EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

xylitol
(2S,4R)-1,2,3,4,5-pentahydroxypentane

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 87-99-0Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:12426-00-5
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:201-788-0
Nikkaji Web:J3.905E
Beilstein Number:1720523
MDL:MFCD00064292
XlogP3:-2.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:152.14664000
Formula:C5 H12 O5
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Additive: Xylitol
GSFA Codex: Xylitol (967)
DG SANTE Food Additives:xylitol
FDA Mainterm (SATF):87-99-0 ; XYLITOL
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 101 -- FOOD LABELING
Subpart E--Specific Requirements for Health Claims
Sec. 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.


FDA PART 101 -- FOOD LABELING
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 101.9 Nutrition labeling of food.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.395 Xylitol.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.50 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 93.00 to 97.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 216.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 503.00 °F. TCC ( 261.67 °C. )
logP (o/w): -2.649 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 alcohol, slightly
 water, 6.42E+05 mg/L @ C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: humectants
skin conditioning
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
Xylitol Crystalline
Allan Chemical
Xylitol
American International Chemical, LLC.
XYLITOL FCC
Anhui Haibei
Xylitol
Atlantic Chemicals
Xylitol
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Xylitol
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Xylitol
Bristol Botanicals
Xylitol
Charkit Chemical
XYLITOL
Coompo
For experimental / research use only.
Xylitol from Plants ≥98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Xylitol also inhibits the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Xylitol was indeed superior to other polyols such as sorbitol or equal to that of topical fluoride in its anti-caries effect. Possessing approximately 33% fewer calories, xylitol is a lower-calorie alternative to table sugar. Absorbed more slowly than sugar, it does not contribute to high blood sugar levels or the resulting hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin response.
ECSA Chemicals
Xylitol
Company Profile
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
Xylitol
Foodchem International
Xylitol
George Uhe Company
Xylitol
Graham Chemical
Xylitol
Jiangyin Healthway
Xylitol
New functional food ingredients
Kraft Chemical
Xylitol
Maypro Industries
Xylitol
O'Laughlin Industries
XYLITOL DC
O'Laughlin Industries
XYLITOL FCC GRADE
O'Laughlin Industries
XYLITOL HIGH PURITY
O'Laughlin Industries
XYLITOL SUPER FINE MESH
Penta International
XYLITOL NATURAL NF GRADE
Penta International
XYLITOL NATURAL
Penta International
XYLITOL NF GRADE 40 MESH FINE POWDER
Penta International
XYLITOL NF GRADE
Penta International
XYLITOL SYNTHETIC
Prinova
Xylitol USP, FCC, EP
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Xylitol
Sigma-Aldrich
Xylitol
Certified Food Grade Products
Silver Fern Chemical
Xylitol
Odor: characteristic
Use: Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from xylose by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is produced by hydrogenation of xylose, which converts the sugar (an aldehyde) into a primary alcohol.
Sinofi Food Ingredients
Xylitol
Flavor: characteristic
Sugar Substitutes, Chewing Gum, Chocolate, Dairy Products, Confections, Baking Food, Toothpaste, Desserts, Alcoholic Beverages, Fruit Juice, Soft Drink, Beverage Powder, Instant Coffee, Chai Tea, Gelatins, Puddings, Ice Cream, Sauce, Cosmetics, Feed, Pharmaceutical.
The Ingredient House
RightSweet Xylitol
Zhong Ya Chemical
Xylitol 40-80 Mesh
Zhong Ya Chemical
Xylitol DC Grade
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 16500 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.

intramuscular-mouse LD50 10200 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.

intravenous-mouse LD50 8500 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 352, 1995.

oral-mouse LD50 12500 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM STOMACH LIVER: OTHER CHANGES
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 36(2), Pg. 25, 1971.

intraperitoneal-mouse LDLo 22100 mg/kg
Russian Pharmacology and Toxicology Vol. 34, Pg. 124, 1971.

intravenous-rabbit LD50 4000 mg/kg
Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Vol. 31, Pg. 726, 1972.

