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Name:carica papaya l.
CAS Number: 9001-73-4
ECHA EC Number:232-627-2
FDA UNII: A236A06Y32
Category:enzyme preparations and microorganisms
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1585 Papain View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Papain
GSFA Codex: Papain (1101(ii))
FDA Mainterm (SATF):9001-73-4 ; PAPAIN (CARICA PAPAYA L.)
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products
Sec. 137.305 Enriched farina.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1585 Papain.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to tan or colorless to pale yellow powder or liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Soluble in:
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
American Laboratories
Papain 12,000 751
American Laboratories
Papain 2000 704
American Laboratories
Papain 30,000 541
American Laboratories
Papain 36,000, No Sulfite Added 957
American Laboratories
Papain 6000 705
American Laboratories
Papain Full Strength 703
American Laboratories
Papain Full Strength 955
American Laboratories
Papain Full Strength, No Sulfite Added 947
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Papain 99%
Charkit Chemical
Foodchem International
Glentham Life Sciences
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Papaya Peptidase
Indo World Trading
Papain BP/USP
Maypro Industries
Penta International
Penta International
PAPAIN USP 6,000 u/mg
Penta International
Shaanxi Y-Herb Biotechnology
Pawpaw Fruit Papain Enzyme Powder Supplement P.E. Organic Green Papaya Extract
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Papain from Carica papaya powder, almost white, ∼12 U/mg
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 > 4000 mg/kg
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 159, Pg. 126, 1966.

oral-mouse LD50 12500 mg/kg
Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. Vol. 51, Pg. 27, 1955.

oral-man TDLo 71 mg/kg
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. Vol. 9, Pg. 127, 1987.

intraperitoneal-mouse LDLo 50 mg/kg
Toxicon. Vol. 19, Pg. 851, 1981.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
enzyme preparations and microorganisms
Recommendation for papain usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for papain flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):9001-73-4
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
carica papaya l.
RTECS:RU4950000 for cas# 9001-73-4
 carica papaya l.
Pubchem (sid):135346411
Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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PubMed:Reduction of toxic gliadin content of wholegrain bread by the enzyme caricain.
PubMed:Functionalized polycaprolactam as an active food package for antibiofilm activity and extended shelf life.
PubMed:Variations of niacin content in saltwater fish and their relation with dietary RDA in Polish subjects grouped by age.
PubMed:Expression and purification of soluble human cystatin C in Escherichia coli with maltose-binding protein as a soluble partner.
PubMed:Dendritic cell-bound IgE functions to restrain allergic inflammation at mucosal sites.
PubMed:Production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus murinus AU06 and its broad antibacterial spectrum.
PubMed:Mechanism of the discrepancy in the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency between defatted peanut flour and peanut protein isolate by Flavorzyme.
PubMed:Extraction optimization, preliminary characterization and immunological activity of polysaccharides from figs.
PubMed:Study of chemical properties and evaluation of collagen in mantle, epidermal connective tissue and tentacle of Indian Squid, Loligo duvauceli Orbigny.
PubMed:Evaluation of the Hydrolysis Specificity of Protease from Marine Exiguobacterium sp. SWJS2 via Free Amino Acid Analysis.
PubMed:A-T linker adapter polymerase chain reaction for determining flanking sequences by rescuing inverse PCR or thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR products.
PubMed:Potential of a Renin Inhibitory Peptide from the Red Seaweed Palmaria palmata as a Functional Food Ingredient Following Confirmation and Characterization of a Hypotensive Effect in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
PubMed:DNase I and proteinase K impair Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation and induce dispersal of pre-existing biofilms.
PubMed:Purification and characterisation of plantaricin ZJ008, a novel bacteriocin against Staphylococcus spp. from Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ008.
PubMed:Molecular cloning and characterization of cathepsin L from freshwater mussel, Cristaria plicata.
PubMed:Identification of novel dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from meat proteins using in silico analysis.
PubMed:Dynamical footprint of falcipain-2 catalytic triad in hemoglobin-β-bound state.
PubMed:An improved method to extract and purify cystatin from hen egg white.
PubMed:Computational study on substrate specificity of a novel cysteine protease 1 precursor from Zea mays.
PubMed:Papain-like protease (PLpro) inhibitory effects of cinnamic amides from Tribulus terrestris fruits.
PubMed:Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction of phenolics from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) inflorescences and evaluation of antioxidant activity in vitro.
PubMed:Isolation and identification of antioxidative peptides from frog (Hylarana guentheri) protein hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Jellyfish skin polysaccharides: extraction and inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived foam cell formation.
PubMed:Epicutaneous administration of papain induces IgE and IgG responses in a cysteine protease activity-dependent manner.
