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usnic acid
1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzofurandione, 2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-

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Fragrance Demo Formulas
CAS Number: 125-46-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):11024-93-4
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:204-740-7
Nikkaji Web:J5.374K
Beilstein Number:1299865
XlogP3-AA:1.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:344.31992000
Formula:C18 H16 O7
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:antimicrobial agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Pubchem Patents:Search
Physical Properties:
Appearance:yellow crystalline solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 204.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 594.80 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 426.00 °F. TCC ( 219.10 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 2.880
Soluble in:
 water, 88.46 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antimicrobial agents
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Usnic acid >98% by HPLC
Odor: characteristic
Use: A major metabolite from a number of lichen and fungal species; perhaps one of the longest known microbial metabolites; exhibits a broad range of biological activity; an important metabolite for dereplication in discovery research programs.
Glentham Life Sciences
Usnic acid
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Usnic Acid ≥98%
For experimental / research use only.
(+)-Usnic Acid >98.0%(HPLC)(T)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intravenous-mouse LD50 25 mg/kg
Antibiotics. Vol. 1, Pg. 611, 1967.

oral-rabbit LD > 500 mg/kg
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 5, Pg. 510, 1955.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 75 mg/kg
"CRC Handbook of Antibiotic Compounds," Vols.1- , Berdy, J., Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1980Vol. 9, Pg. 89, 1982.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
antimicrobial agents
Recommendation for usnic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for usnic acid flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):125-46-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :5646
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:125-46-2
Pubchem (cid):5646
Pubchem (sid):134975731
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Export Tariff Code:2941.90.5000
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food:Read Report
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 antimicrobial agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
2,6-diacetyl-1,2,3,9beta-tetrahydro-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9beta-dimethyl dibenzofuran-1,3-dione
1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzofurandione, 2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-
(±)-usnic acid


US Patents:5,306,706 - Perfume bases
PubMed:Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.
PubMed:Uncommon Chlorinated Xanthone and Other Antibacterial Compounds from the Lichen Cladonia incrassata.
PubMed:Release behavior and antibiofilm activity of usnic acid-loaded carboxylated poly(l-lactide) microparticles.
PubMed:Clastogenic effect of atranorin, evernic acid, and usnic acid on human lymphocytes.
PubMed:Acaricidal activity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro.
PubMed:Usnic acid-loaded biocompatible magnetic PLGA-PVA microsphere thin films fabricated by MAPLE with increased resistance to staphylococcal colonization.
PubMed:Usnic acid and triacylglycerides production by the cultured lichen mycobiont of Ramalina celastri.
PubMed:Anionic form of usnic acid promotes lamellar to nonlamellar transition in DPPC and DOPC membranes.
PubMed:[Study on the chemical constituents of two lichen plants from Meng Mountain].
PubMed:The synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and antimutagenic activities of hydroxyphenylimino ligands and their metal complexes of usnic acid isolated from Usnea longissima.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of lichen secondary metabolite usnic acid is primarily caused by inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis.
PubMed:Dietary supplementation of usnic Acid, an antimicrobial compound in lichens, does not affect rumen bacterial diversity or density in reindeer.
PubMed:Topical antimicrobials for burn infections - an update.
PubMed:In vitro risk assessment of usnic acid compound.
PubMed:Anti-biofilm performance of three natural products against initial bacterial attachment.
PubMed:(+)-Usnic Acid-induced Myocardial Toxicity in Rats.
PubMed:[Chemical constituents from Usnea longgisima, a traditional mongolian medicine].
PubMed:Antimicrobial Property of Extracts of Indian Lichen against Human Pathogenic Bacteria.
PubMed:Anionic polymers and 10 nm Fe₃O₄@UA wound dressings support human foetal stem cells normal development and exhibit great antimicrobial properties.
PubMed:[Enzyme immunoassay of usnic acid in lichens].
PubMed:Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of lichen species Ramalina roesleri.
PubMed:Potential of lichen secondary metabolites against Plasmodium liver stage parasites with FAS-II as the potential target.
PubMed:A radical shift in the taxonomy of Lepraria s.l.: molecular and morphological studies shed new light on the evolution of asexuality and lichen growth form diversification.
PubMed:Usnic acid inhibits growth and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.