oral-rabbit LD50 25000 mg/kg
LIVER: OTHER CHANGES GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM STOMACH BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 36(2), Pg. 25, 1971.

intramuscular-rat LD50 15000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.

intravenous-rat LD50 10800 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-rat LD50 > 25000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 18300 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for xylitol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for xylitol flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):87-99-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6912
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
(2S,4R)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol
Chemidplus:0000087990
RTECS:ZF0800000 for cas# 87-99-0
 
References:
 (2S,4R)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):6912
Pubchem (sid):134972012
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00379
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB02917
FooDB:FDB001475
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00778
Export Tariff Code:2905.49.2000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Household Products:Search
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
Formulations/Preparations:
trade names: eutrit; kannit; klinit; kylit; newtol; torch; xyliton.
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 humectants
 sweetener
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 avocado
Search Trop Picture
 avocado seed
Search Trop Picture
 carrot root
Search Trop Picture
 cauliflower
Search Trop Picture
 endive
Search Trop Picture
 onion bulb
Search Trop Picture
 papaya bark
Search Trop Picture
 plum fruit
Search Trop Picture
 raspberry red raspberry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 spinach leaf
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 kannit
 newtol
(2S,4R)-1,2,3,4,5-pentahydroxypentane
(2S,4R)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentaol
(2S,4R)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol
(2S,4R)-1,2,3,4,5-pentanepentol
 rightsweet xylitol powder
 xylitol 40-80 mesh
 xylitol crystalline
 xylitol DC
 xylitol DC grade
 xylitol FCC grade
 xylitol high purity
 xylitol N.F. grade
 xylitol natural
 xylitol NF FCC
 xylitol NF grade 120 mesh fine powder
 xylitol NF grade 200 mesh fine powder
 xylitol super fine mesh
 

Articles:

PubMed:Bamboo: A new source of carbohydrate for biorefinery.
PubMed:Synergistic effects of TAL1 over-expression and PHO13 deletion on the weak acid inhibition of xylose fermentation by industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.
PubMed:Xylitol improves pancreatic islets morphology to ameliorate type 2 diabetes in rats: a dose response study.
PubMed:Xylitol; A review on Bio-production, Application, Health Benefits and Related Safety Issues.
PubMed:Alditols and monosaccharides from sorghum vinegar can attenuate platelet aggregation by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and thromboxane-A2 synthase.
PubMed:Effects of cultured wild-ginseng root and xylitol on fermentation of kimchi.
PubMed:Biochemical perspectives of xylitol extracted from indigenous agricultural by-product mung bean (vigna radiata) hulls in a rat model.
PubMed:Recognition of riboflavin and the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b by antibodies generated to the haptenic epitope D-ribitol.
PubMed:[Determination of alditols in foods by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry].
PubMed:Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.
PubMed:Potential intakes of total polyols based on UK usage survey data.
PubMed:Electrochemical oxidation and electroanalytical determination of xylitol at a boron-doped diamond electrode.
PubMed:Bioethanol production from steam-pretreated corn stover through an isomerase mediated process.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols in foods by high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection].
PubMed:[Determination of alditols in wine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after acetate derivatization].
PubMed:Xylitol affects the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of daidzein in adult male mice.
PubMed:Thermal inactivation of a recombinant lipoxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa BBE in the absence and presence of additives.
PubMed:[Method of quantitative analysis by HPLC and confirmation by LC-MS of sugar alcohols in foods].
PubMed:Characterization of the sugar alcohol-producing yeast Pichia anomala.
PubMed:A review on different modes and methods for yielding a pentose sugar: xylitol.
PubMed:Study of the potential of the air lift bioreactor for xylitol production in fed-batch cultures by Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in alginate beads.
PubMed:Effect of heat moisture treatment on physicochemical and morphological properties of wheat starch and xylitol mixture.
PubMed:Cross-linked potato starch-based blend films using ascorbic acid as a plasticizer.
PubMed:Marijuana poisoning.
PubMed:Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic media effects on polyols.
PubMed:Statistical approach to study the interactive effects of process parameters for enhanced xylitol production by Candida tropicalis and its potential for the synthesis of xylitol monoesters.
PubMed:Cloning of the xylose reductase gene of Candida milleri.
PubMed:Pectinatus sottacetonis sp. nov., isolated from a commercial pickle spoilage tank.
PubMed:Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:In vitro growth of four individual human gut bacteria on oligosaccharides produced by chemoenzymatic synthesis.
PubMed:Green tea formulations with vitamin C and xylitol on enhanced intestinal transport of green tea catechins.
PubMed:Rational and evolutionary engineering approaches uncover a small set of genetic changes efficient for rapid xylose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Low pH D-xylonate production with Pichia kudriavzevii.
PubMed:Purification of xylitol dehydrogenase and improved production of xylitol by increasing XDH activity and NADH supply in Gluconobacter oxydans.
PubMed:Scleroglucan compatibility with thickeners, alcohols and polyalcohols and downstream processing implications.
PubMed:Feasibility of xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing endogenous aldose reductase (GRE3), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and xylulokinase (XYL3) from Scheffersomyces stipitis.
PubMed:Construction of an efficient xylose-fermenting diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain through mating of two engineered haploid strains capable of xylose assimilation.
PubMed:Comparison of Temperature and Additives Affecting the Stability of the Probiotic Weissella cibaria.
PubMed:Evaluating glucose and xylose as cosubstrates for lipid accumulation and ╬│-linolenic acid biosynthesis of Thamnidium elegans.
PubMed:Enhanced xylitol production through simultaneous co-utilization of cellobiose and xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Dental disease prevalence among methamphetamine and heroin users in an urban setting: a pilot study.
PubMed:Effect of xylitol on the functional properties of low-fat process cheese.
PubMed:Xylitol increases serum triglyceride in normal but not in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.
