permethrin
cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-, 3-phenoxybenzyl ester, (+-)-, (cis,trans)-
 
Notes:
a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of lice infestations and scabies.
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(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate (Click)
CAS Number: 52645-53-1Picture of molecule
Other: 57608-04-5
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 258-067-9
FDA UNII: 509F88P9SZ
Nikkaji Web: J10.127C
Beilstein Number: 4153590
MDL: MFCD00041809
XlogP3: 6.50 (est)
Molecular Weight: 391.29200000
Formula: C21 H20 Cl2 O3
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: antimicrobial agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: pale brown liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 34.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 465.90 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure: 5.180000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 319.00 °F. TCC ( 159.40 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 6.500
Soluble in:
 water, 0.006 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
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Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antimicrobial agents
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Suppliers:
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Permethrin (Mixture of cis and trans Isomers) ≥97%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insectide, affecting neuron membranes by prolonging sodium channel activation. Synthetic pyrethroid insectide, more stable to light and at least as active as the natural pyrethrins
Sigma-Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
perMethrin PESTANAL®, analytical standard
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-chicken LD50  7000 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: IRRITABILITY BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS
JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 7, Pg. 367, 1987.

oral-duck LD50  11300 mg/kg
Defense des Vegetaux. Vol. 32, Pg. 168, 1978.

oral-guinea pig LD50  4000 mg/kg
"Agrochemicals Handbook," with updates, Hartley, D., and H. Kidd, eds., Nottingham, Royal Soc of Chemistry, 1983-86Vol. A316, Pg. 1984

unreported-man LD50  > 4000 mg/kg
Defense des Vegetaux. Vol. 32, Pg. 168, 1978.

oral-man TDLo  2270 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA" BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 36, Pg. 57, 1998.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  429 mg/kg
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol. 18, Pg. 27, 1989.

intravenous-mouse LD50  31 mg/kg
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 66, Pg. 153, 1982.

oral-mouse LD50  424 mg/kg
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol. 18, Pg. 27, 1989.

unreported-mouse LD50  680 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: COMA BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 53(9), Pg. 69, 1988.

oral-quail LD50  13500 mg/kg
Defense des Vegetaux. Vol. 32, Pg. 168, 1978.

oral-rabbit LD50  4000 mg/kg
"Agrochemicals Handbook," with updates, Hartley, D., and H. Kidd, eds., Nottingham, Royal Soc of Chemistry, 1983-86Vol. A316, Pg. 1984

intravenous-rat LD  > 270 mg/kg
Nature. Vol. 246, Pg. 169, 1973.

oral-rat LD50  383 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A047-284

unreported-rat LD50  537 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 53(9), Pg. 69, 1988.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-mouse LD50 > 10000 mg/kg
Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. Vol. 30, Pg. 1635, 1979.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 10000 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
Bochu Kagaku. Scientific Pest Control. Vol. 41, Pg. 143, 1976.

skin-rabbit LD50 > 2000 mg/kg
Farm Chemicals Handbook. Vol. -, Pg. C233, 1991.

skin-rat LD50 1750 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 53(9), Pg. 69, 1988.

subcutaneous-rat LD50 6600 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
Bochu Kagaku. Scientific Pest Control. Vol. 41, Pg. 143, 1976.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-mouse LC50 685 mg/m3
Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. Vol. 30, Pg. 1635, 1979.

inhalation-rat LC50 485 mg/m3
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 55(12), Pg. 21, 1990.