PubMed:Inhibition of cytochrome P450s enhances (+)-usnic acid cytotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:Seasonal and spatial variation in carbon based secondary compounds in green algal and cyanobacterial members of the epiphytic lichen genus Lobaria.
PubMed:Water Soluble Usnic Acid-Polyacrylamide Complexes with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis.
PubMed:Assessment of the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of (+)-usnic acid in V79 cells and Swiss mice by the micronucleus and comet assays.
PubMed:Comparative metabolite profiling and chemical study of Ramalina siliquosa complex using LC-ESI-MS/MS approach.
PubMed:[Development of novel drugs against influenza virus based on synthetic and natural compounds].
PubMed:(+)-Usnic acid enamines with remarkable cicatrizing properties.
PubMed:Harmful effects of usnic acid on hepatic metabolism.
PubMed:Lichenic extracts and metabolites as UV filters.
PubMed:Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of secondary metabolites of lichens against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from cystic fibrosis patients.
PubMed:[Chemical constituents from rhizome of Daphne papyracea var. crassiuscula].
PubMed:Synthesis of a potent antimalarial agent through natural products conjugation.
PubMed:Occupational airborne contact dermatitis caused by usnic acid in a domestic worker.
PubMed:Proton-shuttling lichen compound usnic acid affects mitochondrial and lysosomal function in cancer cells.
PubMed:Biological Activities of Toninia candida and Usnea barbata Together with Their Norstictic Acid and Usnic Acid Constituents.
PubMed:Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.
PubMed:Anti-viral activity of (-)- and (+)-usnic acids and their derivatives against influenza virus A(H1N1)2009.
PubMed:Chemical composition of three Parmelia lichens and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some their major metabolites.
PubMed:Membrane-damaging potential of natural L-(-)-usnic acid in Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:Interactive toxicity of usnic acid and lipopolysaccharides in human liver HepG2 cells.
PubMed:Antioxidative and cardiovascular-protective activities of metabolite usnic acid and psoromic acid produced by lichen species Usnea complanata under submerged fermentation.
PubMed:Proteomic study on usnic-acid-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
PubMed:Influence of usnic acid and its derivatives on the activity of mammalian poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 and DNA polymerase β.
PubMed:Usnic acid inhibits breast tumor angiogenesis and growth by suppressing VEGFR2-mediated AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
PubMed:Cytotoxic activity and antioxidant capacity of purified lichen metabolites: an in vitro study.
PubMed:Studies on nutritional requirement for the culture of lichen Ramalina nervulosa and Ramalina pacifica to enhance the production of antioxidant metabolites.
PubMed:Lichen secondary metabolites are responsible for induction of apoptosis in HT-29 and A2780 human cancer cell lines.
PubMed:Redox characterization of usnic acid and its cytotoxic effect on human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y).
PubMed:Inhibitory activity of Fe(3) O(4)/oleic acid/usnic acid-core/shell/extra-shell nanofluid on S. aureus biofilm development.
PubMed:In vitro interaction of usnic acid in combination with antimicrobial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates determined by FICI and ΔE model methods.
PubMed:A new depsidone and antibacterial activities of compounds from Usnea undulata Stirton.
PubMed:Intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum biosynthesize vitamin E.
PubMed:Evaluation of portable Raman spectrometer with 1064 nm excitation for geological and forensic applications.
PubMed:Effect of usnic acid on Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis.
PubMed:Effects of usnic acid exposure on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in culture.
PubMed:Mechanical effects, antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity of usnic acid as a biofilm prophylaxis in PMMA.
PubMed:Characterisation of phenols and antioxidant and hypolipidaemic activities of Lethariella cladonioides.
PubMed:Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Lichen Umbilicaria cylindrica (L.) Delise (Umbilicariaceae).
PubMed:A metabonomic characterization of (+)-usnic acid-induced liver injury by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of the plasma and liver in rat.
PubMed:Assessment of usnic acid toxicity in rat primary hepatocytes using ¹³C isotopomer distribution analysis of lactate, glutamate and glucose.
PubMed:Sensitivity of Xanthoria parietina to UV-A: role of metabolic modulators.
PubMed:Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.
PubMed:Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.
PubMed:Larvicidal activity of some secondary lichen metabolites against the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (Diptera: Culicidae).
