EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes


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CAS Number: 69-89-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):16819-86-6
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-718-6
Nikkaji Web:J2.371J
Beilstein Number:008733
XlogP3:-0.70 (est)
Molecular Weight:152.11328000
Formula:C5 H4 N4 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -0.730
Soluble in:
 water, 69 mg/L @ 16C (exp)
 water, 1.528e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin conditioning
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
2,6-Dihydroxypurine 98%
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Xanthine >98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Xanthine is a kind of purine compound, which is widely existed and has been foune to exhibit adenoside receptor antagonist activities. relax and widen certain breathing passages of the lungs
Changzhou Longo Chemical
Glentham Life Sciences
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Xanthine ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Xanthine ≥99.5% (HPLC), purified by recrystallization
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD > 3333 mg/kg
French Medicament Patent Document. Vol. #2698M

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 500 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD277-689

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning
Recommendation for xanthine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for xanthine flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):69-89-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :1188
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
RTECS:ZD7700000 for cas# 69-89-6
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:69-89-6
Pubchem (cid):1188
Pubchem (sid):134971816
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00385
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00292
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00263
Export Tariff Code:2933.90.9500
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 coffee bean
Search Trop Picture
Search Trop Picture
 rice plant
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 soybean sprout
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 tea leaf
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 xanthine (VAN) (8CI)


PubMed:Inhibitory effects of cardols and related compounds on superoxide anion generation by xanthine oxidase.
PubMed:In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on Adlay-Derived Seed Extracts: Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Serum Uric Acid Suppression, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Effects.
PubMed:Uptake and protective effects of ergothioneine in human endothelial cells.
PubMed:Simultaneous quantification of purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and their degradation products in bovine blood plasma by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:A chinese herbal medicine, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, prevents dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.
PubMed:High-sensitivity analysis of purines in alcoholic beverages using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Role of caffeine in DNA recognition of a potential food-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and UVA induced DNA damage.
PubMed:Flavonols and flavan-3-ols as modulators of xanthine oxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase activity.
PubMed:The methanol extract of Euonymus laxiflorus, Rubia lanceolata and Gardenia jasminoides inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduce serum uric acid level in rats.
PubMed:Protective effect of ginsenoside Re on acute gastric mucosal lesion induced by compound 48/80.
PubMed:Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by Rhodiola crenulata extracts and their phytochemicals.
PubMed:A peptidomic analysis of human milk digestion in the infant stomach reveals protein-specific degradation patterns.
PubMed:Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Clinical Review.
PubMed:A nanoceria-platinum-graphene nanocomposite for electrochemical biosensing.
PubMed:Biosensing methods for xanthine determination: a review.
PubMed:Graphene nano-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for multiplexed detection of metabolites.
PubMed:Oxidative conversion of B- to A-type procyanidin trimer: evidence for quinone methide mechanism.
PubMed:Black tea polyphenols: a mechanistic treatise.
PubMed:Quantitative analysis of phenolic metabolites from different parts of Angelica keiskei by HPLC-ESI MS/MS and their xanthine oxidase inhibition.
PubMed:Effects of caffeine or RX821002 in rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion.
PubMed:Determination of caffeine, myosmine, and nicotine in chocolate by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Mammary inflammation around parturition appeared to be attenuated by consumption of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
PubMed:Estimation of tea catechin levels using micellar electrokinetic chromatography: a quantitative approach.
PubMed:Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and hypouricemic effect of aspalathin from unfermented rooibos.
PubMed:Consumption of hydrogen-rich water protects against ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced nephrotoxicity and early tumor promotional events in rats.
PubMed:Effect of Oxytocin, IBMX and dbcAMP on Rabbit Ovarian Follicles.
PubMed:Isolation and quantification of major chlorogenic acids in three major instant coffee brands and their potential effects on H2O2-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptosis in PC-12 cells.
PubMed:Pectic polysaccharides of the fresh plum Prunus domestica L. isolated with a simulated gastric fluid and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.
