EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes


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CAS Number: 514-78-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:208-187-2
Nikkaji Web:J6.290A
Beilstein Number:1898520
XlogP3-AA:11.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:564.85284000
Formula:C40 H52 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:coloring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
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EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
EU SANCO Canthaxanthin View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Canthaxanthin
GSFA Codex: Canthaxanthin (161g)
DG SANTE Food Additives:canthaxanthin
FDA Mainterm (SATF):514-78-3 ; CANTHAXANTHIN
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Drugs
Sec. 73.1075 Canthaxanthin.

Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.75 Canthaxanthin.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:deep violet crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 96.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 717.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 489.00 °F. TCC ( 253.89 °C. )
logP (o/w): 9.526 (est)
Storage:store under nitrogen.
air and light sensitive:store protected from air and light.
Soluble in:
 water, 2.476e-010 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 vegetable oils
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: cosmetic colorants
Allied Biotech
Canthatene 10% WSC
Flavor: characteristic
is a powder formulation for water based applications to impart a reddish colour shade.
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Cantharidin 95%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Oral suntanning agent
DSM Nutritional
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
For experimental / research use only.
Canthaxanthin (trans)
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50 10000 mg/kg
Scientia Pharmaceutica. Vol. 47, Pg. 39, 1979.

oral-man TDLo 86 mg/kg/15W-I
Medical Journal of Australia. Vol. 143, Pg. 622, 1985.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
coloring agents
Recommendation for canthaxanthin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for canthaxanthin flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of canthaxanthin (E 161 g) as a food additive
View page or View pdf

Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of canthaxanthin as a feed additive for poultry and for ornamental birds and ornamental fish
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):514-78-3
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :5281227
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:nwg
RTECS:FI0330000 for cas# 514-78-3
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:514-78-3
Pubchem (cid):5281227
Pubchem (sid):134978793
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C08583
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB03154
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
FDA Color Additive Status ListView
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 cosmetic colorants
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 cantharellus cinnabarinus
Search PMC Picture
Search PMC Picture
 shrimp brine shrimp
Search PMC Picture
 b,b-carotene-4,4'-dione (9CI)
 c.i. 40850
 C.I. food orange 8
 carophyll red
 carotene-4,4'-dione, b-
 ci 40850
 CI food orange 8
 roxanthin red 10


PubMed:Canthaxanthin biosynthesis by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1: effects of inoculation and aeration rate.
PubMed:Stabilization of canthaxanthin produced by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 with spray drying microencapsulation.
PubMed:Co-solvent selection for supercritical fluid extraction of astaxanthin and other carotenoids from Penaeus monodon waste.
PubMed:Inclusion of Palmaria palmata (red seaweed) in Atlantic salmon diets: effects on the quality, shelf-life parameters and sensory properties of fresh and cooked salmon fillets.
PubMed:Liposome as a delivery system for carotenoids: comparative antioxidant activity of carotenoids as measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power, DPPH assay and lipid peroxidation.
PubMed:Liposomes as delivery systems for carotenoids: comparative studies of loading ability, storage stability and in vitro release.
PubMed:Biotechnological production of carotenoids by yeasts: an overview.
PubMed:Electron transfer from plant phenolates to carotenoid radical cations. Antioxidant interaction entering the Marcus theory inverted region.
PubMed:Feeding strategies for the improved biosynthesis of canthaxanthin from enzymatic hydrolyzed molasses in the fed-batch fermentation of Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.
PubMed:Characterizing the natural canthaxanthin/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.
PubMed:Canthaxanthin retinopathy with visual loss: a case report and review.
PubMed:Carotenoid and fatty acid compositions of an indigenous Ettlia texensis isolate (Chlorophyceae) under phototrophic and mixotrophic conditions.
PubMed:Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin (xanthophyll) as supplements in rainbow trout diet: in vivo assessment of residual levels and contributions to human health.
