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CAS Number: 472-61-7Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:207-451-4
Nikkaji Web:J307.871J
XlogP3-AA:10.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:596.85124000
Formula:C40 H52 O4
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:coloring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 356 Haematococcus pluvialis extract containing astaxanthin esters View - notice PDF
GRN 294 Haematococcus pluvialis extract containing astaxanthin esters View - notice PDF
GRN 580 Haematococcus pluvialis extract containing astaxanthin esters View - notice PDF
FDA Mainterm (SATF):472-61-7 ; ASTAXANTHIN
FDA Regulation:
Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.35 Astaxanthin.
Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 182.00 to 183.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 774.04 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 817.00 °F. TCC ( 435.80 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 8.163 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 7.896e-010 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin conditioning
American International Chemical, LLC.
Anhui Haibei
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Astaxanthin ≥97%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Carotenoid pigment found mostly in animal organisms, but also occuring in plants; thought to be the precursor of astacin. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found primarily in marine animals including shrimp and salmon.
Changsha Organic Herb
Astaxanthin - Microalga Haematococcus Pluvialis Extract
Charkit Chemical
Charkit Chemical
Glentham Life Sciences
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Shaanxi Y-Herb Biotechnology
Haematococcus Pluvialis Extract Natural Cosmetic Ingredients Algae Astaxanthin Powder / Oil
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Astaxanthin ≥97% (HPLC), from Haematococcus pluvailis
Sinoway Industrial
For experimental / research use only.
Astaxanthin,0.5% Emulsion
Sinoway Industrial
For experimental / research use only.
Astaxanthin,5% oleoresin
Xi'an Greena Biotech
Odor: characteristic
Use: The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest natural source of astaxanthinn, capable of accumulating up to 5% of its dry biomass as this carotenoid.Astaxanthin is the most abundant carotenoid pigment found in aquatic animals and the marine world.Like in sea foods such as salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp ,lobster, and caviar, so it has been present in the human diet for millenia. Astaxanthin cannot be synthesized by animals and must be provided in the diet, the same as for other carotenoids such as Beta-carotene, lutein,xzeaxanthin ,and lycopene.
Xi'an Greena Biotech
Natural Astaxanthin Oil
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
coloring agents
Recommendation for astaxanthin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for astaxanthin flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of synthetic astaxanthin as feed additive for salmon and trout, other fish, ornamental fish, crustaceans and ornamental birds
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of astaxanthin (CAROPHYLL« Pink 10% CWS) for salmonids and ornamental fish
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety of astaxanthin-rich ingredients (AstaREAL A1010 and AstaREAL L10) as novel food ingredients
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of astaxanthin-dimethyldisuccinate (Carophyll« Stay-Pink 10%-CWS) for salmonids, crustaceans and other fish
View page or View pdf

Safety of astaxanthin for its use as a novel food in food supplements
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :5368397
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):5368397
Pubchem (sid):135017714
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C08580
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB02204
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
FDA Color Additive Status ListView
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
 astaxanthin, (3S,3'S)-
 astaxanthin, all-trans-, (3S,3'S)-


PubMed:Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.
PubMed:Development of shelf-stable, ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) using water activity lowering agent by response surface methodology.
PubMed:Chlorella zofingiensis as an Alternative Microalgal Producer of Astaxanthin: Biology and Industrial Potential.
PubMed:Amelioration of capillary regression and atrophy of the soleus muscle in hindlimb unloaded rats by astaxanthin supplementation and intermittent loading.
PubMed: Astaxanthin synthesis by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous DSM 5626 and its astaxanthin overproducing mutants on xylose media under diferent illumination.
PubMed:Inclusion of Palmaria palmata (red seaweed) in Atlantic salmon diets: Effects on the quality, shelf-life parameters and sensory properties of fresh and cooked salmon fillets.
PubMed:Evaluation and screening of efficient promoters to improve astaxanthin production in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.
PubMed:A combination of flaxseed oil and astaxanthin alleviates atherosclerosis risk factors in high fat diet fed rats.