PubMed:Curcumin protection activities against γ-rays-induced molecular and biochemical lesions.
PubMed:2,3-cis-procyanidins elicit endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries via activation of the PI3/Akt kinase signaling pathway.
PubMed:Dietary trans fats enhance doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.
PubMed:Effect of luteolin on xanthine oxidase: inhibition kinetics and interaction mechanism merging with docking simulation.
PubMed:Role of gap junction-mediated communications in regulating large-scale chromatin configuration remodeling and embryonic developmental competence acquisition in fully grown bovine oocyte.
PubMed:Development of a simple LC-MS/MS method for the determination of febuxostat in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study.
PubMed:In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. I. Gastric digestion.
PubMed:In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.
PubMed:Stability of monacolin K and citrinin and biochemical characterization of red-koji vinegar during fermentation.
PubMed:Arxula adeninivorans xanthine oxidoreductase and its application in the production of food with low purine content.
PubMed:Development and application of a method for determination of nucleosides and nucleobases in Mactra veneriformis.
PubMed:Invited review: The effect of native and nonnative enzymes on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients.
PubMed:Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and xanthine oxidase by amino acids and dipeptides.
PubMed:Enzymatic de-glycosylation of rutin improves its antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.
PubMed:Changes in RNA catabolites of sparkling wines during the biological aging.
PubMed:Theacrine, a purine alkaloid obtained from Camellia assamica var. kucha, attenuates restraint stress-provoked liver damage in mice.
PubMed:A simple HPLC method for determining the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages.
PubMed:Development of electrochemical biosensor with nano-interface for xanthine sensing--a novel approach for fish freshness estimation.
PubMed:Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism and toxicity of cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C in rat stomach.
PubMed:Antiradical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial beetroot pomace.
PubMed:Dihydroquercetin (DHQ) induced HO-1 and NQO1 expression against oxidative stress through the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathway.
PubMed:Two 6-(propan-2-yl)-4-methyl-morpholine-2,5-diones as new non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitors and anti-inflammatory agents.
PubMed:In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of an artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) aqueous extract.
PubMed:Polydatin ameliorates renal injury by attenuating oxidative stress-related inflammatory responses in fructose-induced urate nephropathic mice.
PubMed:[Protective effects of cerebroside from sea cucumber on the oxidative damage of PC12 cells induced by H2O2].
PubMed:Mediated xanthine oxidase potentiometric biosensors for hypoxanthine based on ferrocene carboxylic acid modified electrode.
PubMed:Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts.
PubMed:Identification and mode of action of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-hmf) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors in vinegars.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of febuxostat in healthy Chinese volunteers.
PubMed:Evaluation of hepatotoxicity and cholestasis in rats treated with EtOH extract of Fructus Psoraleae.
PubMed:Ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the simultaneous analysis of β-lactams (four penicillins and eight cephalosporins) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.
PubMed:Effect of polymerization on antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential of sea buckthorn (H. rhamnoides) proanthocyanidins.
PubMed:GC-TOF-MS- and CE-TOF-MS-based metabolic profiling of cheonggukjang (fast-fermented bean paste) during fermentation and its correlation with metabolic pathways.
PubMed:Tryptophan-containing milk protein-derived dipeptides inhibit xanthine oxidase.
PubMed:In vitro studies to assess the antidiabetic, antiperoxidative, and radical scavenging potential of Stereospermum colais.
PubMed:Cellular protection during oxidative stress: a potential role for D-ribose and antioxidants.
PubMed:Effects of vitamin U (S-methyl methionine sulphonium chloride) on valproic acid induced liver injury in rats.
PubMed:Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in patients with hyperuricemia and gout.
PubMed:Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from Garcinia subelliptica.
PubMed:Hypouricemic effect of the methanol extract from Prunus mume fruit in mice.
PubMed:A metabolomic approach to the study of wine micro-oxygenation.
PubMed:Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals.
PubMed:High-protein diet during gestation and lactation affects mammary gland mRNA abundance, milk composition and pre-weaning litter growth in mice.
PubMed:Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis of livers from aged rats.