PubMed:Production of anti-Helicobacter pylori metabolite by the lichen-forming fungus Nephromopsis pallescens.
PubMed:Collagen-based films containing liposome-loaded usnic acid as dressing for dermal burn healing.
PubMed:Molecular structural studies of lichen substances with antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic effects from Parmelia subrudecta.
PubMed:Molecular clips and tweezers hosting neutral guests.
PubMed:In situ imaging of usnic acid in selected Cladonia spp. by vibrational spectroscopy.
PubMed:Analysis of salazinic, norstictic, and usnic acids in Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Variable responses of different human cancer cells to the lichen compounds parietin, atranorin, usnic acid and gyrophoric acid.
PubMed:Prooxidant and antioxidant behaviour of usnic acid from lichens under UVB-light irradiation--studies on human cells.
PubMed:Antimycobacterial activity of usnic acid against resistant and susceptible strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria.
PubMed:Pharmacological properties of lichen Cladonia clathrata.
PubMed:In vitro study of the inhibitory activity of usnic acid on dental plaque biofilm.
PubMed:Current results on biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites: a review.
PubMed:HPLC isolation of antioxidant constituents from Xanthoparmelia spp.
PubMed:Does usnic acid affect microtubules in human cancer cells?
PubMed:Antibacterial activities of Ramalin, usnic acid and its three derivatives isolated from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata.
PubMed:Comparison of the phytotoxic effects of usnic acid on cultures of free-living alga Scenedesmus quadricauda and aposymbiotically grown lichen photobiont Trebouxia erici.
PubMed:Cellular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of the lichen compound usnic acid.
PubMed:The Long-term Release of Antibiotics From Monolithic Nonporous Polymer Implants for Use as Tympanostomy Tubes.
PubMed:Human dermal fibroblast proliferation activity of usimine-C from Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata.
PubMed:Microbial degradation of usnic acid in the reindeer rumen.
PubMed:Anti-mutagenic lichen extract has double-edged effect on azoxymethane-induced colorectal oncogenesis in C57BL/6J mice.
PubMed:Protoplast isolation from cultured lichen Usnea ghattensis, their fusion with protoplasts of Aspergillus nidulans, fusant regeneration and production of usnic acid.
PubMed:Phytochemical investigation of the Australian lichens Ramalina glaucescens and Xanthoria parietina.
PubMed:[Oral acute toxicity of (+)-usnic acid in mice and its cytotoxicity in rat cardiac fibroblasts].
PubMed:Antimycobacterial activity of lichen substances.
PubMed:[Studies on chemical constituents from herbs of Usnea longissima].
PubMed:In vitrouptake and antimycobacterial activity of liposomal usnic acid formulation.
PubMed:Effect of (+)-usnic acid on mitochondrial functions as measured by mitochondria-specific oligonucleotide microarray in liver of B6C3F1 mice.
PubMed:In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of usnic acid.
PubMed:The chemoenzymatic synthesis of usnic acid.
PubMed:Lichen extracts.
PubMed:[In vitro effect of (+)-usnic acid on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites].
PubMed:Usnic acid is a promising synergist for biopreparations based on entomopathogenic microorganisms.
PubMed:Antiproliferative effects on tumour cells and promotion of keratinocyte wound healing by different lichen compounds.
PubMed:Lichens--photophysical studies of potential new sunscreens.
PubMed:Elucidation of the complexation mechanism between (+)-usnic acid and cyclodextrins studied by isothermal titration calorimetry and phase-solubility diagram experiments.
PubMed:Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.
PubMed:Novel chiral molecular tweezer from (+)-usnic acid.
PubMed:Lichen photobionts show tolerance against lichen acids produced by lichen mycobionts.
PubMed:Review of usnic acid and Usnea barbata toxicity.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of a new chiral salen ligand derived from (+)-usnic acid.
PubMed:Down-regulatory effect of usnic acid on nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages RAW 264.7.
PubMed:Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Ramalina farinacea and its (+)-usnic acid, norstictic acid, and protocetraric acid constituents.
PubMed:Raman spectroscopic identification of usnic acid in hydrothermal minerals as a potential Martian analogue.
PubMed:Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens.
PubMed:[Studies on chemical constituents from Euonymus alatus II].