PubMed:Endoplasmic reticulum KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidase 1 of Arabidopsis (AtCEP1) is involved in pathogen defense.
PubMed:Proteolytic activities of kiwifruit actinidin (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) on different fibrous and globular proteins: a comparative study of actinidin with papain.
PubMed:Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes.
PubMed:Physical, chemical and biochemical properties of casein hydrolyzed by three proteases: partial characterizations.
PubMed:Enterocin HZ produced by a wild Enterococcus faecium strain isolated from a traditional, starter-free pickled cheese.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of antioxidative peptides from round scad (Decapterus maruadsi) muscle protein hydrolysate.
PubMed:Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.
PubMed:A facile approach for imprinting protein on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
PubMed:Antibacterial effects of natural tenderizing enzymes on different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on beef.
PubMed:Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) muscle.
PubMed:Isolation of antioxidant peptides from clam, Meretrix casta (Chemnitz).
PubMed:A novel method for beef potentiator preparation and identification of its characteristic aroma compounds.
PubMed:Thermal inactivation kinetics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in buffalo Mozzarella curd.
PubMed:Effects of L- and iso-ascorbic acid on meat protein hydrolyzing activity of four commercial plant and three microbial protease preparations.
PubMed:Isolation and structural characterization of a novel antioxidant mannoglucan from a marine bubble snail, Bullacta exarata (Philippi).
PubMed:Antioxidative properties of peptides obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by a protease treatment in an Fe (II)-induced aqueous lipid peroxidation system.
PubMed:Development of a seaweed derived platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitory hydrolysate, synthesis of inhibitory peptides and assessment of their toxicity using the Zebrafish larvae assay.
PubMed:Influence of casein hydrolysates on exopolysaccharide synthesis by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.
PubMed:Separation and nanoencapsulation of antitumor polypeptide from Spirulina platensis.
PubMed:Generation of an antibody that recognizes Plasmodium chabaudi cysteine protease (chabaupain-1) in both sexual and asexual parasite life cycle and evaluation of chabaupain-1 vaccine potential.
PubMed:Biochemical and immunological characterization of a recombinantly-produced antifungal cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa).
PubMed:Separation and nanoencapsulation of antitumor polypeptide from Spirulina platensis.
PubMed:Combining Hexanoic Acid Plant Priming with Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Activity against Colorado Potato Beetle.
PubMed:Pharmacological management of esophageal food bolus impaction.
PubMed:Proteolytic activity from chicken intestine and pancreas: extraction, partial characterization and application for hyaluronic acid separation from chicken comb.
PubMed:The improvement of the endogenous antioxidant property of stone fish (Actinopyga lecanora) tissue using enzymatic proteolysis.
PubMed:Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.
PubMed:Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of soy protein subjected to selective hydrolysis and thermal processing.
PubMed:Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from Bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment.
PubMed:Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates from Rhopilema esculentum.
PubMed:Tenderization effect of cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperature and its mechanism.
PubMed:Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) head papain hydrolysate.
PubMed:Purification and characterisation of a novel antioxidant peptide derived from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) protein hydrolysate.
PubMed:Optimization of the preparation of fish protein anti-obesity hydrolysates using response surface methodology.
PubMed:Antioxidant and anti-tumor activity of a polysaccharide from freshwater clam, Corbicula fluminea.
PubMed:Comparison of the proteolytic activities of new commercially available bacterial and fungal proteases toward meat proteins.
PubMed:Expression, characterization, and cellular localization of knowpains, papain-like cysteine proteases of the Plasmodium knowlesi malaria parasite.
PubMed:Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from whole anchovy sprat (Clupeonella engrauliformis) prepared using endogenous enzymes and commercial proteases.
PubMed:Purification and determination of two novel antioxidant peptides from flounder fish (Paralichthys olivaceus) using digestive proteases.
PubMed:Antifatigue activities of loach protein hydrolysates with different antioxidant activities.
PubMed:Enzymatic characteristics of a recombinant neutral protease I (rNpI) from Aspergillus oryzae expressed in Pichia pastoris.
PubMed:Use of viscera extract from hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) for the production of protein hydrolysate from toothed ponyfish (Gazza minuta) muscle.
PubMed:Characterisation of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins.
PubMed:Optimal extraction and hydrolysis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa proteins.
PubMed:Separation and identification of zinc-chelating peptides from sesame protein hydrolysate using IMAC-Zn²⁺ and LC-MS/MS.
PubMed:Amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates and peptide fractions from porcine collagen.
PubMed:Effect of microwave and enzymatic treatment on the recovery of protein from Indian defatted rice bran meal.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of duck skin byproducts.
