chlorine dioxide
chlorine(IV) oxide
equal or superior to chlorine when used as wastewater disinfectant. Bleaching agent for flour
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CAS Number: 10049-04-4Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 233-162-8
Nikkaji Web: J342.197J
XlogP3-AA: 1.40 (est)
Molecular Weight: 67.45040000
Formula: Cl O2
Category: flour treatment agents, bleaching agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 62 P1 Chlorine dioxide generated from particles View-notice PDF
GRN 62 P2 Chlorine dioxide generated from particles View-notice PDF
GRN 161 Chlorine dioxide, generated using sodium chlorite in calcined or sulfated kaolin clay View-notice PDF
DG SANTE Food Additives: chlorine dioxide
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products
Sec. 137.105 Flour.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products
Sec. 137.200 Whole wheat flour.

Subpart D--Specific Usage Additives
Sec. 173.300 Chlorine dioxide.

Subpart B--Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms
Sec. 178.1010 Sanitizing solutions.
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Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antimicrobial agents
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 None found
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Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  292 mg/kg
JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 2, Pg. 160, 1982.

unreported-rat LD50  140 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 36(11), Pg. 18, 1971.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-rat LCLo 260 ppm/2H
AMA Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 15, Pg. 101, 1957.

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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flour treatment agents, bleaching agents
Recommendation for chlorine dioxide usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for chlorine dioxide flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Treatment of poultry carcasses with chlorine dioxide, acidified sodium chlorite, trisodium phosphate and peroxyacids
View page or View pdf
Safety of gaseous chlorine dioxide as a preservative slowly released in cold food storage areas
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
EPA-Iris: IRIS search
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NIOSH Pocket Guide: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 10049-04-4
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 24870
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
Chemidplus: 0010049044
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 10049-04-4
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NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 10049-04-4
Pubchem (cid): 24870
Pubchem (sid): 134990939
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C18368
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB34826
FooDB: FDB013387
Haz-Map: View
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
•grade: sold as hydrate in frozen form. •alcide is a germicidal prepn which has been shown to kill a wide range of common pathogenic bacteria as well as fungi, in vitro. it contains sodium chlorite and lactic acid as the active ingredients. the 2 parts are combined in equal vol immediately prior to application resulting in the formation of chlorine dioxide.[scatina j et al; fundam appl toxicol 4 (3, part 1): 479-84 (1984)] pubmed abstract
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
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 chloranyl, dioxido-
 chlorine oxide (ClO2)
 chlorine(IV) oxide
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PubMed: Efficacy of oxidizing disinfectants at inactivating murine norovirus on ready-to-eat foods.
PubMed: Interactions between sanitizers and packaging gas compositions and their effects on the safety and quality of fresh-cut onions (Allium cepa L.).
PubMed: Chloroxyanion Residues in Cantaloupe and Tomatoes after Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sanitation.
PubMed: Inactivation Kinetics and Mechanism of a Human Norovirus Surrogate on Stainless Steel Coupons via Chlorine Dioxide Gas.
PubMed: [Disinfectants - bacterial cells interactions in the view of hygiene and public health].
PubMed: Meta-analysis of the Effects of Sanitizing Treatments on Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes Inactivation in Fresh Produce.
PubMed: Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military.
PubMed: Chloroxyanion Residue Quantification in Cantaloupes Treated with Chlorine Dioxide Gas.
PubMed: Removal of hexenuronic acid by xylanase to reduce adsorbable organic halides formation in chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp.
PubMed: Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables.
PubMed: Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water.
PubMed: Reduction of Salmonella enterica on the surface of eggshells by sequential treatment with aqueous chlorine dioxide and drying.
PubMed: Combination treatment of chlorine dioxide gas and aerosolized sanitizer for inactivating foodborne pathogens on spinach leaves and tomatoes.
PubMed: Development of Combined Dry Heat and Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment with Mechanical Mixing for Inactivation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo on Mung Bean Seeds.
PubMed: Effects of different postharvest treatments on the physiology and quality of 'Xiaobai' apricots at room temperature.
PubMed: Effect of One-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on preservation of green walnut fruit and kernel traits.
PubMed: Intervention strategies for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: a review.
PubMed: Distribution and chemical fate of ³⁶Cl-chlorine dioxide gas during the fumigation of tomatoes and cantaloupe.
PubMed: Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts.
PubMed: Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilm on food-contact surfaces by sequential treatments of aqueous chlorine dioxide and drying.
PubMed: Effect of pretreatments on microbial growth and sensory properties of dry-salted olives.
PubMed: Efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide in inactivating Bacillus cereus spores attached to and in a biofilm on stainless steel.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of controlled-release chlorine dioxide gas on fresh blueberries.