PubMed:Generation of some new mutant xylitol producing yeast strains.
PubMed:Effects of xylitol on blood glucose, glucose tolerance, serum insulin and lipid profile in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.
PubMed:Functional assignment of gene AAC16202.1 from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003: new insights into the bacterial SDR sorbitol dehydrogenases family.
PubMed:Chemical composition and functional properties of gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis).
PubMed:Binding affinity of anti-xylitol antibodies to canine hepatic vessels.
PubMed:Safety assessment of nebulized xylitol in beagle dogs.
PubMed:High expression of XYL2 coding for xylitol dehydrogenase is necessary for efficient xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Caregiver acceptability and preferences for preventive dental treatments for young African-American children.
PubMed:Improved ethanol and reduced xylitol production from glucose and xylose mixtures by the mutant strain of Candida shehatae ATCC 22984.
PubMed:Oral health-related behaviours among dentate adults in Finland: findings from the Finnish Health 2000 Survey.
PubMed:Nonfluoride caries-preventive agents: new guidelines.
PubMed:Effect of nutrient supplementation of crude or detoxified concentrated distilled grape marc hemicellulosic hydrolysates on the xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii.
PubMed:Hidden dangers in the kitchen: common foods toxic to dogs and cats.
PubMed:Cryptococcus thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from cassava sourdough.
PubMed:Are sugar-free confections really beneficial for dental health?
PubMed:Stimulating effect of sorbitol and xylitol on germination and growth of some xerophilic fungi.
PubMed:Cryptococcus cyanovorans sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from cyanide-contaminated soil.
PubMed:Sugar alcohol sweeteners as alternatives to sugar with special consideration of xylitol.
PubMed:AOM in children.
PubMed:Effects of xylitol as a sugar substitute on diabetes-related parameters in nondiabetic rats.
PubMed:Bioethanol production from rice straw by a sequential use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis with heat inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells prior to xylose fermentation.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of dissolvable tobacco products promoted to reduce harm.
PubMed:Microbiological purification of L-arabitol from xylitol mother liquor.
PubMed:Covalent immobilization of recombinant Rhizobium etli CFN42 xylitol dehydrogenase onto modified silica nanoparticles.
PubMed:Microbial and bioconversion production of D-xylitol and its detection and application.
PubMed:Ask us. White spot lesions: prevention and treatment.
PubMed:Dietary and oral hygiene intervention in secondary school pupils.
PubMed:The optimization of dilute acid hydrolysis of cotton stalk in xylose production.
PubMed:Xylitol toxicity in dogs.
PubMed:Improving downstream processes to recover tartaric acid, tartrate and nutrients from vinasses and formulation of inexpensive fermentative broths for xylitol production.
PubMed:Metabolite profiling of doenjang, fermented soybean paste, during fermentation.
PubMed:Mutans streptococci colonization associates with the occupation of caretaker, a practise-based study.
PubMed:Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.
PubMed:Perspectives of engineering lactic acid bacteria for biotechnological polyol production.
PubMed:Quantification of xylitol in foods by an indirect competitive immunoassay.
PubMed:Development of cost-effective media to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction of natural food additives by Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger.
PubMed:Clinical management of root caries.
PubMed:Some food toxic for pets.
PubMed:Changes in children's oral health-related behavior, knowledge and attitudes during a 3.4-yr randomized clinical trial and oral health-promotion program.
PubMed:[Application of the distributed and parallel computation in spectroscopy signal processing].
PubMed:Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.
PubMed:Xylitol: effects on the acquisition of cariogenic species in infants.
PubMed:Caregiver acceptability and preferences for early childhood caries preventive treatments for Hispanic children.
PubMed:Xylose reductase activity in Debaryomyces hansenii UFV-170 cultivated in semi-synthetic medium and cotton husk hemicellulose hydrolyzate.
PubMed:Influence of polyols on the stability and kinetic parameters of invertase from Candida utilis: correlation with the conformational stability and activity.
PubMed:Purification, characterization, and solvent-induced thermal stabilization of ficin from Ficus carica.
PubMed:Sugar fermentation in probiotic bacteria--an in vitro study.
PubMed:Biorhythms of activities of liver and blood dehydrogenases and changes in body weight of the rats feeding normal diet or excess of sugar substitutes.