PubMed:Mechanism of falcipain-2 inhibition by α,β-unsaturated benzo[1,4]diazepin-2-one methyl ester.
PubMed:Utilisation of chitinous materials in pigment adsorption.
PubMed:Production of defatted palm kernel cake protein hydrolysate as a valuable source of natural antioxidants.
PubMed:Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides.
PubMed:Purification of chicken breast protein hydrolysate and analysis of its antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Identification of a new Bacillus licheniformis strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance.
PubMed:Immunological detection of keratan sulfate in meat products with and without mechanically separated chicken meat.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of bioactive pro-peptides with in vitro renin inhibitory activities from the macroalga Palmaria palmata.
PubMed:Evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem storage.
PubMed:Preparation and evaluation of antioxidant peptides from ethanol-soluble proteins hydrolysate of Sphyrna lewini muscle.
PubMed:Protective effect of a novel antioxidative peptide purified from a marine Chlorella ellipsoidea protein against free radical-induced oxidative stress.
PubMed:Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of protein on the pasting properties of different types of wheat flour.
PubMed:Molecular characterization of a new hypovirus infecting a phytopathogenic fungus, Valsa ceratosperma.
PubMed:Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidative activities and functional characterization of protein hydrolysates of hard-to-cook chickpeas.
PubMed:Programmed cell death in Ricinus and Arabidopsis: the function of KDEL cysteine peptidases in development.
PubMed:Bacteriocin formation by dominant aerobic sporeformers isolated from traditional maari.
PubMed:Influence of incubation conditions on hydrolysis efficiency and iodine enrichment in baker's yeast.
PubMed:Optimisation of hydrolysis of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus nudus) gonad by response surface methodology and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate.
PubMed:Purification of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide with an antihypertensive effect from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus).
PubMed:Effect of Flammulina velutipes on spent-hen breast meat tenderization.
PubMed:Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.
PubMed:Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates.
PubMed:Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from egg white protein hydrolysate.
PubMed:Free radical scavenging and angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) skin gelatin.
PubMed:Production of plant proteases in vivo and in vitro--a review.
PubMed:Assessment of the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates of bovine brisket sarcoplasmic proteins produced by papain and characterisation of associated bioactive peptidic fractions.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities and functional properties of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) protein hydrolysates.
PubMed:Determination of molecular weight of a purified fraction of colloidal calcium phosphate derived from the casein micelles of bovine milk.
PubMed:Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus ) peptides prepared by papain digestion.
PubMed:Falcipains and other cysteine proteases of malaria parasites.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of three novel peptides from casein hydrolysates that stimulate the growth of mixed cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.
PubMed:Zinc-binding capacity of yak casein hydrolysate and the zinc-releasing characteristics of casein hydrolysate-zinc complexes.
PubMed:Utilization of oryzacystatin for regulating the ripening of squid shiokara, a traditional Japanese salted and fermented seafood.
PubMed:Purification, amino acid sequence and characterization of the class IIa bacteriocin weissellin A, produced by Weissella paramesenteroides DX.
PubMed:Effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein isolates and on the emulsifying properties of hydrolysates.
PubMed:Application of an acid proteinase from Monascus purpureus to reduce antigenicity of bovine milk whey protein.
PubMed:Tenderizing effect of blade tenderizer and pomegranate fruit products in goat meat.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates and peptide fractions derived from porcine hemoglobin.
PubMed:Antioxidative peptides derived from enzyme hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection.
PubMed:Isolation and identification of fetuin-B-like protein from rainbow trout seminal plasma and its localization in the reproductive system.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a cysteine endopeptidase from Vasconcellea quercifolia A. St.-Hil. latex displaying high substrate specificity.
PubMed:Optimization of hydrolysis conditions for the production of antioxidant peptides from fish gelatin using response surface methodology.
PubMed:Analysis of green kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) proteinases by two-dimensional zymography and direct identification of zymographic spots by mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Extraction, isolation and analysis of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans.
PubMed:Isolation of bacteriocin-like substances producing bacteria from finished cattle-manure compost and activity evaluation against some food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.
PubMed:Application of exogenous enzymes to beef muscle of high and low-connective tissue.
PubMed:[Fluorescence spectra analysis of papain structure treated by dynamic high pressure microfluidization in low pressure ranges].
PubMed:In-home consumer and shear force evaluation of steaks from the M. serratus ventralis thoracis.
PubMed:Proteinase inhibitory activity of sarcoplasmic proteins from threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.).
PubMed:Effect of neutrase, alcalase, and papain hydrolysis of whey protein concentrates on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.
PubMed:International collaborative study to establish reference preparations to standardise haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in normal intravenous immunoglobulins by the direct method.