PubMed:Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage.
PubMed:Genetic engineering of the green alga Chlorella zofingiensis: a modified norflurazon-resistant phytoene desaturase gene as a dominant selectable marker.
PubMed:Multiple transformation with the crtYB gene of the limiting enzyme increased carotenoid synthesis and generated novel derivatives in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.
PubMed:Microalgal carotenoids: beneficial effects and potential in human health.
PubMed:Improvement of red color development on the surface of kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus under various conditions.
PubMed:Development of shelf-stable, ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) using water activity lowering agent by response surface methodology.
PubMed:Electron transfer from plant phenolates to carotenoid radical cations. Antioxidant interaction entering the Marcus theory inverted region.
PubMed:Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.
PubMed:Astaxanthin alleviates brain aging in rats by attenuating oxidative stress and increasing BDNF levels.
PubMed:Astaxanthin Synthesis by Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and its Mutants on Media Based on Plant Extracts.
PubMed:Astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids individually and in combination protect against oxidative stress via the Nrf2-ARE pathway.
PubMed:Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin (xanthophyll) as supplements in rainbow trout diet: in vivo assessment of residual levels and contributions to human health.
PubMed:Cholesterol oxidation and astaxanthin degradation in shrimp during sun drying and storage.
PubMed:Utilization of waste syrup for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls by Aurantiochytrium.
PubMed:Antiaging effects of astaxanthin-rich alga Haematococcus pluvialis on fruit flies under oxidative stress.
PubMed:Influence of astaxanthin, emulsifier and organic phase concentration on physicochemical properties of astaxanthin nanodispersions.
PubMed:Sodiation as a tool for enhancing the diagnostic value of MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS spectra of complex astaxanthin ester mixtures from Haematococcus pluvialis.
PubMed:Efficiency of selected mutagens in generating Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains hyperproducing astaxanthin.
PubMed:Multispectral image analysis for robust prediction of astaxanthin coating.
PubMed:Response surface methodology for ultrasound-assisted extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin, ╬▓-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities.
PubMed:Tissue damage in organic rainbow trout muscle investigated by proteomics and bioinformatics.
PubMed:Physico-chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions prepared with polysaccharides as stabilizing agents.
PubMed:Chemical properties of ¤ë-3 fortified gels made of protein isolate recovered with isoelectric solubilisation/precipitation from whole fish.
PubMed:Chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions in orange juice and skimmed milk as model food systems.
PubMed:Influence of air-drying temperature on drying kinetics, colour, firmness and biochemical characteristics of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fillets.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of tomato for high-yield production of astaxanthin.
PubMed:Astaxanthin ameliorates lung fibrosis in vivo and in vitro by preventing transdifferentiation, inhibiting proliferation, and promoting apoptosis of activated cells.
PubMed:Pigment production by a new thermotolerant microalga Coelastrella sp. F50.
PubMed:Effective inhibition of skin cancer, tyrosinase, and antioxidative properties by astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.
PubMed:Inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation by newly identified bacterial carotenoids in model gastric conditions: comparison with common carotenoids.
PubMed:Optimization of clean extraction methods to isolate carotenoids from the microalga Neochloris oleoabundans and subsequent chemical characterization using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Effects of selected polysorbate and sucrose ester emulsifiers on the physicochemical properties of astaxanthin nanodispersions.
PubMed:Ultra-high pressure LC for astaxanthin determination in shrimp by-products and active food packaging.
PubMed:Oxidative changes during ice storage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed different ratios of marine and vegetable feed ingredients.
PubMed:Amyloid ╬▓ levels in human red blood cells.
PubMed:Determination of supplemental feeding needs for astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in salmonids by supramolecular solvent-based microextraction and liquid chromatography-UV/VIS spectroscopy.
PubMed:Storage stability and antioxidant activity of complex of astaxanthin with hydroxypropyl-╬▓-cyclodextrin.