PubMed:Effect of monosodium glutamate on lipid peroxidation and certain antioxidant enzymes in cardiac tissue of alcoholic adult male mice.
PubMed:Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces wasting and improves outcome in a rat model of cancer cachexia.
PubMed:Bioactive compounds, antioxidant, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities of selected agro-industrial by-products.
PubMed:HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profiling of antioxidant flavonoid glycosides in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds.
PubMed:An amperometric biosensor for fish freshness detection from xanthine oxidase immobilized in polypyrrole-polyvinylsulphonate film.
PubMed:Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts.
PubMed:Pivotal role of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, its adaptor molecule MyD88, and inflammasome complex in experimental tubule-interstitial nephritis.
PubMed:Development and certification of green tea-containing standard reference materials.
PubMed:Differential expression of cysteine desulfurases in soybean.
PubMed:Caffeic acid attenuates 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced NF-κB and COX-2 expression in mouse skin: abrogation of oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and proinflammatory cytokine production.
PubMed:Apple peel polyphenol extract protects against indomethacin-induced damage in Caco-2 cells by preventing mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
PubMed:Role of superoxide anions in the redox changes affecting the physiologically occurring cu(i)-glutathione complex.
PubMed:Linagliptin: a novel xanthine-based dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus.
PubMed:Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.
PubMed:Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L.
PubMed:Composition, thermotropic properties, and oxidative stability of freeze-dried and spray-dried milk fat globule membrane isolated from cheese whey.
PubMed:Antioxidant constituents from the stems and fruits of Momordica charantia.
PubMed:Possible biological markers of the time of processing of dry-cured ham.
PubMed:Effects of genistein, apigenin, quercetin, rutin and astilbin on serum uric acid levels and xanthine oxidase activities in normal and hyperuricemic mice.
PubMed:Effect of quercetin supplementation on repeated-sprint performance, xanthine oxidase activity, and inflammation.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of a major anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic compound found in basil, lemon thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme.
PubMed:Bioactive properties of Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith bark extract, the Amazonian "clavo huasca".
PubMed:Neonicotinoid insecticides: oxidative stress in planta and metallo-oxidase inhibition.
PubMed:A nonenzymatic sensor for xanthine based on electrospun carbon nanofibers modified electrode.
PubMed:Xanthine oxidase inhibitory triterpenoid and phloroglucinol from guttiferaceous plants inhibit growth and induced apoptosis in human NTUB1 cells through a ROS-dependent mechanism.
PubMed:In vitro antioxidant properties, DNA damage protective activity, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of cajaninstilbene acid, a stilbene compound derived from pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves.
PubMed:Improvement of fish freshness determination method by the application of amorphous freeze-dried enzymes.
PubMed:Nucleotides and their degradation products during processing of dry-cured ham, measured by HPLC and an enzyme sensor.
PubMed:Chemical investigation of different crude extracts from Teucrium ramosissimum leaves. Correlation with their antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties.
PubMed:Antioxidant, cytoprotective and antibacterial effects of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves.
PubMed:Phytochemicals from Acacia confusa heartwood extracts reduce serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice: their potential use as xanthine oxidase inhibitors.
PubMed:Gout therapeutics: new drugs for an old disease.
PubMed:Dietary purines in vegetarian meat analogues.
PubMed:Bisphenol A 3,4-quinone induces the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in vitro.
PubMed:Kinetic study on the inhibition of xanthine oxidase by extracts from two selected Algerian plants traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
PubMed:Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.
PubMed:Urate-lowering therapy for gout: focus on febuxostat.
PubMed:Analysis of free-radical scavenging of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguriensis) using electron spin resonance and radical-induced DNA damage.
PubMed:Analysis of seven purines and pyrimidines in pork meat products by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Alteration in the activity of oxidative enzymes in the tissues of male Wistar albino rats exposed to cadmium.
PubMed:Oxidative stress and vascular function: implications for pharmacologic treatments.
PubMed:Glycoprotein expression in human milk during lactation.