PubMed:Digestive enzyme supplementation for autism spectrum disorders: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
PubMed:Effects of a novel pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from Crotalaria pallida Roots with papain inhibitory activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.
PubMed:Enzyme-assisted extraction of flavorings and colorants from plant materials.
PubMed:Enzymatic bioremediation of cashew nut shell liquid contamination.
PubMed:Sensory crispness of crispy rolls: effect of formulation, storage conditions, and water distribution in the crust.
PubMed:A salivary cystatin, HlSC-1, from the ixodid tick Haemaphysalis longicornis play roles in the blood-feeding processes.
PubMed:Preventive effect of curcumin and quercetin against nitric oxide mediated modification of goat lung cystatin.
PubMed:International collaborative study to evaluate candidate reference reagents to standardize haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in normal intravenous immunoglobulin products.
PubMed:Crystal structure of the parasite inhibitor chagasin in complex with papain allows identification of structural requirements for broad reactivity and specificity determinants for target proteases.
PubMed:Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis.
PubMed:Isolation of human renin inhibitor from soybean: soyasaponin I is the novel human renin inhibitor in soybean.
PubMed:Purification and antioxidant properties of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) dark muscle peptide on free radical-mediated oxidative systems.
PubMed:Isolated glycosaminoglycans from cooked haddock enhance nonheme iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.
PubMed:[The enzyme papain in industry and food causes allergic sensitization].
PubMed:Extraction and characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) albumin and globulin.
PubMed:Displacement of the occluding loop by the parasite protein, chagasin, results in efficient inhibition of human cathepsin B.
PubMed:A cysteine protease is critical for Babesia spp. transmission in Haemaphysalis ticks.
PubMed:[Fluorescence spectra analysis of papain treated by pulsed electric field].
PubMed:Arcelins from an Indian wild pulse, Lablab purpureus, and insecticidal activity in storage pests.
PubMed:Evaluation of bitterness in enzymatic hydrolysates of soy protein isolate by taste dilution analysis.
PubMed:Preparation and characterisation of protein hydrolysates from Indian defatted rice bran meal.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a cysteine protease inhibitor from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) plasma.
PubMed:Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate.
PubMed:Expression and purification of goat lactoferrin from Pichia pastoris expression system.
PubMed:Characterization of hydrolysates derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten.
PubMed:Detection and quantification of soy allergens in food: study of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
PubMed:Application of recombinant chum salmon cystatin to Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) surimi to prevent gel weakening.
PubMed:Physicochemical and bitterness properties of enzymatic pea protein hydrolysates.
PubMed:Protein changes in the albedo of citrus fruits on postharvesting storage.
PubMed:Antihypertensive effect of angiotensin i converting enzyme-inhibitory peptide from hydrolysates of Bigeye tuna dark muscle, Thunnus obesus.
PubMed:Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates.
PubMed:Biochemical and histochemical characterization of the cattle V red blood cell antigen with monoclonal antibody IVA-41.
PubMed:Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.
PubMed:Identification of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from Pithecellobium dumosum seeds with insecticidal properties and double activity.
PubMed:[Resonance scattering spectral assay of papain enzymatic activity with sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate].
PubMed:Mechanism of solvent induced thermal stabilization of papain.
PubMed:Enhancing in vitro degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage using feed enzymes.
PubMed:Bioconjugation of papain on superparamagnetic nanoparticles decorated with carboxymethylated chitosan.
PubMed:Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum oocyst production by membrane-permeant cysteine protease inhibitor E64d.
PubMed:Meat tenderizing effect of injecting encapsulated Ca2+ in liposome into rabbit before slaughter.
PubMed:Antioxidant properties of enzymatic hydrolysates from royal jelly.
PubMed:Yak milk casein as a functional ingredient: preparation and identification of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides.
PubMed:Detection method for genetically modified papaya using duplex PCR.
PubMed:Dietary manganese affects the concentration, composition and sulfation pattern of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta.
PubMed:Isolation and preliminary characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum N014 isolated from nham, a traditional Thai fermented pork.
PubMed:Gene disruptions demonstrate independent roles for the four falcipain cysteine proteases of Plasmodium falciparum.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of zein hydrolysates in a liposome system and the possible mode of action.
PubMed:Evaluation of the residual antigenicity of dairy whey hydrolysates obtained by combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and high-pressure treatment.
PubMed:Characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.
PubMed:Partial purification and characterization of cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chicken plasma.
PubMed:New non-peptidic inhibitors of papain derived from etacrynic acid.
PubMed:Crystallization and molecular-replacement studies of the monoclonal antibody mAbR310 specific for the (R)-HNE-modified protein.