PubMed:Determination of egg yolk xanthophylls by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Ultrasound-assisted formation of the canthaxanthin emulsions stabilized by arabic and xanthan gums.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities.
PubMed:Pigment production by a new thermotolerant microalga Coelastrella sp. F50.
PubMed:Psyllium husk gum: an attractive carbohydrate biopolymer for the production of stable canthaxanthin emulsions.
PubMed:Canthaxanthin production with modified Mucor circinelloides strains.
PubMed:Effect of domestic cooking methods on egg yolk xanthophylls.
PubMed:Determination of supplemental feeding needs for astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in salmonids by supramolecular solvent-based microextraction and liquid chromatography-UV/VIS spectroscopy.
PubMed:Developing an emulsion model system containing canthaxanthin biosynthesized by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.
PubMed:Analysis of canthaxanthin production by Gordonia jacobaea.
PubMed:Isolation, characterization, and diversity of novel radiotolerant carotenoid-producing bacteria.
PubMed:Determination of carotenoids in Taraxacum formosanum by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS and preparation by column chromatography.
PubMed:[Determination of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in egg yolks by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection].
PubMed:Extraction and analysis of carotenoids from the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus gonads.
PubMed:Exceptional molecular organization of canthaxanthin in lipid membranes.
PubMed:Synthesis of highly 13C enriched carotenoids: access to carotenoids enriched with 13C at any position and combination of positions.
PubMed:A short-term toxicity study of Aspergillus carbonarius carotenoid.
PubMed:Antioxidant and lipid peroxidation activities in rats fed with Aspergillus carbonarius carotenoid.
PubMed:[Effectiveness analysis established in Russia and hygienic standards for the use of food dyes].
PubMed:Carotenogenesis up-regulation in Scenedesmus sp. using a targeted metabolomics approach by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Impact of dietary carotenoid and packaging during frozen storage on the quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed carotenoids.
PubMed:Comparison of tetrahydrofuran, fetal calf serum, and Tween 40 for the delivery of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin to HepG2 cells.
PubMed:Purified canola lutein selectively inhibits specific isoforms of mammalian DNA polymerases and reduces inflammatory response.
PubMed:Relationships between dietary carotenoids, body tissue carotenoids, parasite burden, and health state in wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings.
PubMed:Extraction, purification and concentration of partially saturated canthaxanthin from Aspergillus carbonarius.
PubMed:Use of response surface methodology in a fed-batch process for optimization of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates to achieve high levels of canthaxanthin from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives.
PubMed:Influence of pasteurization, spray- and freeze-drying, and storage on the carotenoid content in egg yolk.
PubMed:Determination of para red, Sudan dyes, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin in animal feeds using UPLC.
PubMed:Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for astaxanthin production and oxidative stress tolerance.
PubMed:Contents of vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in the subtropical plant species Cyphostemma digitatum as affected by processing.
PubMed:Does feed composition affect oxidation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during frozen storage?
PubMed:Impact of different dietary phospholipid levels on cholesterol and canthaxanthin lipoprotein-serum transport and muscle deposition in rainbow trout.
PubMed:Interactions between canthaxanthin and lipid membranes--possible mechanisms of canthaxanthin toxicity.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis in higher plants.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in feedstuffs using solid phase extraction-reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Partially saturated canthaxanthin purified from Aspergillus carbonarius induces apoptosis in prostrate cancer cell line.
PubMed:Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope ratios of carotenoids and beta-carotene-based dietary supplements.
PubMed:Effect of culture conditions on canthaxanthin production by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.
PubMed:The protective role of carotenoids against 7-keto-cholesterol formation in solution.
PubMed:Effect of soybean phospholipids on canthaxanthin lipoproteins transport, digestibility, and deposition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of novel ketocarotenoid production in carrot plants.
PubMed:Optimization of canthaxanthin production by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 using response surface methodology.
PubMed:Critical assessment of various techniques for the extraction of carotenoids and co-enzyme Q10 from the Thraustochytrid strain ONC-T18.