PubMed:Scavenging capacity of marine carotenoids against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in a membrane-mimicking system.
PubMed:Development of a novel micro-assay for evaluation of peroxyl radical scavenger capacity: application to carotenoids and structure-activity relationship.
PubMed:Colloidal astaxanthin: preparation, characterisation and bioavailability evaluation.
PubMed:Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on chemically induced tumorigenesis in Wistar rats.
PubMed:Identification of geometrical isomers and comparison of different isomeric samples of astaxanthin.
PubMed:Modeling the interfacial interactions between CrtS and CrtR from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous , a P450 system involved in astaxanthin production.
PubMed:Effects of physicochemical properties of carotenoids on their bioaccessibility, intestinal cell uptake, and blood and tissue concentrations.
PubMed:Isolation and characterisation of carotenoproteins from deep-water pink shrimp processing waste.
PubMed:Characterization and singlet oxygen quenching activity of (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-ketotorulene and (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-keto-╬│-carotene isolated from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhrous.
PubMed:Potential for green microalgae to produce hydrogen, pharmaceuticals and other high value products in a combined process.
PubMed:Shrimp waste extract and astaxanthin: rat alveolar macrophage, oxidative stress and inflammation.
PubMed:Isolation of carotenoid hyperproducing mutants of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) by flow cytometry and cell sorting.
PubMed:Inclusion complex of astaxanthin with hydroxypropyl-╬▓-cyclodextrin: UV, FTIR, 1H NMR and molecular modeling studies.
PubMed:The natural carotenoid astaxanthin, a PPAR-╬▒ agonist and PPAR-╬│ antagonist, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation by rewiring the transcriptome in lipid-loaded hepatocytes.
PubMed:Analysis of canthaxanthin production by Gordonia jacobaea.
PubMed:A novel radio-tolerant astaxanthin-producing bacterium reveals a new astaxanthin derivative: astaxanthin dirhamnoside.
PubMed:Isolation, characterization, and diversity of novel radiotolerant carotenoid-producing bacteria.
PubMed:Does the light influence astaxanthin production in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous?
PubMed:Development of a method for oral administration of hydrophobic substances to Caenorhabditis elegans: pro-longevity effects of oral supplementation with lipid-soluble antioxidants.
PubMed:Carotenoids and DNA damage.
PubMed:[Determination of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in egg yolks by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection].
PubMed:Extraction and analysis of carotenoids from the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus gonads.
PubMed:Synthesis of highly 13C enriched carotenoids: access to carotenoids enriched with 13C at any position and combination of positions.
PubMed:Effect of freezing temperature on the color of frozen salmon.
PubMed:Astaxanthin preparation by lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of its esters from Haematococcus pluvialis algal extracts.
PubMed:Carotenoids and polyphenols in nutricosmetics, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals.
PubMed:Determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.
PubMed:Anticoagulatory and antiinflammatory effects of astaxanthin in diabetic rats.
PubMed:Effects of Haematococcus pluvialis in maternal diet on reproductive performance and egg quality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
PubMed:Supplementation of laying-hen feed with palm tocos and algae astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enrichment.
PubMed:Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential.
PubMed:Mechanisms of colour adaptation in the prawn Penaeus monodon.
PubMed:Microwave-assisted extraction performed in low temperature and in vacuo for the extraction of labile compounds in food samples.
PubMed:Low-cost production of 6G-fructofuranosidase with high value-added astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.
PubMed:An intervention study in obese mice with astaxanthin, a marine carotenoid--effects on insulin signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
PubMed:Erythrocytes carotenoids after astaxanthin supplementation in middle-aged and senior Japanese subjects.
PubMed:Astaxanthin stimulates cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in cats.
PubMed:Optimal design of scalable photo-bioreactor for phototropic culturing of Haematococcus pluvialis.
PubMed:Plasma carotenoid concentrations before and after supplementation with astaxanthin in middle-aged and senior subjects.
PubMed:Carotenoids in marine invertebrates living along the Kuroshio current coast.