PubMed:Oral health-related behaviors predictive of failures in caries control among 11-12-yr-old Finnish schoolchildren.
PubMed:Effect of xylitol on adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 to beef carcass surfaces.
PubMed:Xylose metabolism in the fungus Rhizopus oryzae: effect of growth and respiration on L+-lactic acid production.
PubMed:Effect of xylitol and fluoride on enamel erosion in vitro.
PubMed:The effects of polydextrose and xylitol on microbial community and activity in a 4-stage colon simulator.
PubMed:Reductively aminated D-xylose-albumin conjugate as the immunogen for generation of IgG and IgE antibodies specific to D-xylitol, a haptenic allergen.
PubMed:Release of D-xylose from wheat straw by acid and xylanase hydrolysis and purification of xylitol.
PubMed:Production of ethanol from soybean hull hydrolysate by osmotolerant Candida guilliermondii NRRL Y-2075.
PubMed:Shuffling of promoters for multiple genes to optimize xylose fermentation in an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.
PubMed:Dissolution of xylitol from a food supplement administered with a novel slow-release pacifier: preliminary results.
PubMed:Evaluation of enhanced hygroscopicity, bifidogenicity, and anticariogenicity of enzymatically synthesized beta-galactosyl-trehalose oligosaccharides.
PubMed:High-throughput microplate enzymatic assays for fast sugar and acid quantification in apple and tomato.
PubMed:Hydrolysis of sorghum straw using phosphoric acid: evaluation of furfural production.
PubMed:Cryptococcus anemochoreius sp. nov., a novel anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast isolated from the atmosphere in central South Africa.
PubMed:Drinking water additive decreases plaque and calculus accumulation in cats.
PubMed:Purification of xylitol obtained by fermentation of corncob hydrolysates.
PubMed:Xylitol, sweeteners, and dental caries.
PubMed:Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.
PubMed:Bacteriostatic activities of monoacyl sugar alcohols against thermophilic sporeformers.
PubMed:Numerical and genetic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading mycobacteria.
PubMed:Children's acceptance of milk with xylitol or sorbitol for dental caries prevention.
PubMed:Evaluation of the independent and combined effects of xylitol and polydextrose consumed as a snack on hunger and energy intake over 10 d.
PubMed:[Xylitol production from corn cob hemicellulosic hydrolysate by Candida sp].
PubMed:Xylanases from fungi: properties and industrial applications.
PubMed:Xylitol as a causative agent of oral erosive eczema.
PubMed:Xylitol production by a Pichia stipitis D-xylulokinase mutant.
PubMed:Flavor release measurement from gum model system.
PubMed:Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose metabolism exhibits a respiratory response.
PubMed:Development of culture media containing spent yeast cells of Debaryomyces hansenii and corn steep liquor for lactic acid production with Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
PubMed:A preliminary information about continuous fermentation using cell recycling for improving microbial xylitol production rates(scientific note).
PubMed:Stoichiometric network constraints on xylose metabolism by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Material properties of plasticized hardwood xylans for potential application as oxygen barrier films.
PubMed:Army revamps soldiers' rations in effort to promote oral health.
PubMed:Antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria as probiotics against selected bacteria of the Enterobaceriacae family in the presence of polyols and their galactosyl derivatives.
PubMed:Behavioral study in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) using compounds considered sweet by humans.
PubMed:Physico-chemical and transglucosylation properties of recombinant sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM20083.
PubMed:Teaching received in caries prevention and perceived need for Best Practice Guidelines among recent graduates in Finland.
PubMed:Multiple forms of xylose reductase in Candida intermedia: comparison of their functional properties using quantitative structure-activity relationships, steady-state kinetic analysis, and pH studies.
PubMed:Health potential of polyols as sugar replacers, with emphasis on low glycaemic properties.
PubMed:Sugars and dental caries.
PubMed:Antimicrobial performance of alkaline ionic fluid (GC-100X) and its ability to remove Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the surface of tomatoes.
PubMed:Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.
PubMed:Changing flux of xylose metabolites by altering expression of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Nutrition and dental caries.
PubMed:Xylitol and dental caries: an overview for clinicians.
PubMed:The next step in infectious disease: taming bacteria.
PubMed:Kinetic studies on glucose and xylose transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Screening of facultative anaerobic bacteria utilizing D-xylose for xylitol production.