PubMed:Phlomis mauritanica extracts reduce the xanthine oxidase activity, scavenge the superoxide anions, and inhibit the aflatoxin B1-, sodium azide-, and 4-nitrophenyldiamine-induced mutagenicity in bacteria.
PubMed:Antioxidant properties, radical scavenging activity and biomolecule protection capacity of flavonoid naringenin and its glycoside naringin: a comparative study.
PubMed:The metabolism and N-oxide reduction of olaquindox in liver preparations of rats, pigs and chicken.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of extracts and main polyphenolic compounds obtained from Geranium sibiricum L.
PubMed:Febuxostat: a selective xanthine-oxidase/xanthine-dehydrogenase inhibitor for the management of hyperuricemia in adults with gout.
PubMed:Phenolic extract of soybean (Glycine max) attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
PubMed:Grape skin improves antioxidant capacity in rats fed a high fat diet.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on molybdenum hydroxylases activity.
PubMed:Antagonist selective modulation of adenosine A1 and A3 receptor pharmacology by the food dye Brilliant Black BN: evidence for allosteric interactions.
PubMed:Acute exercise does not attenuate postprandial oxidative stress in prediabetic women.
PubMed:Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by Acacia confusa extracts and their phytochemicals.
PubMed:Evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of African variety of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam fruit.
PubMed:Polyphenol composition and antioxidant potential of Hibiscus esculentus L. fruit cultivated in Nigeria.
PubMed:Antioxidant, free radical scavenging activities of Salvia brachyantha and its protective effect against oxidative cardiac cell injury.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of phenolic phytochemicals from Acacia confusa twigs and branches.
PubMed:Phloroglucinols inhibit chemical mediators and xanthine oxidase, and protect cisplatin-induced cell death by reducing reactive oxygen species in normal human urothelial and bladder cancer cells.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities of Vaccinium uliginosum L. extract and its active components.
PubMed:Hydrogen peroxide-dependent conversion of nitrite to nitrate as a crucial feature of bovine milk catalase.
PubMed:Melatonin improves placental efficiency and birth weight and increases the placental expression of antioxidant enzymes in undernourished pregnancy.
PubMed:Quantification of milk fat globule membrane proteins using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) mushroom extract protects against hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
PubMed:Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against tamoxifen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
PubMed:Update on emerging urate-lowering therapies.
PubMed:New gout treatment approved.
PubMed:Antihyperglycemic effects of fruits of privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat diet.
PubMed:Novel high-throughput assay for antioxidant capacity against superoxide anion.
PubMed:Pieris brassicae inhibits xanthine oxidase.
PubMed:Intake of Chlorella vulgaris improves antioxidative capacity in rats oxidatively stressed with dietary cadmium.
PubMed:Nitroreductive metabolic activation of some carcinogenic nitro heterocyclic food contaminants in rat mammary tissue cellular fractions.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of curcumin on the invasion of rat ascites hepatoma cells in vitro and ex vivo.
PubMed:[Intervention effect of ganoderma lucidum spores on the changes of XOD, MPO and SDH in the testis tissue of NIDDM rats].
PubMed:Bimodal effect of glycyrrhizin on macrophage nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production.
PubMed:Effect of Indian herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant capacity and trace elements content in diabetic rats.
PubMed:A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.
PubMed:Development of a high analytical performance-xanthine biosensor based on layered double hydroxides modified-electrode and investigation of the inhibitory effect by allopurinol.
PubMed:Evaluation of antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts from Aloe saponaria Haw.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of minimally processed red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) evaluated in xanthine oxidase-, myeloperoxidase-, and diaphorase-catalyzed reactions.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on aldehyde oxidase activity.
PubMed:Protective effect of Sesbania grandiflora against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage in rats.
PubMed:Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.).
PubMed:The prophylactic protective effect of sesamol against ferric-nitrilotriacetate-induced acute renal injury in mice.
PubMed:Antioxidant, anti-semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, and anti-hypertensive activities of geraniin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria.
PubMed:Protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity and DNA damage.