PubMed:Protective effects of Haematococcus astaxanthin on oxidative stress in healthy smokers.
PubMed:Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.
PubMed:Large-scale production of bioactive ingredients as supplements for healthy human and animal nutrition.
PubMed:Protective actions of microalgae against endogenous and exogenous advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.
PubMed:Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils.
PubMed:The effects of dietary carotenoid supplementation and retinal carotenoid accumulation on vision-mediated foraging in the house finch.
PubMed:Microalgae as sources of carotenoids.
PubMed:Effect of organic-phase solvents on physicochemical properties and cellular uptake of astaxanthin nanodispersions.
PubMed:Effects of Haematococcus pluvialis supplementation on antioxidant system and metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
PubMed:Effects of storage atmosphere and heme state on the color and visible reflectance spectra of salmon ( Salmo salar ) fillets.
PubMed:Encapsulation of astaxanthin-rich Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for antioxidant delivery.
PubMed:Carotenoids in marine animals.
PubMed:Optimization and development of a SPE-HPLC-UV method to determine astaxanthin inÔÇéSaccharina japonica.
PubMed:Control of lipid oxidation in extruded salmon jerky snacks.
PubMed:Engineering of a plasmid-free Escherichia coli strain for improved in vivo biosynthesis of astaxanthin.
PubMed:Astaxanthin can alter CYP1A-dependent activities via two different mechanisms: induction of protein expression and inhibition of NADPH P450 reductase dependent electron transfer.
PubMed:Carotenogenesis up-regulation in Scenedesmus sp. using a targeted metabolomics approach by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Impact of dietary carotenoid and packaging during frozen storage on the quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed carotenoids.
PubMed:Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.
PubMed:Dietary astaxanthin enhances immune response in dogs.
PubMed:Potential health-promoting effects of astaxanthin: a high-value carotenoid mostly from microalgae.
PubMed:Comparison of tetrahydrofuran, fetal calf serum, and Tween 40 for the delivery of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin to HepG2 cells.
PubMed:Astaxanthin protects against MPTP/MPP+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production in vivo and in vitro.
PubMed:Biotechnological production of astaxanthin with Phaffia rhodozyma/Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.
PubMed:Retinol-deficient rats can convert a pharmacological dose of astaxanthin to retinol: antioxidant potential of astaxanthin, lutein, and ╬▓-carotene.
PubMed:Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for the industrial production of astaxanthin.
PubMed:Ultraviolet-B radiation improves astaxanthin accumulation in green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis.
PubMed:Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on inflammation and cardiac function in BALB/c mice.
PubMed:Characterization of microalgal carotenoids by mass spectrometry and their bioavailability and antioxidant properties elucidated in rat model.
PubMed:Purified canola lutein selectively inhibits specific isoforms of mammalian DNA polymerases and reduces inflammatory response.
PubMed:Effect of dietary astaxanthin at different stages of mammary tumor initiation in BALB/c mice.
PubMed:Task-specific ionic liquid-assisted extraction and separation of astaxanthin from shrimp waste.
PubMed:Astaxanthin extraction from shrimp wastes and its stability in 2 model systems.
PubMed:Astaxanthin inhibits glutamate release in rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals via suppression of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
PubMed:HPLC-PAD-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS metabolite profiling of cytotoxic carotenoids from the echinoderm Marthasterias glacialis (spiny sea-star).
PubMed:Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats.
PubMed:Astaxanthin improves the proliferative capacity as well as the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential in neural stem cells.
PubMed:Molecular effects of high-pressure processing on food studied by resonance Raman.
PubMed:Reduction of fatty acid flux results in enhancement of astaxanthin synthesis in a mutant strain of Phaffia rhodozyma.
PubMed:Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans.
PubMed:Determination of para red, Sudan dyes, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin in animal feeds using UPLC.
PubMed:Separation of astaxanthin from cells of Phaffia rhodozyma using colloidal gas aphrons in a flotation column.
PubMed:Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for astaxanthin production and oxidative stress tolerance.
