EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes


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CAS Number: 3416-24-8Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):2351-15-7
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:222-311-2
Beilstein Number:1724602
XlogP3-AA:-2.80 (est)
Molecular Weight:179.17261000
Formula:C6 H13 N O5
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:nutrient adjuncts, dietary supplements, nutrient agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
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Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 88.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 449.00 to 450.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 439.00 °F. TCC ( 225.90 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -2.175 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
For experimental / research use only.
Glucosamine Pot (Low Lead) 96% min.
Atlantic Chemicals
AuNutra® Industries
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
D-Glucosamine (Free Base) 95%
Odor: characteristic
Use: An amino sugar, part of the structure of the polysaccharides chitosan and chitin, is made naturally in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is the biochemical precursor of all nitrogen-containing sugars. Novel application of glucosamine to prepare medical agent for treating vertigo.
For experimental / research use only.
Cargill, Inc.
Regenasure® glucosamine
Flavor: characteristic
A long time popular dietary supplement, now glucosamine is available as an easy-to-incorporate vegetarian ingredient within dozens of food and beverage applications.
George Uhe Company
Kraft Chemical
Maypro Industries
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
WILD Flavors
Flavor: taste
Glucosamine is found in cartilage and plays an important role in its health and resiliency. As we age, we lose glucosamine in cartilage. The thinning of cartilage may lead to the onset and progression of osteoarthritis. Studies show that glucosamine helps alleviate minor aches and pains associated with daily life. Some studies suggest that glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate should be used together.
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
nutrient adjuncts, dietary supplements, nutrient agents
Recommendation for glucosamine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for glucosamine flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucosamine and maintenance of joints pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
View page or View pdf

Statement on the safety of glucosamine for patients receiving coumarin anticoagulants
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucosamine and maintenance of normal joint cartilage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):3416-24-8
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :18897
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):18897
Pubchem (sid):134981549
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00329
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01514
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01702
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
the three forms of glucosamine available commercially are glucosamine hydrochloride, glucosamine sulfate and n-acetyl glucosamine.
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 bean black bean seed
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 bean field bean
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 chamomile sweet false chamomile flower
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 soybean seed
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regenasure glucosamine
 glucosamine pot (low lead) 96% min.


PubMed:Presence and function of a thick mucous layer rich in polysaccharides around Bacillus subtilis spores.
PubMed:Life on the outside: role of biofilms in environmental persistence of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Anti-tumor properties of orally administered glucosamine and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine oligomers in a mouse model.
PubMed:The use of real-time PCR to study Penicillium chrysogenum growth kinetics on solid food at different water activities.
PubMed:Biogeochemical activity of microbial biofilms in the water column overlying uranium mine tailings.
PubMed:Macronutrients and Micronutrients of Soybean Oil Bodies Extracted at Different pH.
PubMed:Proximity ligation assay with three-way junction-induced rolling circle amplification for ultrasensitive electronic monitoring of concanavalin a.
PubMed:Characterization and expression of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Pichia pastoris.
PubMed:Beneficial effects of human milk oligosaccharides on gut microbiota.
PubMed:Structure and property modification of an oligochitosan-glycosylated and crosslinked soybean protein generated by microbial transglutaminase.
PubMed:New Chitosan salt in gastro-resistant oral formulation could interfere with enteric bile salts emulsification of diet fats: preliminary laboratory observations and physiologic rationale.
PubMed:Spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes by DNA-guided scaffold system and respiration chain engineering for improved N-acetylglucosamine production by Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:Susceptibility artifacts detected on 3T MRI of the knee: frequency, change over time and associations with radiographic findings: data from the Joints on Glucosamine Study.
PubMed:Deer bone extract suppresses articular cartilage damage induced by monosodium iodoacetate in osteoarthritic rats: an in vivo micro-computed tomography study.
PubMed:Biofilm formation of Clostridium perfringens and its exposure to low-dose antimicrobials.
PubMed:Inhibition of fungal plant pathogens by synergistic action of chito-oligosaccharides and commercially available fungicides.
PubMed:Chemoenzymatic synthesis and structural characterization of 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid-containing heparan sulfate hexasaccharides.