PubMed:Cell death induced by flavonoid glycosides with and without copper.
PubMed:Consumption of green tea favorably affects oxidative stress markers in weight-trained men.
PubMed:Electrochemiluminescent biosensor for hypoxanthine based on the electrically heated carbon paste electrode modified with xanthine oxidase.
PubMed:Antimicrobial properties of milkfat globule membrane fractions.
PubMed:Protective effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on KBrO3-induced kidney damage in mice.
PubMed:Interaction between mercaptopurine and milk.
PubMed:Content of polyphenolic compounds in the Nigerian stimulants Cola nitida ssp. alba, Cola nitida ssp. rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl and their antioxidant capacity.
PubMed:Effect of food or antacid on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of febuxostat in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Nonenzymatic antioxidative and antiglycative effects of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid.
PubMed:Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in renal epithelial cells and macrophages.
PubMed:Antioxidant and prooxidant effects of quercetin on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds, organic acids profiles and antioxidative properties of beefsteak fungus (Fistulina hepatica).
PubMed:Antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and whitening effects of extracts of Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb.
PubMed:Effect of monosodium glutamate on oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat thymus.
PubMed:Development of a biosensor for caffeine.
PubMed:Protection against oxidative stress in diabetic rats by wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides.
PubMed:Characterization of the role of para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthesis in folate production by Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Grape seed polyphenols protect cardiac cells from apoptosis via induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes.
PubMed:Overview of antibacterial, antitoxin, antiviral, and antifungal activities of tea flavonoids and teas.
PubMed:Black grape and garlic extracts protect against cyclosporine a nephrotoxicity.
PubMed:Distinctive antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols.
PubMed:Isolation, purification and identification of ellagic acid derivatives, catechins, and procyanidins from the root bark of Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br.
PubMed:Pepsin, a reliable marker of gastric aspiration, is frequently detected in tracheal aspirates from premature ventilated neonates: relationship with feeding and methylxanthine therapy.
PubMed:Toxic side effects of drugs used to treat Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis).
PubMed:Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of alkyl gallates.
PubMed:The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide.
PubMed:Simulated digestion of Vitis vinifera seed powder: polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.
PubMed:Radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties of STW 5 (Iberogast) and its components.
PubMed:Characterization of the volatile pattern and antioxidant capacity of essential oils from different species of the genus Ocimum.
PubMed:Preventive effect of tannic acid on 2-acetylaminofluorene induced antioxidant level, tumor promotion and hepatotoxicity: a chemopreventive study.
PubMed:Cocoa polyphenols inhibit phorbol ester-induced superoxide anion formation in cultured HL-60 cells and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and activation of NF-kappaB and MAPKs in mouse skin in vivo.
PubMed:Enzymatic preparation of kaempferol from green tea seed and its antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Flow injection determination of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and its application to food samples.
PubMed:Radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Opuntia humifusa Raf.
PubMed:Suppressive effects of mioga ginger and ginger constituents on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation, and the expression of inducible pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages.
PubMed:Cisplatin impairs antioxidant system and causes oxidation in rat kidney tissues: possible protective roles of natural antioxidant foods.
PubMed:Characterization of alkyl phenols in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) products and assay of their antioxidant capacity.
PubMed:Development of quality evaluation sensor for fish freshness control based on KI value.
PubMed:Xanthine oxidase activity in vitro: effects of food extracts and components.
PubMed:Apocynin but not allopurinol prevents and reverses adrenocorticotropic hormone-induced hypertension in the rat.
PubMed:Development of an amperometric hypoxanthine biosensor for determination of hypoxanthine in fish and meat tissue.
PubMed:Understanding local Mediterranean diets: a multidisciplinary pharmacological and ethnobotanical approach.
PubMed:Protective effects of L-arginine on pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses during exhaustive exercise in rats.
PubMed:Inhibition of enzyme activities and the antiwrinkle effect of polyphenol isolated from the persimmon leaf (Diospyros kaki folium) on human skin.
PubMed:Isolation and structure elucidation of phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds and pericarp.
