adenosine triphosphate
an adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. in addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide consisting of a purine base (adenine) attached to the first carbon atom of ribose (a pentose sugar). Three phosphate groups are esterified at the fifth carbon atom of the ribose. ATP is incorporated into nucleic acids by polymerases in the processes of DNA replication and transcription. ATP contributes to cellular energy charge and participates in overall energy balance, maintaining cellular homeostasis. ATP can act as an extracellular signaling molecule via interactions with specific purinergic receptors to mediate a wide variety of processes as diverse as neurotransmission, inflammation, apoptosis, and bone remodelling. Extracellular ATP and its metabolite adenosine have also been shown to exert a variety of effects on nearly every cell type in human skin, and ATP seems to play a direct role in triggering skin inflammatory, regenerative, and fibrotic responses to mechanical injury, an indirect role in melanocyte proliferation and apoptosis, and a complex role in Langerhans cell-directed adaptive immunity. During exercise, intracellular homeostasis depends on the matching of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supply and ATP demand. Metabolites play a useful role in communicating the extent of ATP demand to the metabolic supply pathways Effects as different as proliferation or differentiation, chemotaxis, release of cytokines or lysosomal constituents, and generation of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are elicited upon stimulation of blood cells with extracellular ATP. The increased concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in erythrocytes from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) has been observed in many studies but the mechanism leading to these abnormalities still is controversial. (PMID: 15490415, 15129319, 14707763, 14696970, 11157473) [HMDB]
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[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl] phosphono hydrogen phosphate (Click)
CAS Number: 56-65-5Picture of molecule
Other: 10168-83-9
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 200-283-2
Nikkaji Web: J10.680A
Beilstein Number: 073010
XlogP3: -5.70 (est)
Molecular Weight: 507.18340600
Formula: C10 H16 N5 O13 P3
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 951.40 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 985.00 °F. TCC ( 529.20 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -4.180 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1.00E+06 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
 water, 3.845e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin conditioning
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 None found
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Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  2780 mg/kg
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal Vol. 20, Pg. 160, 1986.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning
Recommendation for adenosine triphosphate usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for adenosine triphosphate flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
EPI System: View search
Daily Med: search
AIDS Citations: Search
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EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 56-65-5
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 5957
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 [[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl] phosphono hydrogen phosphate
Chemidplus: 0000056655
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 [[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl] phosphono hydrogen phosphate
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 56-65-5
Pubchem (cid): 5957
Pubchem (sid): 134972915
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00002
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00538
FooDB: FDB021813
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00109
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food: Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food: Read Report
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
 biological additives 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 found in nature
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 adenine triphosphate
 adenosin 5'-triphosphate
 adenosine 5-prime-triphosphate
 adenosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate)
 adenosine 5'-triphosphate
 adenosine 5prime-triphosphate
 adenosine tetrahydrogen triphosphate
 adenosine, 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate)
 adetphos kowa
[[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-oxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl]oxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl]oxyphosphonic acid
[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl] phosphono hydrogen phosphate
9-b-D-arabinofuranosyladenine 5'-triphosphate
 deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate
 deoxyadenosine triphosphate
9H-purin-6-amine, 9-[5-O-[hydroxy[[hydroxy(phosphonooxy)phosphinyl]oxy]phosphinyl]-b-D-ribofuranosyl]-
5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
 triadesin A
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