PubMed: Application of highly purified electrolyzed chlorine dioxide for tilapia fillet disinfection.
PubMed: Transcriptional and phenotypic responses of Listeria monocytogenes to chlorine dioxide.
PubMed: Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite.
PubMed: Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.
PubMed: Activated chlorine dioxide solution can be used as a biocompatible antiseptic wound irrigant.
PubMed: Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.
PubMed: Decontamination treatments for psychrotrophic microorganisms on chicken meat during storage at different temperatures.
PubMed: Oxychlorine species suppress postsurgical adhesions in rats.
PubMed: Disinfection efficiency of chlorine dioxide gas in student cafeterias in Taiwan.
PubMed: Effect of the temperature of the dipping solution on the antimicrobial effectiveness of various chemical decontaminants against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on poultry.
PubMed: Use of chlorine dioxide gas for the postharvest control of Alternaria alternata and Stemphylium vesicarium on Roma tomatoes.
PubMed: Effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on human rotavirus infectivity and genome stability.
PubMed: Chlorine dioxide inactivation of enterovirus 71 in water and its impact on genomic targets.
PubMed: The application of high-concentration short-time chlorine dioxide treatment for selected specialty crops including Roma tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), cantaloupes (Cucumis melo ssp. melo var. cantaloupensis) and strawberries (Fragaria×ananassa).
PubMed: Development of chlorine dioxide releasing film and its application in decontaminating fresh produce.
PubMed: Behaviour of co-inoculated pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on poultry following several decontamination treatments.
PubMed: Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.
PubMed: [Action modes of chlorine dioxide--a review].
PubMed: Efficacy of different sanitizing agents and their combination on microbe population and quality of fresh-cut Chinese chives.
PubMed: Heat shock and cold shock treatments affect the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to disinfectants.
PubMed: Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats.
PubMed: Evaluation of current operating standards for chlorine dioxide in disinfection of dump tank and flume for fresh tomatoes.
PubMed: The 40-80 nt region in the 5'-NCR of genome is a critical target for inactivating poliovirus by chlorine dioxide.
PubMed: Investigation of chemical rinses suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces.
PubMed: Effects of iodine in microbial control of dental treatment water.
PubMed: Comprehensive screening study of pesticide degradation via oxidation and hydrolysis.
PubMed: Evaluation of overhead spray-applied sanitizers for the reduction of Salmonella on tomato surfaces.
PubMed: [Bactericidal effects of chlorine dioxide by respiratory inhibition].
PubMed: Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas residues on selected food produce.
PubMed: Efficacy of adding detergents to sanitizer solutions for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine lettuce.
PubMed: Modelling inactivation by aqueous chlorine dioxide of Dothiorella gregaria Sacc. and Fusarium tricinctum (Corda) Sacc. spores inoculated on fresh chestnut kernel.
PubMed: Measurement of the virolysis of human GII.4 norovirus in response to disinfectants and sanitisers.
PubMed: A comparative study on the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas, ozone gas and e-beam irradiation treatments for inactivation of pathogens inoculated onto tomato, cantaloupe and lettuce seeds.
PubMed: Prevalence, concentration, spoilage, and mitigation of Alicyclobacillus spp. in tropical and subtropical fruit juice concentrates.
PubMed: Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.).
PubMed: Combined effects of chlorine dioxide, drying, and dry heat treatments in inactivating microorganisms on radish seeds.
PubMed: Intracellular pH in Campylobacter jejuni when treated with aqueous chlorine dioxide.
PubMed: [Study on pipe material's influence on chlorine dioxide drinking water disinfection].
PubMed: Effect of chlorine dioxide gas on Salmonella enterica inoculated on navel orange surfaces and its impact on the quality attributes of treated oranges.
PubMed: Use of high-concentration-short-time chlorine dioxide gas treatments for the inactivation of Salmonella enterica spp. inoculated onto Roma tomatoes.
PubMed: Comparison of inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes within a biofilm matrix using chlorine dioxide gas, aqueous chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatments.
PubMed: Synergistic effect of chlorine dioxide and drying treatments for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds.
PubMed: Oxidative removal and kinetics of fipronil in various oxidation systems for drinking water treatment.
PubMed: Inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on hydroponic tomatoes using chlorine dioxide gas.
PubMed: The antifungal protein AFP from Aspergillus giganteus prevents secondary growth of different Fusarium species on barley.
PubMed: Survival of lactic acid and chlorine dioxide treated Campylobacter jejuni under suboptimal conditions of pH, temperature and modified atmosphere.
PubMed: Cross-contamination of fresh-cut lettuce after a short-term exposure during pre-washing cannot be controlled after subsequent washing with chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite.
PubMed: Contemporary strategies in combating microbial contamination in food chain.