PubMed:Protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis of high-glucose-exposed proximal tubular epithelial cells by astaxanthin.
PubMed:Kinetic studies of lipid oxidation induced by hemoglobin measured by consumption of dissolved oxygen in a liposome model system.
PubMed:Modelling consumer exposures to nutrients and additives in animal products.
PubMed:Stability studies on astaxanthin extracted from fermented shrimp byproducts.
PubMed:A simplified method to distinguish farmed (Salmo salar) from wild salmon: fatty acid ratios versus astaxanthin chiral isomers.
PubMed:Characterisation of the carotenoprotein found in carapace shells of Jasus lalandii.
PubMed:Does feed composition affect oxidation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during frozen storage?
PubMed:Astaxanthin protects neuronal cells against oxidative damage and is a potent candidate for brain food.
PubMed:[Lifestyle-related diseases and anti-aging ophthalmology: suppression of retinal and choroidal pathologies by inhibiting renin-angiotensin system and inflammation].
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of astraxanthin combined with Flavangenol on oxidative stress biomarkers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
PubMed:[Comparison of composition of aetherolea and alcohol extraction from ChangBai Mountain purple common perilla].
PubMed:Effect of temperature on chitin and astaxanthin recoveries from shrimp waste using lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Astaxanthin inhibits reactive oxygen species-mediated cellular toxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells via mitochondria-targeted protective mechanism.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis in higher plants.
PubMed:Carotenoids from Rhodotorula and Phaffia: yeasts of biotechnological importance.
PubMed:Development of an Adonis aestivalis expressed sequence tag population as a resource for genes of the carotenoid pathway.
PubMed:Esterification of xanthophylls by human intestinal Caco-2 cells.
PubMed:Effect of astaxanthin in combination with alpha-tocopherol or ascorbic acid against oxidative damage in diabetic ODS rats.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in feedstuffs using solid phase extraction-reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Efficient screening for astaxanthin-overproducing mutants of the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by flow cytometry.
PubMed:Ulcer preventive and antioxidative properties of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis.
PubMed:Safety assessment of astaxanthin-rich microalgae biomass: Acute and subchronic toxicity studies in rats.
PubMed:Enhancement of carotenoids by mutation and stress induced carotenogenic genes in Haematococcus pluvialis mutants.
PubMed:Regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes expression and carotenoid accumulation in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis under nutrient stress conditions.
PubMed:Ultrastructural features of hepatocytes in cultured Eurasian perch ( Perca fluviatilis L.) as affected by nutritional and husbandry conditions.
PubMed:Optimization of acidic extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma.
PubMed:Effects of apigenin, lycopene and astaxanthin on 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol-induced apoptosis and Akt phosphorylation in U937 cells.
PubMed:One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.
PubMed:The protective role of carotenoids against 7-keto-cholesterol formation in solution.
PubMed:Bioavailability of astaxanthin stereoisomers from wild (Oncorhynchus spp.) and aquacultured (Salmo salar) salmon in healthy men: a randomised, double-blind study.
PubMed:Effect of astaxanthin on kidney function impairment and oxidative stress induced by mercuric chloride in rats.
PubMed:Enantioselective separation of all-E-astaxanthin and its determination in microbial sources.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of novel ketocarotenoid production in carrot plants.
PubMed:Antioxidant properties of carotenoids: QSAR prediction of their redox potentials.
PubMed:Studies on optimization of nitrogen sources for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma.
PubMed:Effects of flavonoid on calcium content in femoral tissue culture and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow culture in vitro.
PubMed:Comparison of the uptake and secretion of carotene and xanthophyll carotenoids by Caco-2 intestinal cells.
PubMed:Cis astaxanthin and especially 9-cis astaxanthin exhibits a higher antioxidant activity in vitro compared to the all-trans isomer.
PubMed:Intraperitoneal and dietary administration of astaxanthin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)--plasma uptake and tissue distribution of geometrical E/Z isomers.