PubMed:Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of usnic acid derivatives.
PubMed:Eubacterium rangiferina, a novel usnic acid-resistant bacterium from the reindeer rumen.
PubMed:Hepatotoxic slimming aids and other herbal hepatotoxins.
PubMed:Usimines A-C, bioactive usnic acid derivatives from the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpinum.
PubMed:Cloning and sequence characterization of a non-reducing polyketide synthase gene from the lichen Xanthoparmelia semiviridis.
PubMed:Metabolism and related human risk factors for hepatic damage by usnic acid containing nutritional supplements.
PubMed:Insecticidal activity of major lichen compounds, (-)- and (+)-usnic acid, against the larvae of house mosquito, Culex pipiens L.
PubMed:Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of secondary metabolites in Cladina stellaris and other lichens by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:Toxicity of the lichen secondary metabolite (+)-usnic acid in domestic sheep.
PubMed:Production and bioactivity of common lichen metabolites as exemplified by Heterodea muelleri (Hampe) Nyl.
PubMed:Purification, identification and activity of phomodione, a furandione from an endophytic Phoma species.
PubMed:A new antifungal and antiprotozoal depside from the Andean lichen Protousnea poeppigii.
PubMed:Lichen secondary metabolites from the cultured lichen mycobionts of Teloschistes chrysophthalmus and Ramalina celastri and their antiviral activities.
PubMed:Usnea barbata extract prevents ultraviolet-B induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis and COX-2 expression in HaCaT keratinocytes.
PubMed:Forest successional stage affects the cortical secondary chemistry of three old forest lichens.
PubMed:[Investigation of the germicidal effect of usnic acid, betadine, savlosol, and desderman on the protoscolexes of lung hydatid cysts].
PubMed:New Record of Lecanora muralis (Lichenized Fungus) in South Korea.
PubMed:In vitro cytotoxic activities of (+)-usnic acid and (-)-usnic acid on V79, A549, and human lymphocyte cells and their non-genotoxicity on human lymphocytes.
PubMed:Identification and quantitation of usnic acid from the lichen Usnea species of Anatolia and antimicrobial activity.
PubMed:The phenolic compounds in Cladonia lichens are not antimicrobial in soils.
PubMed:Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.
PubMed:Potent activity of the lichen antibiotic (+)-usnic acid against clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:In vitro antimalarial activity of hyperforin, a prenylated acylphloroglucinol. A structure-activity study.
PubMed:New Record of Karoowia saxeti (Stizenb.) Hale in South Korea.
PubMed:Photosynthesis and water relations in tomato plants cultivated long-term in media containing (+)-usnic acid.
PubMed:Nanoencapsulation of usnic acid: An attempt to improve antitumour activity and reduce hepatotoxicity.
PubMed:Allergic contact dermatitis from a natural deodorant: a report of 4 cases associated with lichen acid mix allergy.
PubMed:Indole rings in palladium(II) complexes. Dual mode of metal binding and aromatic ring stacking causing syn-anti isomerism.
PubMed:A study of the genetic variability of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca using DNA sequences and secondary metabolic substances.
PubMed:Experimental studies on the growth and usnic acid production in "lichen"Usnea ghattensis in vitro.
PubMed:[Plasmid elimination effect of usnic acid on antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus].
PubMed:Effects of UV radiation on usnic acid in Xanthoparmelia microspora (Müll. Arg. Hale).
PubMed:Severe hepatotoxicity associated with use of a dietary supplement containing usnic acid.
PubMed:Determination of usnic acid in some Rhizoplaca species from Middle Anatolia and their antimicrobial activities.
PubMed:Determination of usnic acid in lichen toxic to elk by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometry detection.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical studies of some lichens from south of Spain.
PubMed:Thermodynamic characterization of the prevailing molecular interactions in mixed floating monolayers of phospholipids and usnic acid.
PubMed:Solid-phase synthesis of polyfunctionalized natural products: application to usnic acid, a bioactive lichen compound.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of usnic acid in Usnea lichen and its products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector.
PubMed:Gastroprotective and antioxidant effects of usnic acid on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.
PubMed:Liking lichens.
PubMed:[Acute hepatitis in a woman after intake of slimming pills bought via Internet].