PubMed:Radical scavenging and anti-lipoperoxidative activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf extracts.
PubMed:Effects of cyclosporine on oxidant/antioxidant status in rat ovary tissues: protective role of black grape extract.
PubMed:Purple grape juice inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and in vivo DMBA-DNA adduct formation.
PubMed:Deactivation of triplet-excited riboflavin by purine derivatives: important role of uric acid in light-induced oxidation of milk sensitized by riboflavin.
PubMed:Urolithiasis in adolescent children.
PubMed:"Local Food - Nutraceuticals": an example of a multidisciplinary research project on local knowledge.
PubMed:Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.).
PubMed:Secoiridoids, tocopherols, and antioxidant activity of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils extracted from destoned fruits.
PubMed:Antioxidative, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic activities of rice bran extracts in chemical and cell assays.
PubMed:Biological activity in traditional Alaska pollack sikhae during low temperature fermentation.
PubMed:Interactions of fat globule surface proteins during concentration of whole milk in a pilot-scale multiple-effect evaporator.
PubMed:Influence of thermal processing conditions on flavor stability in fluid milk: benzaldehyde.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities of extracts from five anti-viral medicinal plants.
PubMed:High-pressure-induced interactions between milk fat globule membrane proteins and skim milk proteins in whole milk.
PubMed:Rationale, design and organisation of an efficacy and safety study of oxypurinol added to standard therapy in patients with NYHA class III - IV congestive heart failure.
PubMed:A ready-to-use fluorimetric biosensor for superoxide radical using superoxide dismutase and peroxidase immobilized in sol-gel glasses.
PubMed:Antioxidative effects of glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum L.
PubMed:Using analytical multidimensional isocratic HPLC methods of separation to isolate active constituents in natural products.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).
PubMed:In vitro antioxidative effects and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of seven hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives in green coffee beans.
PubMed:Effect of kaikasaponin III obtained from Pueraria thunbergiana flowers on serum and hepatic lipid peroxides and tissue factor activity in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.
PubMed:Bioguided isolation and identification of the nonvolatile antioxidant compounds from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) waste.
PubMed:Free radical scavenging properties of hetero-chitooligosaccharides using an ESR spectroscopy.
PubMed:Suppressive effects of selected antioxidants on the activated leukocytes-induced mutagenesis in the co-culture assay systems.
PubMed:A prolyl endopeptidase-inhibiting antioxidant from Phyllanthus ussurensis.
PubMed:Biosensors for determination of total and natural antioxidant capacity of red and white wines: comparison with other spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods.
PubMed:Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.
PubMed:Neuroprotection by bioactive components in medicinal and food plant extracts.
PubMed:Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of isoflavone metabolites.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of thioureidic derivatives I.
PubMed:Determination of antioxidant properties of aromatic herbs, olives and fresh fruit using an enzymatic sensor.
PubMed:Attenuation of blood parameters in smokers and non-smokers after intake of a complex food additive.
PubMed:Radiolysis of kaempferol in water/methanol mixtures. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of kaempferol and products formed.
PubMed:Mutagenicity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as detected by co-culture of activated inflammatory leukocytes and AS52 cells.
PubMed:Improved superoxide-generating system suitable for the assessment of the superoxide-scavenging ability of aqueous extracts of food constituents using ultraweak chemiluminescence.
PubMed:Comparison of the antioxidant activities of extra virgin olive oils.
PubMed:Aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity in raw milk.
PubMed:Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity of boar semen by pentoxifylline, caffeine, and theophylline.
PubMed:Scavenging property of three cresol isomers against H2O2, hypochlorite, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals.
PubMed:Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quencher.
PubMed:Detection of oxidant-induced slight chromosomal damage in cells by subsequent exposure to X-rays.
PubMed:Pathways involved in mild gastrointestinal inflammation induced by a low level exposure to a food contaminant.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of dodecyl gallate.
PubMed:Zerumbone, a Southeast Asian ginger sesquiterpene, markedly suppresses free radical generation, proinflammatory protein production, and cancer cell proliferation accompanied by apoptosis: the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group is a prerequisite.