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Safety in Use Information:
Category: antimicrobial agents
Recommendation for permethrin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for permethrin flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Setting of maximum residue levels for amitraz, coumaphos, flumequine, oxytetracycline, permethrin and streptomycin in certain products of animal origin
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
EPA-Iris: IRIS
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 40326
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
 (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate
Chemidplus: 0052645531
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 52645-53-1
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References:
 (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid): 40326
Pubchem (sid): 135001943
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C14388
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB15604
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
MedlinePlusSupp: View
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Formulations/Preparations:
•dust, emulsifiable concentrate, smokes, ulv ultra low volume, wettable powder. •premix partners: carboxin; dichlofluanid; piperonyl butoxide; tebuconazole; tetramethrin. •technical material is a mixture of ∼60% trans- and 40% cis-isomers. •permethrin is typically a mixture of (+) cis and (+) trans esters in either a 40:60 or 25:75 ratio. •fumigant; aerosol; water-dispersible granules. •the cistrans ratio varies depending on conditions of manufacture and can also vary with time due to differential rates of hydrolysis and photolysis. a common ratio is 40:60 for agricultural use, with veterinary preparations having lower ratios. •mixtures (permethrin +) dimethoate; pyrethrins; malathion; tetramethrin; heptenophos; bioallethrin + piperonyl butoxide; primiphos-methyl; chloropyrifos-methyl+pyrethrins; bioallethrins s-cyclopentenyl isomer; bioallethrin s-cyclopentenyl isomer + piperonyl butoxide. •bonide potato beetle beater (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 13.3%. •bonide insect spray (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 13.3%. •bonide rtu permethrin spray (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 0.5%. •bonide wasp & hornet spray (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: piperonyl butoxide 0.5%, tetramethrin 0.1%, permethrin 0.25%. •bonide permakil 25 (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 0.25%. •eight insect control ready to use (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 0.02%. •bonide eight insect control concentrate (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 2.5%. •bonide eight insect control dust (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 0.125%. •bonide lawn degrubber (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 0.25%. •bonide total release indoor fogger (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: piperonyl butoxide 0.5%, tetramethrin 0.1%, permethrin 0.25%. •bonide yard & patio fogger (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: piperonyl butoxide 0.75%, tetramethrin 0.15%, permethrin 0.15%. •bonide eight insect control plus (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 0.25%. •bonide mosquito insect spray (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: piperonyl butoxide 0.5%, tetramethrin 0.1%, permethrin 0.25%. •bonide wasp, hornet & yellow jacket killer (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: tetramethrin 0.2%, permethrin 0.2%. •bonide fcs 26 (bonide products, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 0.25%, pyriproxyfen 0.01%. •farnam purge plus insecticide (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 45%, pyriproxyfen 5%. •farnam purge pesticide (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 45%. •repel-x rtu (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: piperonyl butoxide 0.5%, pyrethrins 0.05%, permethrin 0.1%. •equicare flysect super-7 repellent spray (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: stabilene 5%, mgk 326 1%, mgk 264 2%, piperonyl butoxide 0.5%, pyrethrins 0.2%, permethrin 0.2%. •equicare flysect super c repellent concentrate (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: mgk 326 2.5%, mgk 264 3.1%, piperonyl butoxide 1.85%, pyrethrins 0.5%, permethrin 1%. •horse lice duster (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: permethrin 0.25%. •farnam x-5306-98 (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: mgk 326 2.5%, mgk 264 3.1%, piperonyl butoxide 1.85%, permethrin 1%, prallethrin 0.33%. •farnam x-5303-98 (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: stabilene 5%, mgk 326 1%, mgk 264 2%, piperonyl butoxide 0.5%, permethrin 0.2%, prallethrin 0.13%. •farnam x-5294-98 (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: piperonyl butoxide 0.5%, permethrin 0.1%, prallethrin 0.033%. •adams equine residual fly mistwipe (farnam companies, inc.): active ingredient: stabilene 5%, mgk 326 1%, mgk 264 2%, piperonyl butoxide 0.5%, permethrin 0.2%, prallethrin 0.2%. •fmc pounce technical insecticide (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 95.4%. •pounce 3.2 ec insecticide (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 38.4%. •pounce 25 wp insecticide (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 25%. •pounce 1.5g insecticide (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 