PubMed:Eulipidemic effects of berberine administered alone or in combination with other natural cholesterol-lowering agents. A single-blind clinical investigation.
PubMed:Differential expression of carotenogenic genes and associated changes in pigment profile during regeneration of Haematococcus pluvialis cysts.
PubMed:Outdoor cultivation of microalgae for carotenoid production: current state and perspectives.
PubMed:Selected quality parameters of salmon and meat when fried with or without added fat.
PubMed:Ochratoxin degradation and adsorption caused by astaxanthin-producing yeasts.
PubMed:Critical assessment of various techniques for the extraction of carotenoids and co-enzyme Q10 from the Thraustochytrid strain ONC-T18.
PubMed:Cellular uptake of carotenoid-loaded oil-in-water emulsions in colon carcinoma cells in vitro.
PubMed:Determination of astaxanthin stereoisomers and colour attributes in flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a tool to distinguish the dietary pigmentation source.
PubMed:Visualization of astaxanthin localization in HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells by combined confocal resonance Raman and fluorescence microspectroscopy.
PubMed:Different effects of microwave and ultrasound on the stability of (all-E)-astaxanthin.
PubMed:Transformation of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis with a phytoene desaturase for accelerated astaxanthin biosynthesis.
PubMed:An efficient method for extraction of astaxanthin from green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of Botryococcus braunii extract elucidated in vitro models.
PubMed:Astaxanthin binding protein in Atlantic salmon.
PubMed:Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon.
PubMed:Astaxanthin protects against oxidative stress and calcium-induced porcine lens protein degradation.
PubMed:Astaxanthin: a review of its chemistry and applications.
PubMed:Tailoring of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) flesh lipid composition and sensory quality by replacing fish oil with a vegetable oil blend.
PubMed:Isomerization of trans-astaxanthin induced by copper(II) ion in ethanol.
PubMed:Lipids of Haloferax alexandrinus strain TM(T): an extremely halophilic canthaxanthin-producing archaeon.
PubMed:Effects of astaxanthin and vitamin C on the prevention of gastric ulcerations in stressed rats.
PubMed:Antiatherosclerotic efficacy of policosanol, red yeast rice extract and astaxanthin in the rabbit.
PubMed:Microbial xanthophylls.
PubMed:Determination of carotenoids in spear shrimp shells (Parapenaeopsis hardwickii) by liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Hydrophilic carotenoids: surface properties and aqueous aggregation of a rigid, long-chain, highly unsaturated dianionic bolaamphiphile with a carotenoid spacer.
PubMed:Application of derivative ratio spectrophotometry for determination of beta-carotene and astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma extract.
PubMed:Influence of culture conditions of Gordonia jacobaea MV-26 on canthaxanthin production.
PubMed:Astaxanthin hyperproduction by Phaffia rhodozyma (now Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) with raw coconut milk as sole source of energy.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of astaxanthin esters in shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and in a microalga (Haematococcus pluvialis) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.
PubMed:Use of Tween 40 and Tween 80 to deliver a mixture of phytochemicals to human colonic adenocarcinoma cell (CaCo-2) monolayers.
PubMed:Rapid quantification of carotenoids and fat in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.
PubMed:Composition and chemical changes during storage of fish meal from Capelin (Mallotus villosus).
PubMed:Stimulation of astaxanthin formation in the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by the fungus Epicoccum nigrum.
PubMed:Influence of environmental and nutritional factors in the production of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis.
PubMed:Accumulation of astaxanthin and lutein in Chlorella zofingiensis (Chlorophyta).
PubMed:The role of food supplements in the treatment of the infertile man.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of the astaxanthin-biosynthetic pathway of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.
PubMed:Phaffia rhodozyma: colorful odyssey.
PubMed:Oral bioavailability of the antioxidant astaxanthin in humans is enhanced by incorporation of lipid based formulations.
PubMed:Preparation of the red yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, as feed additive with increased availability of astaxanthin.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma).