PubMed: Spray washing of tomatoes with chlorine dioxide to minimize Salmonella on inoculated fruit surfaces and cross-contamination from revolving brushes.
PubMed: Retention of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster tissues after chlorine dioxide treatment.
PubMed: A simple instrument-free gaseous chlorine dioxide method for microbial decontamination of potatoes during storage.
PubMed: Efficacy of chlorine dioxide against Listeria monocytogenes in brine chilling solutions.
PubMed: Mitigation of Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on food contact surfaces with aqueous chlorine dioxide and hypochlorite.
PubMed: Comparative analysis of acid resistance in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains before and after exposure to poultry decontaminants. Role of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) system.
PubMed: Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni after exposure to repetitive cycles of mild bactericidal treatments.
PubMed: Treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with lactic acid, neutralized electrolyzed oxidizing water and chlorine dioxide followed by growth under sub-optimal conditions of temperature, pH and modified atmosphere.
PubMed: Chlorine dioxide gas from an aqueous solution: reduction of Salmonella in wounds on tomato fruit and movement to sinks in a treatment chamber.
PubMed: Efficacy of chlorine, acidic electrolyzed water and aqueous chlorine dioxide solutions to decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from lettuce leaves.
PubMed: Moderate and high doses of sodium hypochlorite, neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water, peroxyacetic acid, and gaseous chlorine dioxide did not affect the nutritional and sensory qualities of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa Var. capitata L.) after washing.
PubMed: Cronobacter sakazakii in foods and factors affecting its survival, growth, and inactivation.
PubMed: Destruction of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice on stainless steel surfaces by chemical disinfectants.
PubMed: Effects of food composition on the inactivation of foodborne microorganisms by chlorine dioxide.
PubMed: Efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide as a sanitizer against Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis on produce.
PubMed: Efficacy of FIT produce wash and chlorine dioxide on pathogen control in fresh potatoes.
PubMed: Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on stored iceberg lettuce by aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment.
PubMed: Alternative sanitizers to chlorine for use on fresh-cut "Galia" (Cucumis melo var. catalupensis) melon.
PubMed: Production and stability of chlorine dioxide in organic acid solutions as affected by pH, type of acid, and concentration of sodium chlorite, and its effectiveness in inactivating Bacillus cereus spores.
PubMed: Sensitivity of different Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains to mild bactericidal treatments.
PubMed: Inactivation kinetics of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Poona on whole cantaloupe by chlorine dioxide gas.
PubMed: Effect of decontamination agents on the microbial population, sensorial quality, and nutrient content of grated carrots (Daucus carota L.).
PubMed: Effects of sanitation, freezing and frozen storage on enteric viruses in berries and herbs.
PubMed: Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on chicken by aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment.
PubMed: Identification of a non-pathogenic surrogate organism for chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas treatment.
PubMed: Effect of chemical sanitizer combined with modified atmosphere packaging on inhibiting Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercial spinach.
PubMed: Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris: new methods for inhibiting spore germination.
PubMed: Investigation on virucidal activity of chlorine dioxide. experimental data on feline calicivirus, HAV and Coxsackie B5.
PubMed: Effects of CO2 on the resuscitation of Listeria monocytogenes injured by various bactericidal treatments.
PubMed: Development of an online biosensor for in situ monitoring of chlorine dioxide gas disinfection efficacy.
PubMed: Inactivation kinetics of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on lettuce by chlorine dioxide gas.
PubMed: Shelf-life of minimally processed lettuce and cabbage treated with gaseous chlorine dioxide and cysteine.
PubMed: Combined effect of aqueous chlorine dioxide and modified atmosphere packaging on inhibiting Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in mungbean sprouts.
PubMed: Effect of decontamination treatments on the overall quality of fresh-cut carrots.
PubMed: Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas sachets for enhancing the microbiological quality and safety of blueberries.
PubMed: Effect of a simple chlorine dioxide method for controlling five foodborne pathogens, yeasts and molds on blueberries.
PubMed: Inactivation kinetics of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by chlorine dioxide gas.
PubMed: Validation of individual and multiple-sequential interventions for reduction of microbial populations during processing of poultry carcasses and parts.
PubMed: [Inhibition of hyphal growth of the fungus Alternaria alternata by chlorine dioxide gas at very low concentrations].
PubMed: Using aqueous chlorine dioxide to prevent contamination of tomatoes with Salmonella enterica and erwinia carotovora during fruit washing.
PubMed: Shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots by gaseous chlorine dioxide.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of gaseous chlorine dioxide: interference by food components.
PubMed: Inactivation of protozoan parasites in food, water, and environmental systems.
PubMed: Lethality of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a commercial produce sanitizer to Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas in a liquid detergent, on stainless steel, and in biofilm.