PubMed:Structural insights into the substrate-binding mechanism for a novel chitosanase.
PubMed:Environmental neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and mercury in shark cartilage dietary supplements.
PubMed:Partial characterization and immunostimulatory activity of exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus rhamnosus KF5.
PubMed:Analysis of 3-O-sulfo group-containing heparin tetrasaccharides in heparin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of chitinase-producing Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains from salted and fermented shrimp, Acetes japonicus.
PubMed:Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease.
PubMed:Stimulation of feeding by three different glucose-sensing mechanisms requires hindbrain catecholamine neurons.
PubMed:Recent developments in chitosanase research and its biotechnological applications: a review.
PubMed:Effects of dietary supplementation of glucosamine sulfate on intestinal inflammation in a mouse model of experimental colitis.
PubMed:Secreted major Venus flytrap chitinase enables digestion of Arthropod prey.
PubMed:Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Maillard reaction products from xylan with chitosan/chitooligomer/glucosamine hydrochloride/taurine model systems.
PubMed:A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.
PubMed:Glycation and transglutaminase mediated glycosylation of fish gelatin peptides with glucosamine enhance bioactivity.
PubMed:Cloning, expression and biocharacterization of OfCht5, the chitinase from the insect Ostrinia furnacalis.
PubMed:Salmonella utilizes D-glucosaminate via a mannose family phosphotransferase system permease and associated enzymes.
PubMed:Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens.
PubMed:Microbial production of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine: advances and perspectives.
PubMed:Genetic analysis of the roles of agaA, agaI, and agaS genes in the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-galactosamine catabolic pathways in Escherichia coli strains O157:H7 and C.
PubMed:N-sulfotestosteronan, a novel substrate for heparan sulfate 6-o-sulfotransferases and its analysis by oxidative degradation.
PubMed:In vitro growth of four individual human gut bacteria on oligosaccharides produced by chemoenzymatic synthesis.
PubMed:Non-enzymatic glycation of natural actomyosin (NAM) with glucosamine in a liquid system at moderate temperatures.
PubMed:The versatile biopolymer chitosan: potential sources, evaluation of extraction methods and applications.
PubMed:Construction of monophosphoryl lipid A producing Escherichia coli mutants and comparison of immuno-stimulatory activities of their lipopolysaccharides.
PubMed:Adherence inhibition of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli by chitooligosaccharides with specific degrees of acetylation and polymerization.
PubMed:Multi-functional roles of chitosan as a potential protective agent against obesity.
PubMed:Antioxidant and anti-tumor activity of a polysaccharide from freshwater clam, Corbicula fluminea.
PubMed:Determination of chitosan with a modified acid hydrolysis and HPLC method.
PubMed:Evaluation of Glucosamine sulfate and Ibuprofen effects in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis symptom.
PubMed:Novel glucosamine hydrochloride-rectorite nanocomposites with antioxidant and anti-ultraviolet activity.
PubMed:Carbohydrate utilization by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine intestinal content.
PubMed:Determination of glucosamine in fungal cell walls by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
PubMed:[Glucosamine preparations on the Belgian market: a comparative study].
PubMed:Synthesis of water-compatible imprinted polymers of in situ produced fructosazine and 2,5-deoxyfructosazine.
PubMed:What is a food and what is a medicinal product in the European Union? Use of the benchmark dose (BMD) methodology to define a threshold for "pharmacological action".
PubMed:Effect of particle size and ammonium sulfate concentration on rice bran fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.
PubMed:Distribution and pharmacokinetics of double-radiolabeled endotoxin in the rat brain and peripheral organs.
PubMed:Physiological-based pharmacokinetic modeling of endotoxin in the rat.
PubMed:Biodegradation of shrimp processing bio-waste and concomitant production of chitinase enzyme and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine by marine bacteria: production and process optimization.
PubMed:The Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b autolysin IspC has N-acetylglucosaminidase activity.
PubMed:[Influence of nagE and manX knockout with red homologous recombination on the microbial production of glucosamine by Escherichia coli].
PubMed:Nutritional management of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Release and utilization of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine from human milk oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis.