1.5%. •dragnet ft termiticideinsecticide (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 36.8%. •pounce wsb insecticide (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 24.7%. •astro insecticide (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 36.8%. •pounce mup manufacturing use product (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 25%. •pounce 3.2 ec lt insecticide (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 38.4%. •permethrin mup insecticide (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 38.4%. •wasp, hornet and yellow jacket killer (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: piperonyl butoxide 0.5%, tetramethrin 0.1%, permethrin 0.25%. •cb pyrethrinpermethrin spray (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: mgk 264 0.25%, pyrethrins 0.05%, permethrin 0.2%, pyriproxyfen 0.02%. •gat permethrin 25 cs (fmc corp. agricultural products group): active ingredient: permethrin 23.6%. permethrin preparations route of administration dosage form strength brand or generic name (manufacturer) topical cream 5% ww acticin (mylan) topical cream 5% ww elimite (allergan) topical cream 5% ww permethrin cream (available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, andor repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name.) topical lotion 1% nix cream rinse (insight) topical lotion 1% permethrin lotion (available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, andor repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name.)
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
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Synonyms:
 acticin
 ambushfog
 anomethrin N
 antiborer 3768
 bematin 987
 chinetrin
 coopex
 corsair
 cosair
 cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-, (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester
 cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-, 3-phenoxybenzyl ester, (+-)-, (cis,trans)-
3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropane carboxylic acid (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl ester
3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid, (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl ester
3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester
 diffusil H
 dragnet FT
 ecsumin
 ectiban
 efmethrin
 eksmin
 elimite
 expar
 exsmin
 imperator
 indothrin
 insorbcid MP
 kafil
 kaleait
 kavil
 kestrel (pesticide)
 lyclear
 mitin BC
 outflank-stockade
 perigen
 perigen W
 permanone 80
 permasect
 permethrin
 permethrinum
m-phenoxybenzyl (+-)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
m-phenoxybenzyl (+1)-cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS,3RS;1RS,3SR)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
3-phenoxybenzyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate
(+-)-3-phenoxybenzyl 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
m-phenoxybenzyl 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
3-phenoxybenzyl(+-)-cis, trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate
3-(phenoxyphenyl)methyl (+-)-cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl (+-)cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dichlorethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate
 picket G
 pounce
 pramex
 pynosect
 quamlin
 ridect pour-on
 stomoxin
 stomoxin P
 stomozan
 talcord
 WL 43479
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Articles:
PubMed: Scabies.
PubMed: A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic control measures for naturally occurring canine leishmaniosis. Part II: topically applied insecticide treatments and prophylactic medications.
PubMed: Permethrin alters adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and causes insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.
PubMed: HPLC-MS/MS method for the measurement of insecticide degradates in baby food.
PubMed: Exposures of 129 preschool children to organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and acid herbicides at their homes and daycares in North Carolina.
PubMed: Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuEChERS method: a case study from the Jimma Zone.
PubMed: Survival and growth of foodborne pathogens in pesticide solutions routinely used in leafy green vegetables and tomato production.
PubMed: Fenpropathrin biodegradation pathway in Bacillus sp. DG-02 and its potential for bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils.
PubMed: Development of soybean certified reference material for pesticide residue analysis.
PubMed: Community air monitoring for pesticides-part 2: multiresidue determination of pesticides in air by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Impact of land-use on malaria transmission in the Plateau region, southeastern Benin.
PubMed: Topical ivermectin 0.5% lotion for treatment of head lice.
PubMed: Molecular target sequence similarity as a basis for species extrapolation to assess the ecological risk of chemicals with known modes of action.
PubMed: Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples.
PubMed: Dietary predictors of young children's exposure to current-use pesticides using urinary biomonitoring.
PubMed: Effect of leaf type and pesticide exposure on abundance of bacterial taxa in mosquito larval habitats.
PubMed: Aqueous pesticide mitigation efficiency of Typha latifolia (L.), Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw., and Sparganium americanum Nutt.