PubMed:Safety of an astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis algal extract: a randomized clinical trial.
PubMed:Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition.
PubMed:Carotenoids in cancer chemoprevention.
PubMed:Induction of liver monooxygenases by annatto and bixin in female rats.
PubMed:Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture.
PubMed:Processing of crawfish (Procambarus clarkii) for the preparation of carotenoproteins and chitin.
PubMed:Rapid electrochemical method for the evaluation of the antioxidant power of some lipophilic food extracts.
PubMed:Effect of astaxanthin on the hepatotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes in the liver of CCl4-treated rats.
PubMed:The interaction of dietary carotenoids with radical species.
PubMed:Regulation of two carotenoid biosynthesis genes coding for phytoene synthase and carotenoid hydroxylase during stress-induced astaxanthin formation in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.
PubMed:Serum Carotenoid Concentration Changes during Sexual Maturation in Farmed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
PubMed:Flesh Lipid and Carotenoid Composition of Scottish Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).
PubMed:Plasma appearance and distribution of astaxanthin E/Z and R/S isomers in plasma lipoproteins of men after single dose administration of astaxanthin.
PubMed:[Microbial sources of pigments].
PubMed:[A 13-week subchronic oral toxicity study of haematococcus color in F344 rats].
PubMed:Antioxidant activities of astaxanthin and related carotenoids.
PubMed:Commercial potential for Haematococcus microalgae as a natural source of astaxanthin.
PubMed:Kinetics and mechanism of the primary steps of degradation of carotenoids by acid in homogeneous solution.
PubMed:Diet explains interpopulation variation of plasma carotenoids and skin pigmentation in nestling white storks.
PubMed:Isomerization of trans-astaxanthin to cis-isomers in organic solvents.
PubMed:Hydrolysis kinetics of astaxanthin esters and stability of astaxanthin of Haematococcus pluvialis during saponification.
PubMed:Reproducibility of the separation of astaxanthin stereoisomers on Pirkle covalent L-leucine and D-phenylglycine columns.
PubMed:Production of ketocarotenoids by microalgae.
PubMed:Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective.
PubMed:Production of the carotenoids lycopene, beta-carotene, and astaxanthin in the food yeast Candida utilis.
PubMed:Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants.
PubMed:Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals. A real time kinetic study of antioxidant hierarchy.
PubMed:Free radical transients in photobleaching of xanthophylls and carotenes.
PubMed:Rapid liquid chromatographic method to distinguish wild salmon from aquacultured salmon fed synthetic astaxanthin.
PubMed:High copy number integration into the ribosomal DNA of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma.
PubMed:A chiral HPLC method for the simultaneous separation of configurational isomers of the predominant cis/trans forms of astaxanthin.
PubMed:Possible immunomodulating activities of carotenoids in in vitro cell culture experiments.
PubMed:Singlet oxygen and peroxyl radicals regulate carotenoid biosynthesis in Phaffia rhodozyma.
PubMed:Antioxidant agents in raw materials and processed foods.
PubMed:Vitamin A status and metabolism of cutaneous polyamines in the hairless mouse after UV irradiation: action of beta-carotene and astaxanthin.
PubMed:Carotenoid scavenging of radicals. Effect of carotenoid structure and oxygen partial pressure on antioxidative activity.
PubMed:Preventive action of carotenoids on the development of lymphadenopathy and proteinuria in MRL-lpr/lpr mice.
PubMed:Isolation of astaxanthin over-producing mutants of Phaffia rhodozyma and their fermentation kinetics.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of xanthophylls on peroxyl radical-mediated phospholipid peroxidation.
PubMed:Photobleaching of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Quantum-yields dependence of solvent, temperature, and wavelength of irradiation in relation to packaging and storage of carotenoid pigmented salmonoids.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of carotenoid hyperproducing mutants of yeast by flow cytometry and cell sorting.
PubMed:Selection of Astaxanthin-Overproducing Mutants of Phaffia rhodozyma with beta-Ionone.