PubMed:Effect of xylitol chewing gum on salivary Streptococcus mutans in preschool children.
PubMed:Optimization of fed-batch fermentation for xylitol production by Candida tropicalis.
PubMed:Utilization of xylitol dehydrogenase in a combined microbial/enzymatic process for production of xylitol from D-glucose.
PubMed:How xylitol-containing products affect cariogenic bacteria.
PubMed:Extraction by reversed micelles of the intracellular enzyme xylose reductase.
PubMed:Activity of xylose reductase from Candida mogii grown in media containing different concentrations of rice straw hydrolysate.
PubMed:Preliminary kinetic characterization of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase extracted from Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 cultivated in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production.
PubMed:Application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis karyoductants to the production of ethanol from xylose.
PubMed:Molecular cloning of XYL3 (D-xylulokinase) from Pichia stipitis and characterization of its physiological function.
PubMed:Involvement of osmotic cell shrinkage on the proton extrusion rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Transient-state and steady-state kinetic studies of the mechanism of NADH-dependent aldehyde reduction catalyzed by xylose reductase from the yeast Candida tenuis.
PubMed:Efficacy of a slow-release device containing fluoride, xylitol and sorbitol in preventing infant caries.
PubMed:[Bioconversion of hemicellulose hydrolysates for xylitol production].
PubMed:Determination of sugar alcohols in confectioneries by high-performance liquid chromatography after nitrobenzoylation.
PubMed:What clients need to know about sugar replacers.
PubMed:Investigation of an in vitro model for predicting the effect of food components on calcium availability from meals.
PubMed:Children's acceptance of xylitol-based foods.
PubMed:Adaptation of dental plaque to metabolise maltitol compared with other sweeteners.
PubMed:Effect of dietary xylitol on growth and inflammatory responses in immune stimulated chickens.
PubMed:Diet and dental caries.
PubMed:Evidence that the gene YLR070c of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a xylitol dehydrogenase.
PubMed:Transglycosylation reactions of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase with acarbose and various acceptors.
PubMed:Increase of xylitol production rate by controlling redox potential in Candida parapsilosis.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of sugar alcohols in beverages and foods after nitrobenzoylation.
PubMed:Strategies to an efficient enzymatic production of xylitol.
PubMed:Increase of xylitol yield by feeding xylose and glucose in Candida tropicalis.
PubMed:Structural and functional properties of a yeast xylitol dehydrogenase, a Zn2+-containing metalloenzyme similar to medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases.
PubMed:Factors that affect the biosynthesis of xylitol by xylose-fermenting yeasts. A review.
PubMed:Cloning and expression of Candida guilliermondii xylose reductase gene (xyl1) in Pichia pastoris.
PubMed:Glucose stimulates transcription of fatty acid synthase and malic enzyme in avian hepatocytes.
PubMed:NAD(P)H-dependent aldose reductase from the xylose-assimilating yeast Candida tenuis. Isolation, characterization and biochemical properties of the enzyme.
PubMed:Application potential for some sugar substitutes in some low energy and diabetic foods.
PubMed:Dietary xylitol retards the ovariectomy-induced increase of bone turnover in rats.
PubMed:Production of Xylitol from D-xylose by Debaryomyces hansenii.
PubMed:Sugar, alternative sweeteners and meal frequency in relation to caries prevention: new perspectives.
PubMed:Metabolic response to lactitol and xylitol in healthy men.
PubMed:Continuous enzymatic production of xylitol with simultaneous coenzyme regeneration in a charged membrane reactor.
PubMed:Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for xylitol production by yeast.
PubMed:Effects of xylitol and carbohydrate diets on dental caries, dentine formation and mineralization in young rats.
PubMed:Effect of polyols on heat inactivation of Aspergillus niger van Teighem inulinase.
PubMed:Effect of sucrose and xylitol diets on dentin formation and caries in rat molars.
PubMed:[Carbohydrate substitutes: comparative study of intestinal absorption of fructose, sorbitol and xylitol].
PubMed:Sweet taste in the calf: III. Behavioral responses to sweeteners.
PubMed:Thermostability of bacterial luciferase expressed in different microbes.
PubMed:Food components and caries.
PubMed:[Does the diabetic patient need special diabetic food?].
PubMed:The effect of cell density on the production of xylitol from D-xylose by yeast.
PubMed:The effect of dietary xylitol on recalcifying and newly formed cortical long bone in rats.
PubMed:Influence of fiber, xylitol and fructose in enteral formulas on glucose and lipid metabolism in normal subjects.