PubMed:[The characteristics of staphylococcal enterotoxins produced by strains isolated from mastitic cows, including epidemiological aspects].
PubMed:Aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylate inhibitors targeting the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma brucei as lead trypanocidal agents.
PubMed:The effects of chemical and heat maceration techniques on the recovery of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from bone.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of novel proteinase inhibitors from dried figs.
PubMed:Comparing two commercial enzymes to estimate in vitro proteolysis of purified or semi-purified proteins.
PubMed:Quantification of biotin in feed, food, tablets, and premixes using HPLC-MS/MS.
PubMed:[Five cases of trichobezoars in children].
PubMed:Purification and identification of a protease inhibitor from glassfish (Liparis tanakai) eggs.
PubMed:Benzodioxole derivatives as negative effectors of plant proteases.
PubMed:Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption affects the composition and structure of glycosaminoglycans in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta.
PubMed:Cysteine protease falcipain 1 in Plasmodium falciparum is biochemically distinct from its isozymes.
PubMed:Pantothenic acid quantification: method comparison of a stable isotope dilution assay and a microbiological assay.
PubMed:Molecular cloning and characterization of oryzacystatin-III, a novel member of phytocystatin in rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica).
PubMed:[Expression of Chinese sturgeon cystatin in yeast Pichia pastoris and its proteinase inhibitory activity analysis].
PubMed:Characterization of chito-oligosaccharides prepared by chitosanolysis with the aid of papain and Pronase, and their bactericidal action against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Purification and characterisation of acidocin D20079, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079.
PubMed:International collaborative study to evaluate a candidate reference preparation to define an appropriate specified limit of anti-D in intravenous immunoglobulin products.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition by enzymatic hydrolysates from bee bread.
PubMed:Purification and determination of inhibitory activity of recombinant soyacystatin for surimi application.
PubMed:Colorimetric analysis of protein sulfhydryl groups in milk: applications and processing effects.
PubMed:Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of muscle tissue in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor).
PubMed:Antioxidative ability in a linoleic acid oxidation system and scavenging abilities against active oxygen species of enzymatic hydrolysates from pollen Cistus ladaniferus.
PubMed:Exfoliation of Helicobacter pylori from gastric mucin by glycopolypeptides from buttermilk.
PubMed:Cysteine proteases of malaria parasites.
PubMed:Structural, biological, and evolutionary relationships of plant food allergens sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract.
PubMed:Determination of carotenoid stereoisomers in commercial dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of cystatins on proteolytic activities of the Plum pox potyvirus cysteine proteinases.
PubMed:Molecular cloning, expression, and functional characterization of a cystatin from pineapple stem.
PubMed:Sensitization to Ficus benjamina: relationship to natural rubber latex allergy and identification of foods implicated in the Ficus-fruit syndrome.
PubMed:Bacteriocin-like substance production by Bacillus licheniformis strain P40.
PubMed:Method for bacterial expression and purification of sesame cystatin via artificial oil bodies.
PubMed:Contribution of starter cultures to the proteolytic process of a fermented non-dried whole muscle ham product.
PubMed:A Kunitz-type inhibitor of coleopteran proteases, isolated from Adenanthera pavonina L. seeds and its effect on Callosobruchus maculatus.
PubMed:Cloning, functional expression, and characterization of cystatin in sesame seed.
PubMed:Thiirancarboxamides as inhibitors of papain.
PubMed:Prima facie evidence that a phytocystatin for transgenic plant resistance to nematodes is not a toxic risk in the human diet.
PubMed:Low molecular weight chitosans: preparation with the aid of papain and characterization.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of phytocystatins from kiwifruit cortex and seeds.
PubMed:Purification and properties of cysteine proteinase inhibitors from rabbit skeletal muscle.
PubMed:A high cysteine containing thiol proteinase from the latex of Ervatamia heyneana: purification and comparison with ervatamin B and C from Ervatamia coronaria.
PubMed:Identification and characterisation of proteinase inhibitors and their genes from seeds of apple (Malus domestica).
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of peptides obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment.
PubMed:Genetic modification removes an immunodominant allergen from soybean.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis and characterization of l-methionine and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMB) co-oligomers.
PubMed:Enhancement of proteinase inhibitory activity of recombinant human cystatin C using random-centroid optimization.
PubMed:Simultaneous detection of viability and sex of bovine spermatozoa.
PubMed:Molecular cloning and functional expression of cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin, from Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. Ma-yuen Stapf).
PubMed:Digestibility of food allergens and nonallergenic proteins in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid-a comparative study.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of papain-modified sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolates.
PubMed:Plant seed cystatins and their target enzymes of endogenous and exogenous origin.
