EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

ferulic acid
2-propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-

Sponsors

Name:3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
CAS Number: 1135-24-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:214-490-0
FDA UNII:AVM951ZWST
Beilstein Number:1570363
MDL:MFCD00004400
CoE Number:10113
XlogP3:1.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:194.18650000
Formula:C10 H10 O4
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
(Z)- or (E)- isomer not specified by CASrn in Register. Mixture of E- and Z-isomers (EFFA, 2010a). Composition of stereoisomeric mixture to be specified
Category:food additive and cosmetic agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
FLAVIS Number:08.089 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.089 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:pale yellow to tan powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 171.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 439.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.000003 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 302.00 °F. TCC ( 150.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.510
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 5970 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antimicrobial agents
 
Suppliers:
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Ferulic Acid >98%
Changsha Organic Herb
Angelica Sinensis Extract / Dong Quai Extract
Coompo
For experimental / research use only.
Ferulic Acid from Plants ≥98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Ferulic acid is an antioxidant in vitro in the sense that it is reactive toward free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ferulic acid helps to prevent damage to our cells caused by ultraviolet light. Exposure to ultraviolet light actually increases the antioxidant potency of ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is often added as ingredient of anti-aging supplements. Studies have shown that ferulic acid can decrease blood glucose levels and can be of help to diabetes patients. ROS and free radicals are implicated in DNA damage, cancer, accelerated cell aging. Animal studies and in vitro studies suggest that ferulic acid may have direct antitumor activity against breast cancer and liver cancer. Ferulic acid may have pro-apoptotic effects in cancer cells, thereby leading to their destruction. Ferulic acid may be effective at preventing cancer induced by exposure to the carcinogenic compounds benzopyrene and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. Note that these are not randomized controlled trials done with human participants, and therefore, the results of these studies may not be directly applicable to human use. Ferulic acid incorporation into a topical solution of 15% L-ascorbic acid and 1% -tocopherol improved chemical stability of the vitamins (C+E) and doubled photoprotection to solar-simulated irradiation of skin from 4-fold to approximately 8-fold as measured by both erythema and sunburn cell formation. Inhibition of apoptosis was associated with reduced induction of caspase-3 and caspase-7. This antioxidant formulation efficiently reduced thymine dimer formation. This combination of pure natural low molecular weight antioxidants provides meaningful synergistic protection against oxidative stress in skin and should be useful for protection against photoaging and skin cancer.
Jiangyin Healthway
Ferulic Acid
New functional food ingredients
Jiangyin Healthway
Natural Ferulic Acid
M.C.Biotec
Ferulic Acid
Odor: characteristic
Use: Used in skin care, sun care, hair care, after sun, color cosmetics. Possesses anti-oxidant, anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties. Protects the skin form damage of UV light
M&U International
FERULIC ACID, Kosher
M&U International
NAT.FERULIC ACID, Kosher
Maypro Industries
Ferulic Acid
O'Laughlin Industries
NATURAL FERULIC ACID
Penta International
FERULIC ACID NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
FERULIC ACID, Kosher
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Ferulic Acid
Sigma-Aldrich
trans-Ferulic acid, ≥99%
Certified Food Grade Products
Sunaux International
nat.Ferulic Acid
Vigon International
FERULIC ACID NATURAL
Xian Yuensun Biological Technology
Ferulic Acid, 98%
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD > 350 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA BEHAVIORAL: REGIDITY
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 49, Pg. 77, 1987.

intravenous-mouse LD50 857 mg/kg
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. Vol. 38, Pg. 1620, 1990.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: food additive and cosmetic agents
Recommendation for ferulic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.097 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 3200 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 3.0000015.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 2.0000010.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 3.0000015.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): 2.0000010.00000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 10.0000050.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 5.0000025.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 10.0000050.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 2.0000010.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 2.0000010.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 5.0000025.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 10.0000050.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 3.0000015.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 10.0000050.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 15.0000075.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 5.0000025.00000
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 15 (FGE.15): Aryl-substituted saturated and unsaturated primary alcohol/aldehyde/acid/ester derivatives from chemical group 22 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 55 (FGE.55): Consideration of phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, esters and related phenylacetic acid esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.14 (2005) and aryl-substituted saturated and unsaturated primary alcohol/aldehyde/acid/ester derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.15 (2005) (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 15, Revision 1 (FGE.15Rev1) - Aryl-substituted saturated and unsaturated primary alcohol/aldehyde/acid/ester derivatives from chemical group 22 - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 68 (FGE.68): Consideration of cinnamyl alcohol and related flavouring agents evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting) evaluated by EFSA in FGE.15Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 15, Revision 2 (FGE.15Rev2): Aryl-substituted saturated and unsaturated primary alcohol/aldehyde/acid/ester derivatives from chemical group 22
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):1135-24-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :709
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
Chemidplus:0001135246
RTECS:GD9275000 for cas# 1135-24-6
 