PubMed:Caries-risk-reducing effects of xylitol-containing chewing gum and tablets in confectionery workers in Finland.
PubMed:Effects of chewing gums sweetened with sorbitol or a sorbitol/xylitol mixture on the remineralisation of human enamel lesions in situ.
PubMed:[Simple, safe postoperative parenteral nutrition with a ready-to-use all-in-one solution].
PubMed:Xylitol in chewing gum: a discussion on developing CDA guidelines for the recognition of food products with dental therapeutic claims.
PubMed:Alterations in rat bone composition related to polyol supplementation of the diet.
PubMed:[Principles and practice of nutrition following trauma].
PubMed:Xylitol.
PubMed:Dental and metabolic effects of lactitol in the diet of laboratory rats.
PubMed:Intestinal absorption of oxalate by xylitol-treated rats and mice.
PubMed:Xylitol and the ADA position paper on sweeteners.
PubMed:Collaborative WHO xylitol field study in French Polynesia. I. Baseline prevalence and 32-month caries increment.
PubMed:The influence of food additives and related materials on lower bowel structure and function.
PubMed:Relationship between carbohydrate sweeteners and oral diseases.
PubMed:Adrenal function of the rat in relation to peroral administration of xylitol: depression of aldosterone.
PubMed:Selection for Streptococcus mutans with an altered xylitol transport capacity in chronic xylitol consumers.
PubMed:Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake.
PubMed:[Use of long-chain alcohols in the treatment of postoperative anastomositis].
PubMed:[3-year results of the WHO xylitol caries-prevention program in Hungarian homes for children. III. Dietary studies: frequency of saccharose and xylitol consumption].
PubMed:The effect of dietary refined sugars and sugar alcohols on renal calcium oxalate deposition in ethylene glycol-treated rats.
PubMed:The long-term effect of dietary administration of refined sugars and sugar alcohols on plasma biochemistry, urine biochemistry and tissue histology in mice given a limited degree of dietary self-selection.
PubMed:Monosaccharides in health and disease.
PubMed:Collaborative WHO xylitol field studies in Hungary. II. General background and control of the dietary regimen.
PubMed:Gut microflora interactions with xylitol in the mouse, rat and man.
PubMed:Factors associated with the acceptance of sugar and sugar substitutes by the public.
PubMed:Metabolic effects in rats of high oral doses of galactitol, mannitol and xylitol.
PubMed:The rationale for caries prevention through the use of sugar substitutes.
PubMed:Where some of the others stand: an update on saccharin, cyclamates, xylitol.
PubMed:Enzootic and epizootic adrenal medullary proliferative disease of rats: influence of dietary factors which affect calcium absorption.
PubMed:Diet, nutrition, and oral health: a rational approach for the dental practice.
PubMed:Eating pattern of Osborne-Mendel rats on a sucrose diet and a sucrose/xylitol diet.
PubMed:Effect of long-term, peroral administration of sugar alcohols on man.
PubMed:[It is time in Thailand to use xylitol instead of sucrose for the prevention of dental caries].
PubMed:The involvement of liver fructokinase in the metabolism of D-xylulose and xylitol in isolated rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:[High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of sugar alcohols with UV-detection in the ppm-range in food. I].
PubMed:Sugar substitutes: reasons and indications for their use.
PubMed:Development of fat emulsions.
PubMed:Xylitol. Experimental and clinical investigations conducted in the USSR (review).
PubMed:A rat bioassay for measuring the comparative availability of carbohydrates and its application to legume foods, pure carbohydrates and polyols.
PubMed:Metabolic and nutritional aspects of xylitol.
PubMed:Xylitol and oral health.
PubMed:Gluconeogenesis in isolated chicken (Gallus domesticus) liver cells.
PubMed:[Sugar-substitutes in the prevention of dental caries (author's transl)].
PubMed:The need for special foods and sugar substitutes by individuals with diabetes mellitus.
PubMed:Xylitol--occurrence, manufacture and properties.
PubMed:Sucrose and sucrose substitutes. Industrial considerations.
PubMed:Cariogenicity and acidogenicity of food, confectionery and beverages.
PubMed:Xylitol and D-arabitol toxicities due to derepressed fructose, galactitol, and sorbitol phosphotransferases of Escherichia coli.
PubMed:[Physical properties and technological problems in the use of xylitol].
PubMed:Sweetness of sucrose and xylitol. Structural considerations.
PubMed:[Marginals to mycotoxin research (author's transl)].
PubMed:[Technologic problems in exchange of sugars using sugar exchange substances in food].
PubMed:[Organoleptic problems in exchange of sugar using sugar substitutes in food].
PubMed:[Physiologic aspects of nutrition concerning sugar and sugar exchange substances consumption].
PubMed:[Xylitol and its possible clinical use].
 