PubMed:Astaxanthin binding protein in Atlantic salmon.
PubMed:Xanthophylls in commercial egg yolks: quantification and identification by HPLC and LC-(APCI)MS using a C30 phase.
PubMed:Lipids of Haloferax alexandrinus strain TM(T): an extremely halophilic canthaxanthin-producing archaeon.
PubMed:Microbial xanthophylls.
PubMed:Influence of culture conditions of Gordonia jacobaea MV-26 on canthaxanthin production.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of five carotenoids in tomato by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.
PubMed:Use of Tween 40 and Tween 80 to deliver a mixture of phytochemicals to human colonic adenocarcinoma cell (CaCo-2) monolayers.
PubMed:Rapid quantification of carotenoids and fat in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.
PubMed:Suppressive effect of carotenoids on the luminol dependent chemiluminescence of the stimulated rat macrophages.
PubMed:Serum carotenoids and mortality from lung cancer: a case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study.
PubMed:Induction of liver monooxygenases by annatto and bixin in female rats.
PubMed:Haloferax alexandrinus sp. nov., an extremely halophilic canthaxanthin-producing archaeon from a solar saltern in Alexandria (Egypt).
PubMed:Production of canthaxanthin by Haloferax alexandrinus under non-aseptic conditions and a simple, rapid method for its extraction.
PubMed:Scavenging of benzylperoxyl radicals by carotenoids.
PubMed:Rapid electrochemical method for the evaluation of the antioxidant power of some lipophilic food extracts.
PubMed:Analysis of canthaxanthin and related pigments from Gordonia jacobaea mutants.
PubMed:Lipid oxidation in fresh and spray-dried eggs enriched with omega3 and omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage as affected by dietary vitamin E and canthaxanthin supplementation.
PubMed:Serum Carotenoid Concentration Changes during Sexual Maturation in Farmed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
PubMed:Flesh Lipid and Carotenoid Composition of Scottish Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).
PubMed:Kinetics and mechanism of the primary steps of degradation of carotenoids by acid in homogeneous solution.
PubMed:Effect of dried tomato pulp on the performance and egg traits of laying hens.
PubMed:Nickel peroxide induced oxidation of canthaxanthin.
PubMed:Some dietary fibers reduce the absorption of carotenoids in women.
PubMed:Hydrolysis kinetics of astaxanthin esters and stability of astaxanthin of Haematococcus pluvialis during saponification.
PubMed:Isolation and identification of a major urinary canthaxanthin metabolite in rats.
PubMed:Safety assessment and potential health benefits of food components based on selected scientific criteria. ILSI North America Technical Committee on Food Components for Health Promotion.
PubMed:Carotenoid interactions.
PubMed:Silver-plated vitamins: a method of detecting tocopherols and carotenoids in LC/ESI-MS coupling.
PubMed:Effect of carotenoids on the respiratory burst of rat peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants.
PubMed:Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals. A real time kinetic study of antioxidant hierarchy.
PubMed:Interactions in the postprandial appearance of beta-carotene and canthaxanthin in plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in humans.
PubMed:Vitamin A and carotenoids stimulate differentiation of mouse osteoblastic cells.
PubMed:Occurrence of birefringent retinal inclusions in cynomolgus monkeys after high doses of canthaxanthin.
PubMed:Possible immunomodulating activities of carotenoids in in vitro cell culture experiments.
PubMed:Canthaxanthine retinopathy.
PubMed:Suppressive effects of retinoids, carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins on heterocyclic amine-induced umu C gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002).
PubMed:Supplementing ferrets with canthaxanthin affects the tissue distributions of canthaxanthin, other carotenoids, vitamin A and vitamin E.
PubMed:Comparative absorption and transport of five common carotenoids in preruminant calves.
PubMed:Neonatal immune response and growth performance of chicks hatched from single comb White Leghorn breeders fed diets supplemented with beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, or lutein.