PubMed:Glycocalyx characterisation and glycoprotein expression of Sus domesticus epididymal sperm surface samples.
PubMed:Ultra-high pressure LC determination of glucosamine in shrimp by-products and migration tests of chitosan films.
PubMed:Patterns of dietary supplement use among older men and women in the UK: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.
PubMed:Absorption and bioavailability of glucosamine in the rat.
PubMed:Suppressive effects of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine on rheumatoid arthritis mouse models.
PubMed:Improved determination of D-glucosamine hydrochloride in health foods by HPLC using 7-fluoro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-l,3-diazole as a derivative.
PubMed:Biological activities of glucosamine and its related substances.
PubMed:Heterologous expression and characterization of an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403.
PubMed:A new bifunctional chitosanase enzyme from Streptomyces sp. and its application in production of antioxidant chitooligosaccharides.
PubMed:Potential hypersensitivity due to the food or food additive content of medicinal products in Spain.
PubMed:Enhanced degradation of α-chitin materials prepared from shrimp processing byproduct and production of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine by thermoactive chitinases from soil mesophilic fungi.
PubMed:Identification of the second form of acrosin in Turkey spermatozoa.
PubMed:Proteomic analysis on acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4.
PubMed:Human chitotriosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of chitosan.
PubMed:Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives.
PubMed:Rapid successions affect microbial N-acetyl-glucosamine uptake patterns during a lacustrine spring phytoplankton bloom.
PubMed:Effect of a dietary supplement containing glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate and quercetin glycosides on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
PubMed:Sulodexide for kidney protection in type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria: a randomized controlled trial.
PubMed:Chemical profiling of the deacetylase activity of acetyl xylan esterase A (AxeA) variants on chitooligosaccharides using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of chemically defined chitosans: influence of molecular weight, degree of acetylation and test organism.
PubMed:Oral glucosamine increases expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA in rat cartilage and kidney: implications for human efficacy and toxicity.
PubMed:Glucokinase inhibitor glucosamine stimulates feeding and activates hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and orexin neurons.
PubMed:Formation and regulation of Yersinia biofilms.
PubMed:Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes modulating the cytokine response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
PubMed:Ion mobility spectrometry for the rapid analysis of over-the-counter drugs and beverages.
PubMed:Prevention of the progression of adjuvant induced arthritis by oral supplementation of Indian fresh water mussel (Lamellidens marginalis) aqueous extract in experimental rats.
PubMed:Chitosan modification and pharmaceutical/biomedical applications.
PubMed:Characterization of lipid A Cronobacter sakazakii.
PubMed:Effects of chitooligosaccharide lactate salt on sleep deprivation-induced fatigue in mice.
PubMed:Production of chitooligosaccharides and their potential applications in medicine.
PubMed:Transglutaminase catalysis of modified whey protein dispersions.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of a new UDP-sugar, UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxyxylose, in the human pathogen Bacillus cereus subspecies cytotoxis NVH 391-98.
PubMed:Safety evaluation of an açai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active(®)).
PubMed:Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).
PubMed:Effect of glycomacropeptide fractions on cholecystokinin and food intake.
PubMed:Brain glucosamine boosts protective glucoprivic feeding.
PubMed:Expression and characterization of Bacillus licheniformis chitinase (ChiA), suitable for bioconversion of chitin waste.
PubMed:[Safety Assessment regarding use of glucosamine sulfate by patients whose dietary potassium intake is restricted].
PubMed:Synergistic chondroprotective effect of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and selenium as well as glucosamine and chondroitin on oxidant induced cell death and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-3--studies in cultured chondrocytes.
PubMed:Catabolite regulation of enzymatic activities in a white pox pathogen and commensal bacteria during growth on mucus polymers from the coral Acropora palmata.
PubMed:Synthesis of N-alkyl-beta-D-glucosylamines and their antimicrobial activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria innocua.
PubMed:The clinical effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements in slowing or arresting progression of osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and economic evaluation.
PubMed:Quality of different chondroitin sulfate preparations in relation to their therapeutic activity.
PubMed:The safety of chitosan as a pharmaceutical excipient.