Notes:
a five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from xylose by reduction of the carbonyl group. it is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener. Occurs in a variety of plants, berries and fruits including plums, raspberries, cauliflower and endive; sweetening agent used in sugar free sweets and chewing gum Possessing approximately 40% less food energy, xylitol is a low-calorie alternative to table sugar. Absorbed more slowly than sugar, it does not contribute to high blood sugar levels or the resulting hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin response.; Xylitol (from Greek ????? - xyl[on], "wood" + suffix -itol, used to denote sugar alcohols) is an organic compound with the formula (CHOH)3(CH2OH)2. This achiral species is one of four isomers of 1,2,3,4,5-pentapentanol. This sugar alcohol is used as a naturally occurring sugar substitute found in the fibres of many fruits and vegetables, including various berries, corn husks, oats, and mushrooms. It can be extracted from corn fibre, birch, raspberries, plums, and corn. Xylitol is roughly as sweet as sucrose with only two-thirds the food energy. As with most sugar alcohols, consumption can result in bloating, diarrhea, and flatulence, although generally rather less so than other sugar alcohols like sorbitol.; Xylitol is a "tooth friendly" non-fermentable sugar alcohol. A systematic review study on the efficacy of xylitol has indicated dental heath benefits in caries prevention, showing superior performance to other polyols (poly-alcohols). Early studies from Finland in the 1970s found that a group chewing sucrose gum had 2.92 decayed, missing, or filled (dmf) teeth compared to 1.04 in the group chewing xylitol gums. In another study, researchers had mothers chew xylitol gum 3 months after delivery until their children were 2 years old. The researchers found that children in the xylitol group had "a 70% reduction in cavities (dmf)." Recent research confirms a plaque-reducing effect and suggests that the compound, having some chemical properties similar to sucrose, attracts and then "starves" harmful micro-organisms, allowing the mouth to remineralise damaged teeth with less interruption. (However, this same effect also interferes with yeast micro-organisms and others, so xylitol is inappropriate for making yeast-based bread, for instance.); Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol. Xylitol is in a natural state in many fruits (strawberries, plums, raspberries) and vegetables (cauliflower...). The human body naturally processes 15gram xylitol per day during digestion. It can be produced industrially starting from primary matters rich in xylan which is hydrolized to obtain xylose. It is extracted from hemicelluloses present in the corn raids, the almond hulls or the barks of birch (or of the by-products of wood: shavings hard, paper pulp). Of all polyols, it is the one that has the sweetest flavor (it borders that of saccharose). It gives a strong refreshing impression, while remaining not cariogene; as a result, chewing xylitol gum may prevent dental caries. Chewing xylitol gum for 4 to 14 days reduces the amount of plaque. The reduction in the amount of plaque following xylitol gum chewing within 2 weeks may be a transient phenomenon. Chewing xylitol gum for 6 months reduced mutans streptococci levels in saliva and plaque in adults. (PMID: 17426399, 15964535); these three qualities make xylitol an ingredient of choice for the industry of chewing gums without sugar. In addition to his use in confectionery, one finds it in pharmaceutical industry, certain baths of mouth and toothpastes, in cosmetic (creams, soaps...). Xylitol is produced starting from xylose, the isomaltose, by enzymatic transposition of the saccharose (sugar). Xylitol is not metabolized by cariogenic bacteria and gum chewing stimulates the flow of saliva D-Arabitol is a polyol. Polyols are sugar alcohols linked to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). They are classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms. Polyols occur in body fluids. A patient with leukoencephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy has been identified as suffering from ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) deficiency, a defect in the PPP. In this disorder, highly elevated concentrations of the C5 polyols such as D-arabitol are found in body fluids. In addition, transaldolase deficiency, another defect in the PPP, has been diagnosed in a patient with mainly liver problems among others had increased concentrations of polyols, mainly D-arabitol. So far, the pathophysiological role of polyols is relatively unknown. It is thought that D-arabitol is a metabolic end-product in humans. The strong brain-CSF-plasma gradient of polyols in the patient with RPI deficiency suggested a primary metabolic disorder. The mechanisms of brain and neuronal damage in RPI deficiency remain to be elucidated. A neurotoxic effect due to accumulation of the polyols may play a role. D-Arabitol is a product of the enzyme D-arabinitol 4-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.11) in the Pentose and glucuronate interconversion pathway. (PMID: 16435225, J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):1181-3)
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