PubMed:Application potency of engineered G159 mutants on P1 substrate pocket of subtilisin YaB as improved meat tenderizers.
PubMed:Effect of glycosylation modification (N-Q-(108)I --> N-Q-(108)T) on the freezing stability of recombinant chicken Cystatin overexpressed in Pichia pastoris X-33.
PubMed:Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by a newly isolated Bacillus sp. Strain 8 A.
PubMed:Enhanced expression of chicken cystatin as a thioredoxin fusion form in Escherichia coli AD494(DE3)pLysS and its effect on the prevention of surimi gel softening.
PubMed:Effect of urea at lower concentration on the structure of papain--formation of a stable molten globule and its characterization.
PubMed:Galactosaminoglycan composition in chicken eggshell.
PubMed:Effect of metal ions on structure and activity of papain from Carica papaya.
PubMed:Characterization of an antibacterial peptide produced by Brevibacterium linens.
PubMed:[Detection of recombinant DNA from genetically modified papaya].
PubMed:Antioxidative activity of whey protein hydrolysates in a liposomal system.
PubMed:Nutritional factors affecting the production of two bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria on whey.
PubMed:Expression and characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum haemoglobinase falcipain-3.
PubMed:The impact of whole genome sequence data on drug discovery--a malaria case study.
PubMed:Expression of soluble form carp (Cyprinus carpio) ovarian cystatin in Escherichia coli and its purification.
PubMed:Tenderisation of spent hen meat using ginger extract.
PubMed:Immunoglobulin G3 from polyclonal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immune globulin is more potent than other subclasses in neutralizing HIV type 1.
PubMed:Extraction of glycosaminoglycans from chicken eggshell.
PubMed:Ingredient and labeling issues associated with allergenic foods.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of cellobiose dehydrogenase from the plant pathogen Sclerotium (Athelia) rolfsii.
PubMed:Chemically modified papain for applications in detergent formulations.
PubMed:Partial isolation and characterization of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus).
PubMed:High-level production of recombinant chicken cystatin by Pichia pastoris and its application in mackerel surimi.
PubMed:Soybean allergens and hypoallergenic soybean products.
PubMed:(S)-Thiirancarboxylic acid as a reactive building block for a new class of cysteine protease inhibitors.
PubMed:Isolation, purification, and characterization of a killer protein from Schwanniomyces occidentalis.
PubMed:Amaranth globulin structure modifications induced by enzymatic proteolysis.
PubMed:Primary structure of the abundant seed albumin of Theobroma cacao by mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Concentrations and antioxidative activity of anserine and carnosine in poultry meat extracts treated with demineralization and papain.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a cystatin from the leaves of methyl jasmonate treated tomato plants.
PubMed:Influence of metal ions on structure and catalytic activity of papain.
PubMed:Photoreversible modulators of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. 1-Benzoyl-1-cyano-2-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrophenyl)-ethene and 1,1-dicyano-2-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrophenyl)-ethene.
PubMed:Inhibition of Papaya latex papain by photosensitive inhibitors. 1-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrophenyl)-2-nitroethene and 1,1-dicyano-2-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrophenyl)-ethene.
PubMed:Derivation and properties of recombinant Fab antibodies to coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls.
PubMed:Overexpression of the soluble form of chicken cystatin in Escherichia coli and its purification.
PubMed:Changes in acid tolerance of Lactococcus lactis during growth at constant pH.
PubMed:Effects of proteolysis and mechanism of gel weakening in heat-induced gelation of fish myosin.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a stable cysteine protease ervatamin B, with two disulfide bridges, from the latex of Ervatamia coronaria.
PubMed:Determination of total riboflavin in cooked sausages.
PubMed:Capsaicin induces cystatin S-like substances in submandibular saliva of the rat.
PubMed:Fruit-pollen-latex cross-reactivity: implication of profilin (Bet v 2).
PubMed:Characterization of novel cysteine proteases from germinating cotyledons of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].
PubMed:A cysteine proteinase inhibitor purified from apple fruit.
PubMed:Isolation, characterization and localization of glycosaminoglycans in growing antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus).
PubMed:Isolation, purification and partial characterization of plantaricin 423, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum.
PubMed:Characterization and antimicrobial spectrum of bifidocin B, a bacteriocin produced by Bifidobacterium bifidum NCFB 1454.
PubMed:Methods for the recovery of Salmonella spp. from carboxymethylcellulose gum, gum ghatti, and gelatin.
PubMed:Detection and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris R isolated from radish.
PubMed:Modifications of allergenicity linked to food technologies.
PubMed:Asthma caused by Ficus benjamina latex: evidence of cross-reactivity with fig fruit and papain.