PubMed:The prevalence of dietary-related complementary and alternative therapies and their perceived usefulness among cancer patients.
PubMed:Does poly-N-acetyl glucosamine patch use reduce arteriovenous fistula and graft failure rates in hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease?
PubMed:Synthesis and antibacterial activity of aminodeoxyglucose derivatives against Listeria innocua and Salmonella typhimurium.
PubMed:Bioequivalence of two formulations of glucosamine sulfate 500-mg capsules in healthy male Chinese volunteers: an open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, fasting, two-way crossover study.
PubMed:Anti-obesity effect of sulfated glucosamine by AMPK signal pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
PubMed:[Determination of glucosamine hydrochloride in health foods using high performance anion exchange chromatography].
PubMed:Review article: Glucosamine.
PubMed:The inhibitory mechanism of a novel cationic glucosamine derivative against MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions.
PubMed:Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition due to glucose starvation caused by osthol.
PubMed:Evaluation and comparison of the antioxidative potency of various carbohydrates using different methods.
PubMed:Optimization of the film-forming and storage conditions of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent.
PubMed:A review of the neurotoxic effect of palmyrah flour.
PubMed:Glucosamine for knee osteoarthritis--what's new?
PubMed:Performing a three-step process for conversion of chitosan to its oligomers using a unique bipolar membrane electrodialysis system.
PubMed:Suppression of cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages by novel cationic glucosamine derivative involves down-regulation of NF-kappaB and MAPK expressions.
PubMed:A thermostable chitinase with chitin-binding activity from Phaseolus limensis.
PubMed:Determination of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine in fungal cell walls.
PubMed:Effect of agitation and aeration rates on chitinase production using Trichoderma virens UKM1 in 2-l stirred tank reactor.
PubMed:Effect of Maillard reacted peptides on human salt taste and the amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor (TRPV1t).
PubMed:Mevinolin, citrinin and pigments of adlay angkak fermented by Monascus sp.
PubMed:Yersinia pestis biofilm in the flea vector and its role in the transmission of plague.
PubMed:Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: case report and review of the literature and MedWatch database.
PubMed:Characterization of antimicrobial properties on the growth of S. aureus of novel renewable blends of gliadins and chitosan of interest in food packaging and coating applications.
PubMed:Crystal structure of YihS in complex with D-mannose: structural annotation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica yihS-encoded proteins to an aldose-ketose isomerase.
PubMed:Effect of bipolar membrane electrobasification on chitosanase activity during chitosan hydrolysis.
PubMed:Supplementation of a novel microbial biopolymer, PGB1, from new Enterobacter sp. BL-2 delays the deterioration of type 2 diabetic mice.
PubMed:An investigation of the fine structure, cell surface carbohydrates, and appeal of the diatom Extubocellulus sp. as prey for small flagellates.
PubMed:Thermal and storage stability of nutraceuticals in a milk beverage dietary supplement.
PubMed:In vitro fermentability of human milk oligosaccharides by several strains of bifidobacteria.
PubMed:Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate as therapeutic agents for knee and hip osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Effect of environmental factors on expression and activity of chitinase genes of vibrios with special reference to Vibrio cholerae.
PubMed:Development of a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of glucosamine in pharmaceutical formulations.
PubMed:Glucosamine inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) by inhibition of p38-MAP kinase and transcription factor NF-kappaB.
PubMed:The utility of nutraceuticals in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:A 90-day ad libitum administration toxicity study of oligoglucosamine in F344 rats.
PubMed:Current role of glucosamine in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:PET is alive and well.
PubMed:Using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to design active antimicrobial food packaging structures based on high molecular weight chitosan polysaccharide.
PubMed:Cloning and characterization of genes encoded in dTDP-D-mycaminose biosynthetic pathway from a midecamycin-producing strain, Streptomyces mycarofaciens.
PubMed:Glucosamine regulates differentiation of a chondrogenic cell line, ATDC5.
PubMed:Preparation of glucosamine from exoskeleton of shrimp and predicting production yield by response surface methodology.
PubMed:Low molecular weight chitosan--preparation with the aid of pepsin, characterization, and its bactericidal activity.