PubMed: Laboratory degradation rates of 11 pyrethroids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
PubMed: Skin conditions: emerging drug-resistant skin infections and infestations.
PubMed: Novel adult feeding disruption test (FDT) to detect insecticide resistance of lepidopteran pests in cotton.
PubMed: Permethrin resistance in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated fitness costs.
PubMed: Reduction of pesticide residues in tomatoes and other produce.
PubMed: Probing the binding of insecticide permethrin to calf thymus DNA by spectroscopic techniques merging with chemometrics method.
PubMed: Development of apple certified reference material for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.
PubMed: Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: a risk assessment.
PubMed: Children's exposures to pyrethroid insecticides at home: a review of data collected in published exposure measurement studies conducted in the United States.
PubMed: Consumption of pesticide-treated wheat seed by a rural population in Malawi.
PubMed: Advantages of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: pyrethroid insecticides as a case study.
PubMed: Evaluation of pressurized liquid extraction for determination of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in soybean.
PubMed: Pesticide application and detection in variable agricultural intensity watersheds and their river systems in the maritime region of Canada.
PubMed: A pharmacokinetic model of cis- and trans-permethrin disposition in rats and humans with aggregate exposure application.
PubMed: Evaluation of microwave-assisted extraction for the analysis of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in green onions.
PubMed: Quantifying children's aggregate (dietary and residential) exposure and dose to permethrin: application and evaluation of EPA's probabilistic SHEDS-Multimedia model.
PubMed: Development of a multianalyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for permethrin and aroclors and its implementation for analysis of soil/sediment and house dust extracts.
PubMed: Determination of six pyrethroid insecticides in fruit juice samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Community duplicate diet methodology: a new tool for estimating dietary exposures to pesticides.
PubMed: Occurrence and toxicity of three classes of insecticides in water and sediment in two Southern California coastal watersheds.
PubMed: Development of green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.
PubMed: Additivity of pyrethroid actions on sodium influx in cerebrocortical neurons in primary culture.
PubMed: Determination of multi-residue insecticides of organochlorine, organophosphorus, and pyrethroids in wheat.
PubMed: Head lice.
PubMed: Degradation of cyhalofop-butyl (CyB) by Pseudomonas azotoformans strain QDZ-1 and cloning of a novel gene encoding CyB-hydrolyzing esterase.
PubMed: Pesticides on household surfaces may influence dietary intake of children.
PubMed: In vitro metabolism of trans-permethrin and its major metabolites, PBalc and PBacid, in humans.
PubMed: Cumulative risk assessment of chemical exposures in urban environments.
PubMed: Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based a monoclonal antibody for the detection of pyrethroids with phenoxybenzene multiresidue in river water.
PubMed: Cytotoxic effects of permethrin in oocytes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) fully engorged females: I. Direct or indirect action of the acaricide in germ cells?
PubMed: Laboratory evaluation of verbutin as a synergist of acaricides against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).
PubMed: A simple HPLC method for determination of permethrin residues in wine.
PubMed: Deltamethrin: the cream of the crop.
PubMed: Survey of pesticide residues in maize, cowpea and millet from northern Cameroon: part I.
PubMed: High levels of miticides and agrochemicals in North American apiaries: implications for honey bee health.
PubMed: Contact toxicity of insecticides for attract-and-kill applications against adult Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).
PubMed: Development, validation and application of a methodology based on solid-phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) for the determination of pesticide residues in mangoes.
PubMed: Isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for determination of pyrethroids in apple juice.
PubMed: Permethrin-induced morphological changes in oocytes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) semi-engorged females.
PubMed: Influences on transfer of selected synthetic pyrethroids from treated Formica to foods.
PubMed: Pyrethroid and organophosphorus pesticides in composite diet samples from Atlanta, USA adults.
PubMed: Acute toxicity to zebrafish of two organophosphates and four pyrethroids and their binary mixtures.
PubMed: Comparing water, bovine milk, and indoor residual spraying as possible sources of DDT and pyrethroid residues in breast milk.
PubMed: Head lice.
PubMed: Analysis of permethrin isomers in composite diet samples by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and isotope dilution gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Origanum majorana essential oil constituents against insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid/malathion-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).
PubMed: Effects of black carbon on pyrethroid availability in sediment.