PubMed:[Cross-reactivity between bromelain and soluble fraction from wheat flour].
PubMed:Pediocin PD-1, a bactericidal antimicrobial peptide from Pediococcus damnosus NCFB 1832.
PubMed:The prosequence of procaricain forms an alpha-helical domain that prevents access to the substrate-binding cleft.
PubMed:Autocatalytic processing of pro-papaya proteinase IV is prevented by crowding of the active-site cleft.
PubMed:Association between sensitization to natural rubber latex and papain.
PubMed:Cathepsin L is an intracellular and extracellular protease in Paramecium tetraurelia. Purification, cloning, sequencing and specific inhibition by its expressed propeptide.
PubMed:Proteinase inhibition of fish muscle enzymes using legume seed extracts.
PubMed:Milk-clotting activity of cucumisin, a plant serine protease from melon fruit.
PubMed:Assessing the stability of cystatin/cysteine proteinase complexes using mildly-denaturing gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
PubMed:Carboxy-terminal truncation of oryzacystatin II by oryzacystatin-insensitive insect digestive proteinases.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of two distinct cDNA clones encoding corn seed cysteine proteinases.
PubMed:Expression of the pro-regions of papain and papaya proteinase IV in Escherichia coli and their inhibition of mature cysteine proteinases.
PubMed:Recombinant pro-regions from papain and papaya proteinase IV-are selective high affinity inhibitors of the mature papaya enzymes.
PubMed:Glossopharyngeal denervation alters responses to nutrients and toxic substances.
PubMed:Corn cystatin I expressed in Escherichia coli: investigation of its inhibitory profile and occurrence in corn kernels.
PubMed:Kiwi fruit allergy: a new birch pollen-associated food allergy.
PubMed:Incidence and risk factors for latent sensitization to chymopapain: predictive skin-prick tests in 700 candidates for chemonucleolysis.
PubMed:Effect of various commercially available enzymes in the liquid chromatographic determination with external standardization of thiamine and riboflavin in foods.
PubMed:Review of the problems involved in using enzymes in blood group serology--provision of freeze-dried ICSH/ISBT protease enzyme and anti-D reference standards. International Council for Standardization in Haematology. International Society of Blood Transfusion.
PubMed:Bacteriocin production by Carnobacterium piscicola LV 61.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dry fermented sausages.
PubMed:Kinetic analysis of papaya proteinase omega.
PubMed:Production and purification of Fab' fragments from chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY).
PubMed:Botulinum type A neurotoxin digested with pepsin yields 132, 97, 72, 45, 42, and 18 kD fragments.
PubMed:Factors effecting the thermostability of cysteine proteinases from Carica papaya.
PubMed:Corn kernel cysteine proteinase inhibitor as a novel cystatin superfamily member of plant origin. Molecular cloning and expression studies.
PubMed:Active papain renatured and processed from insoluble recombinant propapain expressed in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:The segmented anisotropic refinement of monoclinic papain by the application of the rigid-body TLS model and comparison to bovine ribonuclease A.
PubMed:Bacterial mutagenicity testing of 49 food ingredients gives very few positive results.
PubMed:Purification and some properties of a Bacillus cereus mouse lethal toxin.
PubMed:Synthesis of peptides consisting of essential amino acids by a reactor system using three proteinases and an organic solvent.
PubMed:[Abuse concerning the nature and the commercialization of weight-loss products].
PubMed:Cloning and expression of functional fragment C of tetanus toxin.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis of the precursor of Leu-enkephalin in water-immiscible organic solvent systems.
PubMed:An analysis of contact lens enzyme cleaners.
PubMed:[Allergy to kiwi: an unrecognized allergy].
PubMed:Biochemical characteristics of trypsin inhibitor from wheat grain, beta variety.
PubMed:Limited proteolysis of silkworm antitrypsin by several proteinases.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of carminic acid in yogurt.
PubMed:Biotin assessment in foods and body fluids by a protein binding assay (PBA).
PubMed:[Baking ingredients as a contributory cause of baker's asthma].
PubMed:The electrostatic fields in the active-site clefts of actinidin and papain.
PubMed:Characteristics of purified cows' milk xanthine oxidase and its submolecular characteristics.
PubMed:Cysteine proteinase inhibitors from rabbit skeletal muscle.
PubMed:Estimation of the biological value of food proteins by a modified equation of the essential amino acid index and the chemical score.
PubMed:Declogging small-bore feeding tubes.
PubMed:Studies on Streptococcus faecalis enterotoxin.
PubMed:Tenderization of beef with bacterial collagenase.
PubMed:Characterization and properties of infant milk formulae with addition of enzymatically digested casein.