PubMed:Usnic acid: a non-genotoxic compound with anti-cancer properties.
PubMed:Beta-orcinol depsidones from the lichen Usnea sp. from Sri Lanka.
PubMed:[The study on skin wound healing promoting action of sodium usnic acid].
PubMed:'Fat burner' herb, usnic acid, induced acute hepatitis in a family.
PubMed:Raman spectroscopy of hot desert, high altitude epilithic lichens.
PubMed:Solubilization of poorly soluble lichen metabolites for biological testing on cell lines.
PubMed:Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on hepatocytes of secondary metabolites obtained from lichens.
PubMed:Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from lichens in present-day Finland.
PubMed:Seasonal trends in usnic acid concentrations of Arctic, alpine and Patagonian populations of the lichen Flavocetraria nivalis.
PubMed:Anti-proliferative lichen compounds with inhibitory activity on 12(S)-HETE production in human platelets.
PubMed:Effect of usnic acid from the lichen Cladonia substellata on Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro: an ultrastructural study.
PubMed:Severe hepatotoxicity associated with the use of weight loss diet supplements containing ma huang or usnic acid.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo properties of usnic acid encapsulated into PLGA-microspheres.
PubMed:Usnic acid, a natural antimicrobial agent able to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation on polymer surfaces.
PubMed:Cytotoxic activity of compounds from the lichen: Cladonia convoluta.
PubMed:The antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichen Cladonia foliacea and its (-)-usnic acid, atranorin, and fumarprotocetraric acid constituents.
PubMed:Fulminant liver failure due to usnic acid for weight loss.
PubMed:Usnic acid-induced necrosis of cultured mouse hepatocytes: inhibition of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress.
PubMed:Hepatotoxic effect of (+)usnic acid from Usnea siamensis Wainio in rats, isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated rat liver mitochondria.
PubMed:Identification and quantitation of allelochemicals from the lichen Lethariella canariensis: phytotoxicity and antioxidative activity.
PubMed:Effects of ultraviolet radiation and PAR on the content of usnic and divaricatic acids in two arctic-alpine lichens.
PubMed:Impact of fertilisation on phenol content and growth rate of Cladina stellaris: a test of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis.
PubMed:Investigation by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of secondary metabolites in lichens deposited on stone monuments.
PubMed:Solubilization of the lichen metabolite (+)-usnic acid for testing in tissue culture.
PubMed:Protection against UVB irradiation by natural filters extracted from lichens.
PubMed:Alysinol--a new triterpene from Alysicarpus monolifer.
PubMed:Usnic acid.
PubMed:Spectroscopic and structural characterization of copper(II) and palladium(II) complexes of a lichen substance usnic acid and its derivatives. Possible forms of environmental metals retained in lichens.
PubMed:Molecular characterization and action of usnic acid: a drug that inhibits proliferation of mouse polyomavirus in vitro and whose main target is RNA transcription.
PubMed:A review on usnic acid, an interesting natural compound.
PubMed:Influences of nitrogen sources on usnic acid production in a cultured Mycobiont of the lichen Usnea hirta (L.) Wigg.
PubMed:Reversed-polarity capillary zone electrophoretic analysis of usnic acid.
PubMed:Oxidative stress and usnic acid content in Parmelia caperata and Parmelia soredians (Lichenes).
PubMed:Anti-inflammatory activity of (+)-usnic acid.
PubMed:The phytotoxic lichen metabolite, usnic acid, is a potent inhibitor of plant p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase.
PubMed:Frullania dermatitis.
PubMed:Allergy to lichen acids in a fragrance.
PubMed:Euplectin and coneuplectin, new naphthopyrones from the lichen Flavoparmelia euplecta.
PubMed:The significance of lichens and their metabolites.
PubMed:[Preparation and antineoplastic activity of acylhydrazones of R- and S-usnic acid].
PubMed:Some lichen products have antimicrobial activity.
PubMed:[A zinc sulfate and usnic acid preparation used as post-surgical adjuvant therapy in genital lesions by Human Papillomavirus].
PubMed:Occurrence of usnic acid in Usnea laevis Nylander (lichenized ascomycetes) from the Venezuelan Andes.
PubMed:Lichen metabolites. 2. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of gyrophoric, usnic, and diffractaic acid on human keratinocyte growth.