References:
 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:1135-24-6
Pubchem (cid):709
Pubchem (sid):134980973
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Metabolomics Database:Search
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00954
FooDB:FDB012801
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01325
Haz-Map:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 antimicrobial agents
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 almond plant
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 apple fruit
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 asparagus raw asparagus - 35 mg/kg
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 bamboo moso bamboo
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 barley seed
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 bean black bean plant
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 bean fava bean plant
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 beer - up to 2 mg/kg
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 beet
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 beet leaf
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 bilberry fruit
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 bilberry fruit juice
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 bilberry leaf
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 blueberry plant
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli leaf
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 brussel sprout leaf
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 cabbage leaf
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 cacao bean
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 cantaloupe plant
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 carob bean
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 carrot root
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 cayenne fruit
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 celery root
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 chamomile garden chamomile plant
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 cherry sour cherry plant
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 chicory leaf
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 chive leaf
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 coconut leaf
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 coriander plant
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 corn leaf
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 corn seed
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 corn sprout
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 cranberry fruit
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 cucumber fruit
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 currant black currant fruit - up to 19 mg/kg
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 dandelion flower
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 date palm stem
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 dill seed
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 eggplant root
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 elder black elder plant
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 evening-primrose plant
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 fennel seed
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 fig plant
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 flax seed
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 garlic bulb
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 ginger plant
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 gooseberry fruit
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 goosefoot fruit
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 grape fruit
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 hyssop plant
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 leek wild leek plant
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 lemon fruit
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 lentil plant
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 lettuce plant
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 lovage fruit
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 mandarin pericarp
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 oat seed
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 olive fruit
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 onion bulb
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 onion leaf
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 onion root
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 orange fruit
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 orange fruit juice
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 orange pericarp
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 pea seed
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 peach plant
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 peanut nut
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 pineapple plant
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 plum fruit
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 pomegranate fruit
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 poppy opium poppy pericarp
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 potato tuber
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 purslane plant
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 quince fruit
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 radish root
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit
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 raspberry red raspberry plant
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 rhubarb plant
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 rhubarb root
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 rice
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 rice plant
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 sage plant
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 sesame fruit
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 sesame leaf
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 soybean - up to 0.1 mg/kg
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 soybean plant
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 soybean seed
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 soybean shoot
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 spinach indian spinach plant
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 spinach inflorescence
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 spinach leaf
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 spirits - up to 0.4 mg/kg
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 sunflower pollen
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 tarragon leaf
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 thyme plant
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 tomato fruit
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut testa
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 wheat seed
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 wine - up to 12 mg/kg
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Synonyms:
 coniferic acid
4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnammic acid
4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid
3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) acrylic acid
3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid
3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylic acid
3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid
2-propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-
 

Articles:

PubMed:A Coenzyme-Independent Decarboxylase/Oxygenase Cascade for the Efficient Synthesis of Vanillin.
PubMed:Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.
PubMed:Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.
PubMed:Breaking down lignin to high-value chemicals: the conversion of lignocellulose to vanillin in a gene deletion mutant of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.
PubMed:Characterization of two Streptomyces enzymes that convert ferulic acid to vanillin.
PubMed:Biological activity and fatty acid composition of Caesar's mushroom.
PubMed:Oxidative metabolites of curcumin poison human type II topoisomerases.
PubMed:Influence of endogenous ferulic acid in whole wheat flour on bread crust aroma.
PubMed:Studies on the key aroma compounds in soy milk made from three different soybean cultivars.
PubMed:Efficient synthesis of hydroxystyrenes via biocatalytic decarboxylation/deacetylation of substituted cinnamic acids by newly isolated Pantoea agglomerans strains.
PubMed:Effect of modification of the kilning regimen on levels of free ferulic acid and antioxidant activity in malt.
PubMed:Microbial production of biovanillin.
PubMed:Variability in the release of free and bound hydroxycinnamic acids from diverse malted barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars during wort production.
PubMed:Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity, color, and free phenolic acid profile of malt.
PubMed:Production of a chimeric enzyme tool associating the Trichoderma reesei swollenin with the Aspergillus niger feruloyl esterase A for release of ferulic acid.
PubMed:Bioconversions of ferulic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid.
PubMed:Antioxidant properties of kilned and roasted malts.
PubMed:Biotransformation and impact of ferulic acid on phenylpropanoid and capsaicin levels in Capsicum annuum L. cv. P1482 cell suspension cultures.
PubMed:Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of cereal brans.
PubMed:Ferulic acid release and 4-vinylguaiacol formation during brewing and fermentation: indications for feruloyl esterase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Biotransformations of propenylbenzenes by an Arthrobacter sp. and its t-anethole blocked mutants.
PubMed:Real-time monitoring of 4-vinylguaiacol, guaiacol, and phenol during coffee roasting by resonant laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Effect of kilning on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of pale malts.
PubMed:Modification of the levels of polyphenols in wort and beer by addition of hexamethylenetetramine or sulfite during mashing.
PubMed:Biotechnological production of vanillin.
 
Notes:
widely distributed in small amounts in plants.
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