PubMed:Proteomic response to intracellular proteins of Monascus pilosus grown under phosphate-limited complex medium with different growth rates and pigment production.
PubMed:Single dose pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of butyryl glucosamine in the rat.
PubMed:Osteoarthritis of the knee.
PubMed:Do shrimp-allergic individuals tolerate shrimp-derived glucosamine?
PubMed:Utility of pentose colorimetric assay for the purification of potato lectin, an arabinose-rich glycoprotein.
PubMed:[Sequence of Escherichia coli O11 O-antigen gene cluster and identification of molecular markers specific to O11].
PubMed:Electromigration of chitosan D-glucosamine and oligomers in dilute aqueous solutions.
PubMed:Sonication-assisted extraction of chitin from North Atlantic shrimps (Pandalus borealis).
PubMed:Osteoarthritis and nutrition. From nutraceuticals to functional foods: a systematic review of the scientific evidence.
PubMed:Antitumor activities of D-glucosamine and its derivatives.
PubMed:Glucosamine sulfate suppresses the expressions of urokinase plasminogen activator and inhibitor and gelatinases during the early stage of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Randomised double-blind, positive-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate for the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Cloning, purification, and characterization of chitosanase from Bacillus sp. DAU101.
PubMed:Sonication-assisted extraction of chitin from shells of fresh water prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).
PubMed:Current concepts in the therapeutic management of osteoarthritis with glucosamine.
PubMed:Good stuff for joints!
PubMed:Morphological development of Aspergillus niger in submerged citric acid fermentation as a function of the spore inoculum level. Application of neural network and cluster analysis for characterization of mycelial morphology.
PubMed:Osteoarthritis of the hip.
PubMed:Identification of the Vibrio vulnificus wbpP gene and evaluation of its role in virulence.
PubMed:Fate and role of ammonium ions during fermentation of citric acid by Aspergillus niger.
PubMed:The antioxidant activity of glucosamine hydrochloride in vitro.
PubMed:The efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis: are these saccharides drugs or nutraceuticals?
PubMed:Determination of glucosamine in raw materials and dietary supplements containing glucosamine sulfate and/or glucosamine hydrochloride by high-performance liquid chromatography with FMOC-Su derivatization: collaborative study.
PubMed:Nutraceutical therapies for degenerative joint diseases: a critical review.
PubMed:Macrophage-stimulating activity of exo-biopolymer from cultured rice bran with Monascus pilosus.
PubMed:Amino acid residues conferring the nucleotide binding properties of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (renin binding protein).
PubMed:Binding of porcine ficolin-alpha to lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acids from Gram-positive bacteria.
PubMed:Determination of glucosamine in impure chitin samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Physicochemical properties and bioactivity of fungal chitin and chitosan.
PubMed:Transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the plasma membrane-perturbing compound chitosan.
PubMed:Differential responses of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots to nutrients.
PubMed:Histochemical analysis of glycoconjugate secretion in the alimentary canal of Anguilla anguilla L.
PubMed:Characterization and functional study of Antrodia camphorata lipopolysaccharide.
PubMed:Increasing trends in elderly persons' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements and concurrent use of medications.
PubMed:Glucosamine effects in humans: a review of effects on glucose metabolism, side effects, safety considerations and efficacy.
PubMed:Chitin and chitosan--value-added products from mushroom waste.
PubMed:Development of an improved procedure for isolation and purification of exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2483.
PubMed:The cell wall stress response in Aspergillus niger involves increased expression of the glutamine : fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-encoding gene (gfaA) and increased deposition of chitin in the cell wall.
PubMed:Is glucosamine safe in patients with seafood allergy?
PubMed:Oral glucosamine and the management of feline idiopathic cystitis.
PubMed:Fungal mycelium--the source of chitosan for chromatography.
PubMed:Determination of the rat tissue partitioning of endotoxin in vitro for physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling.
PubMed:Balancing fact and fiction of novel ingredients: definitions, regulations and evaluation.
PubMed:Ecophysiological interaction between nitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria in autotrophic nitrifying biofilms as determined by microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization.
PubMed:Enzymatic grafting of peptides from casein hydrolysate to chitosan. Potential for value-added byproducts from food-processing wastes.