PubMed:Development of rancidity in salmonoid steaks during retail display. A comparison of practical storage life of wild salmon and farmed rainbow trout.
PubMed:Influence of light on growth and pigmentation of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of beta-carotene-related carotenoids in solution.
PubMed:Isolation of Phaffia rhodozyma Mutants with Increased Astaxanthin Content.
PubMed:Bilirubin-binding protein in the serum of spawning-migrating chum salmon,Oncorhynchus keta: Its identity with carotenoid-carrying lipoprotein.
A keto form of carotene; pigment in flesh of Scottish salmon (Salmo salar) crustacoa-lobster (Homarus gammarus, flamingo feathers. a keto form of carotene; pigment in flesh of scottish salmon (salmo salar) crustacoa-lobster (homarus gammarus, flamingo feathers. Astaxanthin (pronounced as-tuh-zan'-thin) is a carotenoid. It belongs to a larger class of phytochemicals known as terpenes. It is classified as a xanthophyll, which means "yellow leaves". Like many carotenoids, it is a colorful, lipid-soluble pigment. Astaxanthin is produced by microalgae, yeast, salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, crayfish, crustaceans, and the feathers of some birds. Professor Basil Weedon was the first to map the structure of astaxanthin.; Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid pigment found in aquatic animals. It is also found in some birds, such as flamingoes, quails, and other species. This carotenoid is included in many well-known seafoods such as salmon, trout, red seabream, shrimp, lobster, and fish eggs. Astaxanthin, similar to other carotenoids, cannot be synthesized by animals and must be provided in the diet. Mammals, including humans, lack the ability to synthesize astaxanthin or to convert dietary astaxanthin into vitamin A. Astaxanthin belongs to the xanthophyll class of carotenoids. It is closely related to beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, sharing with them many of the general metabolic and physiological functions attributed to carotenoids. In addition, astaxanthin has unique chemical properties based on its molecular structure. The presence of the hydroxyl (OH) and keto (CdO) moieties on each ionone ring explains some of its unique features, namely, the ability to be esterified and a higher antioxidant activity and a more polar nature than other carotenoids. In its free form, astaxanthin is considerably unstable and particularly susceptible to oxidation. Hence it is found in nature either conjugated with proteins (e.g., salmon muscle or lobster exoskeleton) or esterified with one or two fatty acids (monoester and diester forms), which stabilize the molecule. Various astaxanthin isomers have been characterized on the basis of the configuration of the two hydroxyl groups on the molecule. the geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues and that levels of free astaxanthin in the liver are greater than the corresponding concentration in the plasma, suggesting concentrative uptake by the liver. Astaxanthin, similar to other carotenoids, is a very lipophilic compound and has a low oral bioavailability. This criterion has limited the ability to test this compound in well-defined rodent models of human disease. (PMID: 16562856); Astaxanthin is a carotenoid widely used in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture to provide the pink color characteristic of that species. This application has been well documented for over two decades and is currently the major market driver for the pigment. Additionally, astaxanthin also plays a key role as an intermediary in reproductive processes. Synthetic astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural astaxanthin are the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses an unusual antioxidant activity which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market for the encapsulated product. Also, health benefits such as cardiovascular disease prevention, immune system boosting, bioactivity against Helycobacter pylori, and cataract prevention, have been associated with astaxanthin consumption. Research on the health benefits of astaxanthin is very recent and has mostly been performed in vitro or at the pre-clinical level with humans. (PMID: 16431409); Astaxanthin, unlike some carotenoids, does not convert to Vitamin A (retinol) in the human body. Too much Vitamin A is toxic for a human, but astaxanthin is not. However, it is a powerful antioxidant; it is claimed to be 10 times more capable than other carotenoids. However, other sources suggest astaxanthin has slightly lower antioxidant activity than other carotenoids.; While astaxanthin is a natural nutritional component, it can be found as a food supplement. The supplement is intended for human, animal, and aquaculture consumption. The commercial production of astaxanthin comes from both natural and synthetic sources.
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