PubMed:Lichen metabolites. 1. Inhibitory action against leukotriene B4 biosynthesis by a non-redox mechanism.
PubMed:Antimycobacterial activity of lichen metabolites in vitro.
PubMed:Antimitotic effects of usnic acid on different biological systems.
PubMed:Activity of compounds isolated from Chilean lichens against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.
PubMed:(-)-Usnic acid and its derivatives. Their inhibition of fungal growth and enzyme activity.
PubMed:Lichen acids as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation of mouse-liver mitochondria.
PubMed:In vitro activities of the lichen secondary metabolites vulpinic acid, (+)-usnic acid, and (-)-usnic acid against aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms.
PubMed:Contact dermatitis from usnic acid in vaginal ovules.
PubMed:Screening of tissue cultures and thalli of lichens and some of their active constituents for inhibition of tumor promoter-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation.
PubMed:Usnic acid and diffractaic acid as analgesic and antipyretic components of Usnea diffracta.
PubMed:Sequestration of lichen compounds by three species of terrestrial snails.
PubMed:In vitro protein binding and tissue distribution of D(+) usnic acid.
PubMed:[Effect of Cladonia alpestris on Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro].
PubMed:Analysis of Usnea fasciata crude extracts with antineoplastic activity.
PubMed:Alectosarmentin, a new antimicrobial dibenzofuranoid lactol from the lichen, Alectoria sarmentosa.
PubMed:Induction of murine cytochrome P4503A by the lichen constituents usnic and vulpinic acids.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of d(+)-usnic acid in rabbits after intravenous administration.
PubMed:An investigation of the allergenic constituents of Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pous & Vezda ('silver moss', 'reindeer moss' or 'reindeer lichen').
PubMed:Contributions to the complex study of some lichens-Usnea genus. Pharmacological studies on Usnea barbata and Usnea hirta species.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of D(+)-usnic acid in rabbits after intravenous and oral administration.
PubMed:Chemical Constituents of the Lichen Ramalina hierrensis.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of usnic acid in plasma.
PubMed:Mitodepressive, clastogenic and biochemical effects of (+)-usnic acid in mice.
PubMed:[Additional contribution to the study of the antimicrobial activity and identification of lichenic substances in some lichens from southern Spain].
PubMed:Usnic acid revisited, its activity on oral flora.
PubMed:Niebla ceruchis from Laguna Figueroa: dimorphic spore morphology and secondary compounds localized in pycnidia and apothecia.
PubMed:Equivalence between Pfr and Cyclic AMP in the Induction of d-Usnic Acid Dehydrogenase in the Lichen Evernia prunastri.
PubMed:The occurrence of lichen phenolics in the photobiont cells of Evernia prunastri.
PubMed:[Allergic contact eczema caused by usnic acid in deoderant sprays].
PubMed:Purification and Properties of the Constitutive Arginase of Evernia prunastri.
PubMed:Mutagenicity of lichen constituents.
PubMed:[A method for the fluorimetric determination of usnic acid in pharmaceutical preparations].
PubMed:L-usnate-urease interactions: binding sites for polymerization.
PubMed:L-usnate-urease interactions: binding sites for the ligand.
PubMed:Binding studies of L-usnic acid to D-fructose-6-P aminotransferase.
PubMed:Contact allergy to atranorin in lichens and perfumes.
PubMed:Usnic acid derivatives as potential antineoplastic agents.
PubMed:[Sensitivity of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus strains to usnic acid as compared to their sensitivity to antibiotics].
PubMed:l-usnic acid: tumor inhibitor isolated from lichens.
PubMed:Isolation of (+) usnic acid from Sudanese drug Usnea molliuscula.
PubMed:Contact allergy from Frullania and respiratory allergy from Thuja.
PubMed:[Experiments on the effect of usnic acid in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii (author's transl)].
PubMed:[Determination of usnic acid in pharmaceutical preparations using liquid-phase and gas-chromatography].
PubMed:[Identification and quantitative determination of usnic acid in drug and galenic preparations].
PubMed:Biosynthesis of natural products. VII. Biosynthesis of usnic acid lichens. Seasonal variation observed in usnic acid biosynthesis.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of natural products. VI. Biosynthesis of usnic acid in lichens. A general scheme of biosynthesis of usnic acid.