PubMed: Study on inactivation kinetics of hepatitis A virus and enteroviruses with peracetic acid and chlorine. New ICC/PCR method to assess disinfection effectiveness.
PubMed: Quality of fresh chicken breasts using a combination of modified atmosphere packaging and chlorine dioxide sachets.
PubMed: Susceptibility of Penicillium expansum spores to sodium hypochlorite, electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide solutions modified with nonionic surfactants.
PubMed: Evaluation of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer for effectiveness in killing Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in suspensions, on the surface of stainless steel, and on apples.
PubMed: Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii on fresh produce as affected by temperature, and effectiveness of sanitizers for its elimination.
PubMed: Study on subchronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide and by-products in water.
PubMed: Inactivation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in rumen content- or feces-contaminated drinking water for cattle.
PubMed: Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores on apple surfaces.
PubMed: Measurement of chlorine dioxide penetration in dairy process pipe biofilms during disinfection.
PubMed: Decontamination of minimally processed vegetables by chlorine dioxide gas.
PubMed: Biofilm formation and sporulation by Bacillus cereus on a stainless steel surface and subsequent resistance of vegetative cells and spores to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer.
PubMed: Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials.
PubMed: Evaluation of gaseous chlorine dioxide as a sanitizer for killing Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and yeasts and molds on fresh and fresh-cut produce.
PubMed: Efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide as a sanitizer for killing Salmonella, yeasts, and molds on blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries.
PubMed: Xylanase production by fungal strains on spent sulphite liquor.
PubMed: Decontamination of strawberries using batch and continuous chlorine dioxide gas treatments.
PubMed: Application of antimicrobial ice for reduction of foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes) on the surface of fish.
PubMed: Lethality of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a commercial fruit and vegetable sanitizer to vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus and spores of Bacillus thuringiensis.
PubMed: Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer of lettuce leaves.
PubMed: Toxicological effects of malachite green.
PubMed: The use of chlorine dioxide to control Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in aqueous suspension and on apples.
PubMed: A comparison of different chemical sanitizers for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in solution and on apples, lettuce, strawberries, and cantaloupe.
PubMed: Efficacy and tolerability of ClO2-generating gloves.
PubMed: Decontamination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas.
PubMed: Non-conventional methods for the control of post-harvest pear diseases.
PubMed: Reduction of poliovirus 1, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes.
PubMed: Determination of degradation products and pathways of mancozeb and ethylenethiourea (ETU) in solutions due to ozone and chlorine dioxide treatments.
PubMed: Effectiveness of commercial disinfectants for inactivating hepatitis A virus on agri-food surfaces.
PubMed: Chlorine and chlorine dioxide treatment to reduce or remove EBDCs and ETU residues in a solution.
PubMed: Microbiology and treatment of halitosis.
PubMed: Wet scrubber analysis of volatile organic compound removal in the rendering industry.
PubMed: Differential efficacy of a chlorine dioxide-containing sanitizer against single species and binary biofilms of a dairy-associated Bacillus cereus and a Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate.
PubMed: Reduction of listeria monocytogenes on green peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) by gaseous and aqueous chlorine dioxide and water washing and its growth at 7 degrees C.
PubMed: Response surface modeling for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) by chlorine dioxide gas treatments.
PubMed: Postharvest treatments for the reduction of mancozeb in fresh apples.
PubMed: Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 counts on whole fresh apples by treatment with sanitizers.
PubMed: Determination of chlorate and chlorite and mutagenicity of seafood treated with aqueous chlorine dioxide.
PubMed: Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.
PubMed: Bactericidal activity of chlorine dioxide against Escherichia coli in water and on hard surfaces.
PubMed: The comparative effect of acidified sodium chlorite and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on plaque regrowth and salivary bacterial counts.
PubMed: Genotoxicity studies of the reaction of chlorine or chlorine dioxide with L-tryptophan.
PubMed: Effective control of microbial populations in polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane systems.
PubMed: Micronucleus tests in mice on 39 food additives and eight miscellaneous chemicals.
PubMed: Reaction of chlorine dioxide with amino acids and peptides: kinetics and mutagenicity studies.
PubMed: Reactions of aqueous chlorine and chlorine dioxide with model food compounds.
PubMed: Primary mutagenicity screening of food additives currently used in Japan.
PubMed: The efficacy of chlorine dioxide in controlling Salmonella contamination and its effect on product quality of chicken broiler carcasses.
PubMed: Influence of chlorine dioxide water treatment on numbers of bacteria associated with processed turkey.
PubMed: Nutritive value of bread made from flour treated with chlorine dioxide.
PubMed: Flour and bread, prepared with or without treatment with chlorine dioxide, as long-term sources of vitamin E for rats.
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