isocratic non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Plasma carotenoids in relation to food consumption in Granada (southern Spain) and Malmö (southern Sweden).
PubMed:Carotenoid composition in the fruits of red paprika (Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme rubrum) during ripening; biosynthesis of carotenoids in red paprika.
PubMed:Analysis and stability of carotenoids in the flowers of daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) as affected by various treatments.
PubMed:PrimeScreen, a brief dietary screening tool: reproducibility and comparability with both a longer food frequency questionnaire and biomarkers.
PubMed:Macular pigment optical density in a midwestern sample.
PubMed:Dietary intakes and serum nutrients differ between adults from food-insufficient and food-sufficient families: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.
PubMed:Supplementation of rats with a lutein mixture preserved with vitamin E reduces tissue phylloquinone and menaquinone-4.
PubMed:A population-based case-control study of carotenoid and vitamin A intake and ovarian cancer (United States).
PubMed:Enzymatic hydrolysis of carotenoid fatty acid esters of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) by a lipase from Candida rugosa.
PubMed:Effects of Sunlight Illumination of Marigold Flower Meals on Egg Yolk Pigmentation.
PubMed:Selected micronutrients and colorectal cancer. a case-control study from the canton of Vaud, Switzerland.
PubMed:Carotenoid composition in the fruits of Asparagus officinalis.
PubMed:The changing face of functional foods.
PubMed:Carotenoid biosynthesis changes in five red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars during ripening. Cultivar selection for breeding.
PubMed:Lutein and zeaxanthin in the eyes, serum and diet of human subjects.
PubMed:Latin American food sources of carotenoids.
PubMed:Effect of high-pressure treatment on the carotenoid composition and the radical scavenging activity of persimmon fruit purees.
PubMed:Changes in phytochemical and antioxidant activity of selected pepper cultivars (Capsicum species) as influenced by maturity.
PubMed:Xanthophyll esterification accompanying carotenoid overaccumulation in chromoplast of Capsicum annuum ripening fruits is a constitutive process and useful for ripeness index.
PubMed:Role of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals in the aetiology of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.
PubMed:A prospective cohort study on antioxidant and folate intake and male lung cancer risk.
PubMed:Plasma antioxidant levels in chronic cholestatic liver diseases.
PubMed:Carotenoid pigments in Rosa mosqueta hips, an alternative carotenoid source for foods.
PubMed:Olestra consumption is not associated with macular pigment optical density in a cross-sectional volunteer sample in Indianapolis.
PubMed:Kinetics and mechanism of the primary steps of degradation of carotenoids by acid in homogeneous solution.
PubMed:Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk.
PubMed:A study on serum carotenoid levels in breast cancer patients of Indian women in Chennai (Madras), India.
PubMed:Paprika (Capsicum annuum) oleoresin extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide.
PubMed:Quantification of carotenoid and tocopherol antioxidants in Zea mays.
PubMed:Carotenoid composition of marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower extract used as nutritional supplement.
PubMed:Concentrations of tocopherols and carotenoids in maternal and cord blood plasma.
PubMed:A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women.
PubMed:Intestinal absorption of lycopene from different matrices and interactions to other carotenoids, the lipid status, and the antioxidant capacity of human plasma.
PubMed:Questionnaire assessment of antioxidants and retinol intakes in Mexican women.
PubMed:Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in plasma after dietary supplementation with egg yolk.
PubMed:Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study.
PubMed:Value assignment of retinol, retinyl palmitate, tocopherol, and carotenoid concentrations in Standard Reference Material 2383 (Baby Food Composite).
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer.
PubMed:Carotenoid intakes, assessed by dietary questionnaire, are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations in an elderly population.
PubMed:[Carotenoid intake in the German National Food Consumption Survey].
PubMed:The contribution of various foods to intake of vitamin A and carotenoids in The Netherlands.
PubMed:Dietary lutein absorption from marigold extract is rapid in BALB/c mice.
PubMed:Oxidative stress status and antioxidant status are apparently not related to carotenoid status in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Carotenoid determination in biological microsamples using liquid chromatography with a coulometric electrochemical array detector.