PubMed:Characterization of three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus phages and the physicochemical analysis of phage adsorption.
PubMed:Regulation of two homodimer hexosaminidases in the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma asperellum by glucosamine.
PubMed:Characterization of a low molecular weight glycolipid antigen from Cryptosporidium parvum.
PubMed:Effect of Brand's glucosamine with essence of chicken on collagen-induced arthritis in rats.
PubMed:Structural identification of nonvolatile dimerization products of glucosamine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.
PubMed:Naturocetic (glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate) compounds as structure-modifying drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Ultrastructural and cytochemical study of cell wall modification by lactoferrin, lactoferricin and penicillin G against Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplementation to treat symptomatic disc degeneration: biochemical rationale and case report.
PubMed:Low molecular weight chitosans--preparation by depolymerization with Aspergillus niger pectinase, and characterization.
PubMed:Production, properties, and some new applications of chitin and its derivatives.
PubMed:Characterization of a cellobiose phosphorylase from a hyperthermophilic eubacterium, Thermotoga maritima MSB8.
PubMed:Chitin--the undisputed biomolecule of great potential.
PubMed:Use of confocal microscopy to follow the development of penetrative hyphae during growth of Rhizopus oligosporus in an artificial solid-state fermentation system.
PubMed:Is glucosamine worth taking for osteoarthritis?
PubMed:Natural health product use in Canada.
PubMed:When food becomes a drug: nonanabolic nutritional supplement use in athletes.
PubMed:Sequence of the Escherichia coli O26 O antigen gene cluster and identification of O26 specific genes.
PubMed:Problems with dietary supplements.
PubMed:Beta-hexosaminidase, an enzyme from ripening bell capsicum (Capsicum annuum var variata).
PubMed:The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of glucosamine hydrochloride and low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate after single and multiple doses to beagle dogs.
PubMed:The effects of miglitol on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and appetite sensations in obese type 2 diabetics.
PubMed:Dose-dependent efficacy of miglitol, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, in type 2 diabetic patients on diet alone: results of a 24-week double-blind placebo-controlled study.
PubMed:Degradation of natural phosphorylated compounds and added polyphosphates in milk by Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT378, Lactococcus lactis CECT539, and Kluyveromyces marxianus CECT10584.
PubMed:Clinical evaluation of SyvekPatch in patients undergoing interventional, EPS and diagnostic cardiac catheterization procedures.
PubMed:Identification of a domain conferring nucleotide binding to the N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 2-epimerase (Renin binding protein).
PubMed:Characterization of a unique human single-chain antibody isolated by phage-display selection on membrane-bound mosquito midgut antigens.
PubMed:Effects of nucleotides on N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 2-epimerases (renin-binding proteins): comparative biochemical studies.
PubMed:Chitin synthesis and inhibition: a revisit.
PubMed:Kinetics and products of the degradation of chitosan by hydrogen peroxide.
PubMed:Identification of functionally important cysteine residues of the human renin-binding protein as the enzyme N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase.
PubMed:Solid-State Production of Beneficial Fungi on Apple Processing Wastes Using Glucosamine as the Indicator of Growth.
PubMed:Argument against use of food additives for osteoarthritis of the hip.
PubMed:Evidence of nutriceutical effectiveness in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Renin inhibits N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (renin-binding protein).
PubMed:Crystal structure of N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase from porcine kidney at 2.0 A resolution.
PubMed:Recognition of chitooligosaccharides and their N-acetyl groups by putative subsites of chitin deacetylase from a deuteromycete, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.
PubMed:Functional changes in beta-lactoglobulin by conjugation with cationic saccharides.
PubMed:Nutrient modulation of cellular insulin action.
PubMed:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of chitooligosaccharides.
PubMed:Changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid content during beni-koji making.
PubMed:Use of an enzyme-linked lectinsorbent assay to monitor the shift in polysaccharide composition in bacterial biofilms.
PubMed:Chitinous materials inhibit nitric oxide production by activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.
PubMed:Relationship between the reduction of tetrazolium salt XTT and DNA strand breakage with aminosugars.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of aminophospholipid-linked Maillard compounds in model systems and egg yolk products.