PubMed: Genetics and mechanisms of permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).
PubMed: Biological monitoring of exposure to pyrethrins and pyrethroids in a metropolitan population of the Province of Quebec, Canada.
PubMed: Extraction and analysis methods for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in surface water, sediments and biological tissues at environmentally relevant concentrations.
PubMed: Examining the single and interactive effects of three insecticides on amphibian metamorphosis.
PubMed: Scabies.
PubMed: Multimedia measurements and activity patterns in an observational pilot study of nine young children.
PubMed: Toxicity and efficacy of selected pesticides and new acaricides to stored product mites (Acari: Acaridida).
PubMed: Abiotic enantiomerization of permethrin and cypermethrin: effects of organic solvents.
PubMed: Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies.
PubMed: Identification and quantitation of pyrethroid pesticide residues in vegetables by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Enantiomeric differences in permethrin degradation pathways in soil and sediment.
PubMed: Determination of eight synthetic pyrethroids in bovine fat by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.
PubMed: Enantioselective degradation and chiral stability of pyrethroids in soil and sediment.
PubMed: Removal of carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin by Lupinus angustifolius under hydroponic conditions.
PubMed: Pesticides and their metabolites in the homes and urine of farmworker children living in the Salinas Valley, CA.
PubMed: Effects of dissolved organic matter on permethrin bioavailability to Daphnia species.
PubMed: Response of Argentine ants and red imported fire ants to permethrin-impregnated plastic strips: foraging rates, colonization of potted soil, and differential mortality.
PubMed: GerES IV pilot study: assessment of the exposure of German children to organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.
PubMed: Molecular cloning, purification, and biochemical characterization of a novel pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterase from Klebsiella sp. strain ZD112.
PubMed: Vapor phase toxicity of marjoram oil compounds and their related monoterpenoids to Blattella germanica (Orthoptera: Blattellidae).
PubMed: Purification and characterization of a novel pyrethroid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger ZD11.
PubMed: Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro.
PubMed: Chiral stability of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides.
PubMed: Potential estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects of permethrin in rats.
PubMed: Determination of pyrethroid residues in agricultural products by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
PubMed: [Inhibitory effect of zinc on beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells by synthetic chemicals].
PubMed: Hapten and antibody production for a sensitive immunoassay determining a human urinary metabolite of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin.
PubMed: Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (K(d)) for diazinon, propetamphos and cis-permethrin: implications for sheep dip disposal.
PubMed: Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of permethrin residues from cucumber using a silica-bonded phase-coated stainless steel fibre.
PubMed: Attractancy and toxicity of an attracticide for Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).
PubMed: Relationship of treatment-resistant head lice to the safety and efficacy of pediculicides.
PubMed: Assessing estrogenic activity of pyrethroid insecticides using in vitro combination assays.
PubMed: Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the pyrethroid cypermethrin.
PubMed: Determination of pyrethrin and pyrethroid pesticides in urine and water matrixes by liquid chromatography with diode array detection.
PubMed: Determination of enantiomers of synthetic pyrethroids in water by solid phase microextraction - enantioselective gas chromatography.
PubMed: Transfer efficiencies of pesticides from household flooring surfaces to foods.
PubMed: [Utilization of school lunch dietary data to estimate theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) of selected pesticide residues].
PubMed: Review of common therapeutic options in the United States for the treatment of pediculosis capitis.
PubMed: Application of solid-phase microextraction for the determination of pyrethroid residues in vegetable samples by GC-MS.
PubMed: Determination of pyrethroid pesticide residues in processed fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with electron capture and mass spectrometric detection.
PubMed: Recovery of synthetic pyrethroids in water samples during storage and extraction.
PubMed: Single-dose topical exposure to the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin in C57BL/6N mice: effects on thymus and spleen.
PubMed: Comparison of five extraction methods for determination of incurred and added pesticides in dietary composites.
PubMed: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the pyrethroid deltamethrin.
PubMed: Multiresidue method for the analysis of multiclass pesticides in agricultural products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: System-level responses of lake ecosystems to chemical stresses using exergy and structural exergy as ecological indicators.