PubMed:Synthetic analogues of usnic acid.
PubMed:[Separation of usnic acid from Actinomyces strain C-2167].
PubMed:Maibach HI: Sensitizing capacity of usnic acid derived from lichenized fungi.
PubMed:A colorimetric method for the estimation of usnic acid.
PubMed:Usnic acid. VI. The ozonolysis of anhydromethyldihydrousnic acid monoacetate.
PubMed:[Treatment of trichomoniasis in men with antibiotics-sodium salt of usnic acid].
PubMed:Stereoisomeric specificity of usnic acid in delayed hypersensitivity.
PubMed:Allergy to lichens. Allergic contact dermatitis from usnic acid produced by lichenized fungi.
PubMed:Usnic acid. IV. Isoanhydromethyldihydrousnic acid.
PubMed:Usnic acid. II. Methylusnic acid.
PubMed:Decomposition of usnic acid. VII. Pyrolysis of dihydrousnic acid. (3). Isodihydrousnic acid.
PubMed:Decomposition of usnic acid. VI. Studies on the ozonolytic products of O,O-diacetylusnic acid.
PubMed:[Various bacterial dermatoses & their treatment with usnic acid].
PubMed:[Usnic acid as an oral antivirotic].
PubMed:[New derivatives of usnic acid used in therapy].
PubMed:[Ingredients of various usnea species with special reference to usnic acid].
PubMed:[Influence of antibiotics, especially of usnic acid, on tetanus and diphtheria toxins].
PubMed:Decomposition of usnic acid. V. Pyrolysis of dihydrousnic acid. (2). Some observations on dihydrousnic acid.
PubMed:[Antibacterial effects of an usnic acid derivative, usno, and its clinical uses with cases of pyoderma].
PubMed:[Usnic acid as an antibiotic].
PubMed:[The treatment of bacterial skin diseases with usnic acid].
PubMed:[Antibacterial effects of usnic acid].
PubMed:[Chemistry and galenic aspect of usnic acid].
PubMed:[Usnic acid from lichens in therapy of tuberculosis].
PubMed:[In vitro studies on the effect of usnic acid on causative agents of bacterioses in plants].
PubMed:[Effect of usnic acid on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and on experimental tuberculosis].
PubMed:1-Usnic acid, dihydrostreptomycin, and their combination; therapeutic effect in guinea-pig tuberculosis as revealed by the omental index.
PubMed:1-Usnic acid and observations on its effect in human tuberculosis.
PubMed:Growth and phage production of B. megatherium. I. Growth of cells after infection with C phage. II. Rate of growth, phage yield, and RNA content of cells. III. Effect of various substances on growth rate and phage production.
PubMed:A note on the action of usnic acid on anaesthetized cats.
PubMed:Experimental studies in the treatment of tetanus and on a case of tetanus treated with usnic acid.
PubMed:[Mode of action of usnic acid on bacteria].
PubMed:[Synthesis of certain alkoxyhaloidphenoxyusnic acids and their derivatives].
PubMed:[On the effect of usnic acid in vivo].
PubMed:[The mode of action of usnic acid against bacteria].
PubMed:Cutaneous tuberculosis treated with usnic acid.
PubMed:The antibacterial activity of usnic acid and related compounds.
PubMed:The mode of action of the antibiotic, usnic acid.
PubMed:[Intralymphatic therapy of tuberculosis].
PubMed:Prevention of nuclear fusion and mitosis and inhibition of desoxyribonuclease by d-usnic acid.
PubMed:[A new lichenic antibiotic].
PubMed:The action of streptomycin and usnic acid on the development of tuberculosis in guinea pigs.
PubMed:[Effect of 1-usnic acid on experimental tuberculosis of the guinea-pig; review on the antibiotic properties of lichens in general].
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of d-usnic acid and related compounds on M. tuberculosis.
PubMed:Application of usnic acid to a case of lupus vulgaris.
PubMed:Usnic acid, an antibiotic, and sperm metabolism.
PubMed:Inhibition of cleavage and P32 uptake in Arbacia by d-usnic acid.
PubMed:Relation between chemical constitutions and antibacterial effects of usnic acid and its derivatives.
PubMed:[Not Available].
None found
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