PubMed:Detection of bixin, lycopene, canthaxanthin, and beta-apo-8'-carotenal in products derived from red pepper.
PubMed:Vitamin E, selenium, trolox C, ascorbic acid palmitate, acetylcysteine, coenzyme Q, beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, and (+)-catechin protect against oxidative damage to kidney, heart, lung and spleen.
PubMed:Vitamin A status and metabolism of cutaneous polyamines in the hairless mouse after UV irradiation: action of beta-carotene and astaxanthin.
PubMed:Effects of beta-carotene and canthaxanthin on liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the rat.
PubMed:Protection by vitamin E selenium, trolox C, ascorbic acid palmitate, acetylcysteine, coenzyme Q, beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, and (+)-catechin against oxidative damage to liver slices measured by oxidized heme proteins.
PubMed:Transport of newly-absorbed beta-carotene by the preruminant calf.
PubMed:Idiopathic canthaxanthine retinopathy.
PubMed:Interactions of oral beta-carotene and canthaxanthin in ferrets.
PubMed:Clinical review of canthaxanthin ('tanning pills').
PubMed:Carotenoid scavenging of radicals. Effect of carotenoid structure and oxygen partial pressure on antioxidative activity.
PubMed:Dietary carotenoids influenced biochemical but not morphological changes in adult male rats fed a choline-deficient diet.
PubMed:Anticarcinogenic effect of common carotenoids.
PubMed:Dietary supplementation with xanthophyll as an effective way of identifying low-producing broiler breeder hens.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of xanthophylls on peroxyl radical-mediated phospholipid peroxidation.
PubMed:The role of multigeneration studies in safety assessment of residues of veterinary drugs and additives.
PubMed:Canthaxanthin and excess vitamin A alter alpha-tocopherol, carotenoid and iron status in adult rats.
PubMed:Effects of the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and foods on serum concentrations of carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in healthy inhabitants living in a rural area of Hokkaido.
PubMed:Photobleaching of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Quantum-yields dependence of solvent, temperature, and wavelength of irradiation in relation to packaging and storage of carotenoid pigmented salmonoids.
PubMed:Effects of palm carotenoids in rat hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated benzo(a)pyrene metabolism.
PubMed:Safety evaluation of substances consumed as technical ingredients (food additives).
PubMed:Reversibility of canthaxanthin deposits within the retina.
PubMed:Aplastic anemia associated with canthaxanthin ingested for 'tanning' purposes.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of beta-carotene-related carotenoids in solution.
PubMed:[Canthaxanthin retinopathy without intake of canthaxanthin].
PubMed:Availability of canthaxanthin in the United States.
PubMed:Carotenoids as food colorants.
PubMed:[Influence of some nutritional factors on the canthaxanthine pigmentation of the rainbow trout].
PubMed:Determination of canthaxanthin in concentrates and feeds.
a trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. the compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy. Food colouring. Constit. of the edible mushroom (Cantharellus cinnabarinus), sea trout, salmon and brine shrimp. Used in broiler chicken feed to enhance the yellow colour of chicken skin Canthaxanthin (pronounced /?kn???zn??n/ ( listen)) is a carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. Carotenoids belong to a larger class of phytochemicals known as terpenoids. The chemical formula of canthaxanthin is C40H52O2. It has E number E161g.; Canthaxanthin is a food additive used for farmed salmon raised in environments where astaxanthin sources are not available. Canthaxanthin gives salmon a pink color similar to pink/red species of wild salmon, while at the same time acting as an antibiotic. It has E number E161g. -- Wikipedia; Canthaxanthin is not found in wild Atlantic Salmon, but is a minor carotenoid in Pacific Salmon. Canthaxanthin is used in farm-raised trout. Canthaxanthin is used in combination with astaxanthin for some salmon feeds.; The analysis of canthaxanthin content in salmon is a scientifically-accepted method to determine the origin of salmons. -- Wikipedia; Xanthophyll; A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy. -- Pubchem
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