PubMed: Effect of insecticides used in corn, sorghum, and alfalfa on the predator Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).
PubMed: Determination of residues of pyrethroid and organophosphorous ectoparasiticides in foods of animal origin.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food.
PubMed: Characterization of acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from the Corozal Army Veterinary Quarantine Center, Panama.
PubMed: Topical permethrin exposure inhibits antibody production and macrophage function in C57Bl/6N mice.
PubMed: Reduction of pesticide residues on produce by rinsing.
PubMed: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the pyrethroid permethrin.
PubMed: The effects of pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin, alone or in combination, on response acquisition in male and female rats.
PubMed: A consideration of age-dependent differences in susceptibility to organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides.
PubMed: Binding capacity of various fibre to pesticide residues under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.
PubMed: Rapid preconcentration method for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in vegetable oils and butter fat and simultaneous determination by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Multiresidue gas chromatographic method for determining synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in agricultural products: collaborative study.
PubMed: Modulation of K+ transport across synaptosomes of rat brain by synthetic pyrethroids.
PubMed: Biological activity of permethrin, phenothrin/allerthrin and D-phenothrin on Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica cockroaches.
PubMed: Capillary gas chromatographic determination of permethrin insecticide by transesterification.
PubMed: The role of the family physician in the day care setting.
PubMed: Determination of total free and glucose-conjugated 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol residues in foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.
PubMed: A self-medicating applicator for control of ticks on deer.
PubMed: Modification of AOAC multiresidue method for determination of synthetic pyrethroid residues in fruits, vegetables, and grains. Part I: Acetonitrile extraction system and optimization of florisil cleanup and gas chromatography.
PubMed: Multiresidue liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of pyrethroid insecticides in fruits and vegetables.
PubMed: Modulation in acetylcholinesterase of rat brain by pyrethroids in vivo and an in vitro kinetic study.
PubMed: Cleanup with two Florisil columns for gas chromatographic determination of multiple pyrethroid insecticides in products of animal origin.
PubMed: Inhibition of monoamine oxidase-A of rat brain by pyrethroids--an in vitro kinetic study.
PubMed: Monitoring air, soil, stream and fish for aerial drift of permethrin.
PubMed: Toxicity of microencapsulated permethrin to selected nontarget aquatic invertebrates.
PubMed: Comparison of crotamiton 10% cream (Eurax) and permethrin 5% cream (Elimite) for the treatment of scabies in children.
PubMed: [Residue analysis of pyrethroid insecticides in cereal grains, milled fractions and bread].
PubMed: Comparative effects of synthetic insecticides--endosulfan, phosalone and permethrin--on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algal cells.
PubMed: Pyrethroid effects on schedule-controlled behavior: time and dosage relationships.
PubMed: Effects of pyrethroid insecticides on operant responding maintained by food.
PubMed: Permethrin and its two metabolite residues in seven agricultural crops.
PubMed: Variation in cutaneous sensation between synthetic pyrethroid insecticides.
PubMed: Primary irritant contact dermatitis from synthetic pyrethroid insecticide exposure.
PubMed: [Effect of permethrin and borax in food poisons on selected insects of hygienic importance].
PubMed: Application of a high-performance liquid chromatographic system with an on-line infrared detector to the residue analysis of permethrin.
PubMed: Pyrethroid effects on operant responding and feeding.
PubMed: Acute toxicity, bioconcentration, and persistence of AC 222,705, benthiocarb, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, methyl parathion, and permethrin in the estuarine environment.
PubMed: Application of the AOAC multi-residue method to determination of synthetic pyrethroid residues in celery and animal products.
PubMed: Analysis and persistence of permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenvalerate in the fat and brain of treated rats.
PubMed: Metabolites of cis- and trans-permethrin in lactating goats.
PubMed: In vitro metabolism of permethrin isomers by carp and rainbow trout liver microsomes.
PubMed: Metabolism of trans- and cis-permethrin, trans- and cis-cypermethrin, and decamethrin by microsomal enzymes.
PubMed: Distribution and metabolic fate of trans- and cis-permethrin in laying hens.
PubMed: Distribution and metabolism of trans- and cis-permethrin in lactating Jersey cows.
PubMed: Synthesis of isomeric 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids and other permethrin metabolites.
PubMed: Distribution and excretion rates of 14C-labeled permethrin isomers administered orally to four lactating goats for 10 days.
PubMed: Radiosynthesis and metabolism in rats of the 1R isomers of the insecticide permethrin.
PubMed: Permethrin metabolism in rats.
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