PubMed:Ultrastructural localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity in isolated rat liver cells.
PubMed:In vivo protective effect of protocatechuic acid on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced rat hepatotoxicity.
PubMed:[The antioxidant activity of wild jujubi, crataegus and grape in vitro].
PubMed:Study of catechin and xanthine tea profiles as geographical tracers.
PubMed:Flow system for fish freshness determination based on double multi-enzyme reactor electrodes.
PubMed:Screening of edible Japanese plants for suppressive effects on phorbol ester-induced superoxide generation in differentiated HL-60 cells and AS52 cells.
PubMed:Uric acid is closely linked to vascular nitric oxide activity. Evidence for mechanism of association with cardiovascular disease.
PubMed:Induction of apoptosis by superoxide anion and the protective effects of selenium and Vitamin E.
PubMed:Identification and antioxidant activity of novel chlorogenic acid derivatives from bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).
PubMed:Changes of gastric lipase activity after ethanol and indomethacin administration: influence of pretreatment with allopurinol, pentoxifylline and L-DOPA.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of Centaurium erythraea infusion evidenced by its superoxide radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.
PubMed:Oxidation of ascorbate in raw milk induced by enzymes and transition metals.
PubMed:Antagonism of free-radical-induced damage of adlay seed and its antiproliferative effect in human histolytic lymphoma U937 monocytic cells.
PubMed:Properties of tomato powders as additives for food fortification and stabilization.
PubMed:Asafoetida inhibits early events of carcinogenesis: a chemopreventive study.
PubMed:Evaluation of health aspects of kojic acid in food.
PubMed:Cytosolic xanthine oxidoreductase mediated bioactivation of ethanol to acetaldehyde and free radicals in rat breast tissue. Its potential role in alcohol-promoted mammary cancer.
PubMed:Effects of food intake and oxidative stress on intestinal lesions caused by meloxicam and piroxicam in rats.
PubMed:Conjugation position of quercetin glucuronides and effect on biological activity.
PubMed:Enzyme inhibition and protein-binding action of the procyanidin-rich french maritime pine bark extract, pycnogenol: effect on xanthine oxidase.
PubMed:Combined phenotypic assessment of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A, N-acetyltransferase-2, and xanthine oxidase with the "Cooperstown cocktail".
PubMed:Inhibition of xanthine oxidase and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HL-60 cells by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and propyl gallate.
PubMed:Free radical scavenging activity and antiulcer activity of garcinol from Garcinia indica fruit rind.
PubMed:N-acetyltransferase-dependent activation of 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(5-hydroxy)phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine, a possible biomarker for the reactive dose of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of tomato products as studied by model reactions using xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and copper-induced lipid peroxidation.
PubMed:Nutrient absorption and utilization by wing and flight muscle morphs of the cricket Gryllus firmus: implications for the trade-off between flight capability and early reproduction.
PubMed:Biochemical model reactions indicative of inflammatory processes. Activities of extracts from Fraxinus excelsior and Populus tremula.
PubMed:[Scavenging effect of total flavonoids of lycium barbarum L on active oxygen radicals and inhibitory effects on heat output from L1210 cells].
PubMed:Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by flavonoids.
PubMed:Seasonal variation of xanthine oxidoreductase activity in the digestive gland cells of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis: a biochemical, histochemical and immunochemical study.
PubMed:Evaluation of radical scavenging activity of fresh and air-dried tomatoes by three model reactions.
PubMed:Biosynthesis and catabolism of caffeine in low-caffeine-containing species of Coffea.
PubMed:Xanthine degradation and related enzyme activities in leaves and fruits of two coffea species differing in caffeine catabolism.
PubMed:Comparative study of polyphenol scavenging activities assessed by different methods.
PubMed:Ethanol-related gastric mucosal damage: evidence of a free radical-mediated mechanism and beneficial effect of oral supplementation with bionormalizer, a novel natural antioxidant.