PubMed:Use of specific sugars to inhibit bacterial adherence to equine endometrium in vitro.
PubMed:Determination of edible bird's nest and its products by gas chromatography.
PubMed:Reverse hydrolysis reaction of chitin deacetylase and enzymatic synthesis of beta-D-GlcNAc-(1-->4)-GlcN from chitobiose.
PubMed:Antimicrobial actions of degraded and native chitosan against spoilage organisms in laboratory media and foods.
PubMed:A modified chemical procedure for rapid determination of glucosamine and its application for estimation of mold growth in peanut kernels and koji.
PubMed:Properties of chitosanase from Bacillus cereus S1.
PubMed:Identification of cysteine-380 as the essential residue for the human N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (renin binding protein).
PubMed:Role of a proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF) in cachexia induced by a human melanoma (G361).
PubMed:Characterization of Candida krusei strains from spontaneously fermented maize dough by profiles of assimilation, chromosome profile, polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis.
PubMed:Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in the JCR:LA-corpulent rat: effect of miglitol (Bay m1099).
PubMed:Glucosamine content of tempe mould, Rhizopus oligosporus.
PubMed:Nutraceuticals as therapeutic agents in osteoarthritis. The role of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and collagen hydrolysate.
PubMed:Miglitol (BAY m 1099) treatment of diabetic hypothalamic-dietary obese rats improves islet response to glucose.
PubMed:Human renin-binding protein is the enzyme N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase.
PubMed:Serpulina alvinipulli sp. nov., a new Serpulina species that is enteropathogenic for chickens.
PubMed:Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical and biological properties of lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium.
PubMed:Chitin but not chitosan supplementation enhances growth of grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.
PubMed:Advantages of alpha-glucosidase inhibition as monotherapy in elderly type 2 diabetic patients.
PubMed:Troglitazone prevents hyperglycemia-induced but not glucosamine-induced insulin resistance.
PubMed:Effect of miglitol administration to non-insulin-dependent diabetic rats.
PubMed:Glucosamine for osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Chitosan functional properties.
PubMed:Effect of fungal biomass in moldy alfalfa hay on preference by dairy calves with no previous exposure to moldy feeds.
PubMed:Effect of fungal biomass in alfalfa hay on intake and total tract digestion in growing beef calves.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of a sialo-glycopeptide from buffalo colostrum.
PubMed:Immunochemical analysis and localisation of a cell wall antigen of Streptococcus rattus with a specific monoclonal antibody.
PubMed:Synthesis of 15 alpha-hydroxyestrogen 15-N-acetylglucosaminides.
PubMed:Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp.
PubMed:The cuticular localization of integument peptides from particular routing categories.
PubMed:Transglycosylation activity of Mucor hiemalis endo-beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase which transfers complex oligosaccharides to the N-acetylglucosamine moieties of peptides.
PubMed:Aminoglucose-induced feeding suppression is regulated by hypothalamic neuronal histamine in rats.
PubMed:The effects of the intestinal glucosidase inhibitory BAY M 1099 (miglitol) on glycemic status of obese-diabetic rats.
PubMed:[Changes in the duodenal glands with a modification of the diet (a histochemical study using lectins)].
PubMed:Regulation of extracellular N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase production in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.
PubMed:Partial purification and characterization of two extracellular N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidases produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.
PubMed:Changes in intestinal absorption of nutrients and brush border glycoproteins after total parenteral nutrition in rats.
PubMed:alpha-Glucosidase inhibition by miglitol in NIDDM patients.
PubMed:Feeding modulation by pentose and hexose analogues.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of an endotoxin-binding protein with protease inhibitory activity from Limulus amebocytes.
PubMed:Development of an improved chemically defined minimal medium for Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:The effects of low-dose Bay-m-1099 (Miglitol) on serum lipids and liver enzyme activity of obese and obese-diabetic corpulent rats.
PubMed:Demonstration and characterization of the cell wall carbohydrate and protein antigens from Clostridium botulinum type E Saroma.
PubMed:[Relation between the production of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and the mycelial growth of Fusarium graminearum on solid natural substrates].