PubMed:Development of an enzymatic fish hydrolysate and its use in instant soup bases.
PubMed:[Determination of processing conditions for obtaining a pepitona (Arca zebra) hydrolysate for human consumption].
PubMed:[Preparation and nutritional characteristics of a hydrolysate from pepitona (Arca zebra)].
PubMed:The incidence and clinical implications of hypersensitivity to papain in an allergic population, confirmed by blinded oral challenge.
PubMed:"What's in the beef?".
PubMed:[Proteolytic enzymes: potential allergens for the skin and respiratory tract?].
PubMed:Stability of tryptophan during food processing and storage. 2. A comparison of methods used for the measurement of tryptophan losses in processed foods.
PubMed:Characterization and mode of action of a purified bacteriocin from the oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans RM-10.
PubMed:Meat tenderizer and bee stings.
PubMed:Nonpersimmon gastric phytobezoar. A benign recurrent condition.
PubMed:Naturally occurring protein crystals in the potato : inhibitor of papain, chymopapain, and ficin.
PubMed:Some comments on the usefulness of 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test for the evaluation of rancidity in frozen fish.
PubMed:Effect of thermal treatments on immunoreactivity and proteolytic activity of papain.
PubMed:Protein hydrolysates from meat industry by-products.
PubMed:Treatment of esophageal food impaction--a new use for glucagon.
PubMed:Meat tenderizer and stings.
PubMed:Hypersensitivity reaction to kiwi fruit (Chinese gooseberry, Actinidia chinensis).
PubMed:Digestion in the pig between 7 and 35 d of age. 6. The digestion of hydrolyzed milk and soya-bean proteins.
PubMed:[Occupational asthma. New findings on work related obstructive respiratory diseases (author's transl)].
PubMed:[Papain-induced asthma; incidence and pathogenesis (author's transl)].
PubMed:Use of a peptide rather than free amino acid nitrogen source in chemically defined "elemental" diets.
PubMed:Influence of starvation on enzyme-induced emphysema.
PubMed:Esophageal food impaction: description of a new method for bolus removal.
PubMed:Causes of obstruction of prosthetic esophageal tubes and their prevention: a case report and review of the literature.
PubMed:Studies on the specificity of human IgE-antibodies to the plant proteases papain and bromelain.
PubMed:Gustatory responses of eel palatine receptors to amino acids and carboxylic acids.
PubMed:Intravenous glucagon in the management of esophageal food obstruction.
PubMed:The influence of pre- and perinatal malnutrition on sulphated glycosaminoglycans in rat brain.
PubMed:Papain-induced asthma--physiological and immunological features.
PubMed:Nutritional improvement of food proteins by means of the plastein reaction and its novel modification.
PubMed:Nutritional improvement of food proteins by enzymatic modification, especially by plastein synthesis reaction.
PubMed:Radiologic treatment of esophageal food impaction using intravenous glucagon.
PubMed:Specificity for incorporation of alpha-amino acid esters during the plastein reaction by papain.
PubMed:A simple method for determination of tryptophan in food samples.
PubMed:Enzymatic hydrolysis of food protein for amino acid analysis. I. Solubilization of the protein.
PubMed:Occupational asthma after inhalation of dust of the proteolytic enzyme, papain.
PubMed:[Food protein improvement and plastein reaction (author's transl)].
PubMed:Influence of storage on in vitro digestibility of soybean leaf protein concentrate.
PubMed:Comparison of six methods for isolating mycobacteria from swine lymph nodes.
PubMed:Effect of pre-slaughter injections of papain on toughness in lamb muscles induced by rapid chilling.
PubMed:Measurement of digestibility of alfalfa protein concentrates by in vivo and in vitro methods.
PubMed:[Determination of tryptophan in food].
PubMed:[Enzymatic treatment in the extraction of olive oil by mechanical means].
PubMed:Plastein reaction as a method for enhancing the sulfur-containing amino acid level of soybean protein.
PubMed:Symposium on microbial changes in foods. Application of microbial proteases to soybean and other materials to improve acceptability, especially through the formation of plastein.
PubMed:In vivo and in vitro methods of measuring nutritive value of leaf-protein preparations.
PubMed:Interference by cyanide with the measurements of papain hydrolysis.
PubMed:Retinol inhibition of some proteolytic enzymes.
PubMed:Bacterial penetration in raw meats: comparisons using a new technique.
a proteolytic enzyme obtained from carica papaya. it is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and chymopapain that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. ec Purified proteolytic substance derived from papaya Carica papaya. Meat tenderiser. Also used to reduce chillhaze in beer. Used in the prepn. of precooked cereals and prodn. of protein hydrolysates Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease (EC enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis). (Wikipedia)
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