PubMed:Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants.
PubMed:[Serum status of carotenoids in control subjects and its relation to the diet].
PubMed:Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals. A real time kinetic study of antioxidant hierarchy.
PubMed:Measurement of retinoids and carotenoids in breast adipose tissue and a comparison of concentrations in breast cancer cases and control subjects.
PubMed:Serum micronutrients and prostate cancer in Japanese Americans in Hawaii.
PubMed:Identification, quantification, and relative concentrations of carotenoids and their metabolites in human milk and serum.
PubMed:Dietary fiber and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.
PubMed:Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies.
PubMed:cis-trans lycopene isomers, carotenoids, and retinol in the human prostate.
PubMed:Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins in relation to coronary artery disease: a case control study of Koreans.
PubMed:Changes in the vitamin status of elderly Europeans: plasma vitamins A, E, B-6, B-12, folic acid and carotenoids. SENECA Investigators.
PubMed:Major fruit and vegetable contributors to the main serum carotenoids in the Spanish diet.
PubMed:Effects of freezing and canning of papaya slices on their carotenoid composition.
PubMed:Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients.
PubMed:Dietary intake of specific carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E, and prevalence of colorectal adenomas.
PubMed:Iris color and macular pigment optical density.
PubMed:Evaluation of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and carotenoids in serum of men with cancer of the larynx before and after commercial enteral formula feeding.
PubMed:Antioxidants and reduced functional capacity in the elderly: findings from the Nun Study.
PubMed:Supplementing ferrets with canthaxanthin affects the tissue distributions of canthaxanthin, other carotenoids, vitamin A and vitamin E.
PubMed:Questionnaire assessment of intake of specific carotenoids.
PubMed:Lutein, lycopene, and their oxidative metabolites in chemoprevention of cancer.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group.
PubMed:Relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids in premenopausal women: application of the USDA-NCI carotenoid food-composition database.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic method for the determination of carotenoids, retinoids and tocopherols in human serum and in food.
PubMed:Carotenoid scavenging of radicals. Effect of carotenoid structure and oxygen partial pressure on antioxidative activity.
PubMed:The development and application of a carotenoid database for fruits, vegetables, and selected multicomponent foods.
PubMed:Anticarcinogenic effect of common carotenoids.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of xanthophylls on peroxyl radical-mediated phospholipid peroxidation.
PubMed:Does beta-carotene explain why reduced cancer risk is associated with vegetable and fruit intake?
PubMed:Effects of the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and foods on serum concentrations of carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in healthy inhabitants living in a rural area of Hokkaido.
PubMed:Structural and geometrical isomers of carotenoids in human plasma.
PubMed:Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of beta-carotene-related carotenoids in solution.
PubMed:Bilirubin-binding protein in the serum of spawning-migrating chum salmon,Oncorhynchus keta: Its identity with carotenoid-carrying lipoprotein.
PubMed:Light-induced De-epoxidation in Lettuce Chloroplasts: VI. De-epoxidation in Grana and in Stoma Lamellae.
PubMed:Comparative Study of the Carotenoid Composition of the Seeds of Ripening Momordica charantia and Tomatoes.
Zeaxanthin is one of the two primary xanthophyll carotenoids contained within the retina of the eye. Within the central macula, zeaxanthin is the dominant component, whereas in the peripheral retina, lutein predominates. The principal natural form of zeaxanthin is (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin. As a food additive, zeaxanthin is a food dye with E number E161h. [Wikipedia] Constit. of crustaceans, fish, barley, maize (Zea mays), tomatoes, paprika pods, hen egg yolk, fruits and numerous green vegetables. Potential nutriceutical for treatment of age-related macular degeneration of the eye (AMD) [DFC] Zeaxanthin is one of the two primary xanthophyll carotenoids contained within the retina of the eye. Within the central macula, zeaxanthin is the dominant component, whereas in the peripheral retina, lutein predominates. The principal natural form of zeaxanthin is (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin. As a food additive, zeaxanthin is a food dye with E number E161h. [Wikipedia]
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