PubMed:Carbohydrate Storage in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.
PubMed:Plasma glucosamine and galactosamine in ischemic heart disease.
PubMed:An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-V.
PubMed:Effect of vitamin A deficiency on the in vitro transfer of mannose and N-acetylglucosamine in rat liver nuclei.
PubMed:N-Acetyl-d-Glucosamine-Mediated Regulation of Extracellular Protease in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.
PubMed:Time and site of assembly of the peritrophic membrane of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.
PubMed:Inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase and postprandial hyperglycemia by N-substituted moranoline derivatives.
PubMed:Purification, crystallization, and characterization of peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus.
PubMed:Subunit structures of three human myeloperoxidases.
PubMed:The effect of two new alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on metabolic responses to a mixed meal in normal volunteers.
PubMed:Role of the glucopyranose ring in the elicitation of feeding.
PubMed:Chronic effects of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (Bay o 1248) on intestinal disaccharidase activity in normal and diabetic mice.
PubMed:Influence of an absorbable alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (Bay o 1248) on the endocrine and exocrine pancreas of the rat.
PubMed:Effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor Bay-O-1248 on the metabolic response of nondiabetic and diabetic rats to a high-carbohydrate diet.
PubMed:Inhibition of protein synthesis: a basis for tunicamycin-induced decrease in rat liver cytochrome P-450.
PubMed:Determination of methionine sulfoxide in protein and food by hydrolysis with p-toluenesulfonic acid.
PubMed:1-Deoxy-glucosamine initiates, then effectively suppresses feeding in the rat.
PubMed:Production of ochratoxin A in barley by Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium viridicatum: effect of fungal growth, time, temperature, and inoculum size.
PubMed:Nutritional and toxicological evaluation of 'black tip' rice.
PubMed:[Structure of the cell wall polysaccharide in the food protein yeast Candida spec. H. IV. Structure of the alkali labile oligosaccharide in the mannan-protein-phosphate complex].
PubMed:[Cell wall polysaccharide structure in the food protein yeast, Candida spec. H. I. Structure of alkali-stable mannoproteins].
PubMed:Influence of method of feeding on stress ulcer development in the rat.
PubMed:Sugar composition of O-antigenic lipopolysaccharides isolated from Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
PubMed:[Effects of 6-methyl-uracil upon the phagocytic activity in mice following whole-body X-irradiation OR 2,4,6-triethyleneimino-s-triazine treatment (author's transl)].
PubMed:Synthesis in vitro of glycoprotein in regenerating rat liver.
PubMed:Gastric mucinous secretion under various conditions of stimulation in hypothyroid dogs.
PubMed:Determination of molecular-weight distribution of chitosan by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Recovery and nutritional evaluation of proteinaceous solids separated from whey by coagulation with chitosan.
PubMed:Immobilized enzymes on chitosan columns: alpha-chymotrypsin and acid phosphatase.
PubMed:Mucinous secretion from canine Heidenhain pouch after stimulation with food, pentagastrin and histamine.
PubMed:[Carbohydrates synthesized by the spirulines].
PubMed:Formation of pyrazines from thermal treatment of some amino-hydroxy compounds.
PubMed:The influence of dietary manganese and stage of egg production on the hexosamine and hydroxyproline contents of parts of the oviduct.
PubMed:Analysis of Clostridium botulinum toxigenic types A, B, and E for fatty and carbohydrate content.
PubMed:Identification of a stimulant for Lactobacillus casei produced by Streptococcus lactis.
PubMed:Relationship between amino sugars and meat microbial quality.
PubMed:[Effect of tannin on the lipogenic effect of ethanol in rat liver].
Glucosamine is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Glucosamine is part of the structure of the polysaccharides chitosan and chitin, which compose the exoskeletons of crustaceans and other arthropods, cell walls in fungi and many higher organisms. In the US it is one of the most common non-vitamin, non-mineral, dietary supplements used by adults. (Wikipedia) Present in mucopolysaccharides and in polysaccharides found in bacteria, fungi, higher plants, invertebrates, vertebrates, antibiotics and UDP complexes. Obt. comly. by hydrol. of seashells [CCD]
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