PubMed:Comparative in vitro and in vivo effects of antioxidants.
PubMed:Pro- and antioxidative properties of cortical tissue preparations from human brain exhibiting NMDA-receptor characteristics.
PubMed:Effects of polyphenol substances derived from Theobroma cacao on gastric mucosal lesion induced by ethanol.
PubMed:Effect of carotenoids on the respiratory burst of rat peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes.
PubMed:How important is intestinal reperfusion injury in horses?
PubMed:Clinical trials in dementia with propentofylline.
PubMed:The protective role of some antioxidants and scavengers on the free radicals-induced inhibition of the liver iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase activity and thiols content.
PubMed:Glutathione recycling is attenuated by acute ethanol feeding in rat liver.
PubMed:Influence of two diets on pharmacokinetic parameters of allopurinol and oxypurinol in healthy beagles.
PubMed:Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of intravenously and orally administered allopurinol in healthy beagles.
PubMed:Free radical scavenging and antioxidative properties of 'silibin' complexes on microsomal lipid peroxidation.
PubMed:Flow-injection analysis for hypoxanthine in meat with dissolved oxygen detector and enzyme reactor.
PubMed:[Xanthine oxidase deficiency (hereditary xanthinuria), molybdenum cofactor deficiency].
PubMed:Oxidation of caffeine and related methylxanthines in ascorbate and polyphenol-driven Fenton-type oxidations.
PubMed:Effects of bio-normalizer (a food supplementation) on free radical production by human blood neutrophils, erythrocytes, and rat peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:Theophylline pharmacokinetics and metabolism in rabbits following single and repeated administration of Capsicum fruit.
PubMed:Dietary nicotinamide supplementation increases xanthine oxidoreductase activity in the kidney and heart but not liver of obese Zucker rats.
PubMed:Influence of allopurinol and two diets on 24-hour urinary excretions of uric acid, xanthine, and ammonia by healthy dogs.
PubMed:Antioxidative effects of a processed grain food.
PubMed:Studies on the inhibitory effects of curcumin and eugenol on the formation of reactive oxygen species and the oxidation of ferrous iron.
PubMed:Mechanisms of interleukin-2-induced hydrothoraxy in mice: protective effect of endotoxin tolerance and dexamethasone and possible role of reactive oxygen intermediates.
PubMed:Protection from radiation injury by elemental diet: does added glutamine change the effect?
PubMed:Molybdenum: an essential trace element.
PubMed:Xanthine toxicity to caterpillars synergized by allopurinol, a xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase inhibitor.
PubMed:A mechanism of vitamin E-enhanced active oxygen formation in concanavalin A-stimulated alveolar macrophage.
PubMed:Effects of CGS 15943, a nonxanthine adenosine antagonist, on behavior in the squirrel monkey.
PubMed:Non-thermal effect of ceramics radiation on folate structure and on xanthine oxidase inhibition by folate.
PubMed:The effect of acute nonbacterial dependent peritonitis on lung and liver oxidant stress and antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Scavenging of superoxide anions by spice principles.
PubMed:Evaluation of the antioxidant actions of ferulic acid and catechins.
PubMed:Effect of dietary fluoride on selenite toxicity in the rat.
PubMed:Dietary supplementation of vitamin E protects heart tissue from exercise-induced oxidant stress.
PubMed:Molybdenum requirement of female rats.
PubMed:Study on the pathogenic factors of Kashin-Beck disease.
PubMed:Inhibition of release of arachidonic acid, superoxide, and IL-1 from human monocytes by monoclonal anti-HLA class II antibodies: effects at proximal and distal points of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis pathway.
PubMed:Chocolate craving and liking.
PubMed:The effect of nutritional state and allopurinol on nucleotide formation in enterocytes from the guinea pig small intestine.
PubMed:Molybdenum in the premature infant.
PubMed:Reductive metabolism of nitro-p-phenylenediamine by rat liver.
PubMed:Assessment of the uricogenic potential of processed foods based on the nature and quantity of dietary purines.
PubMed:An FIA biosensor system for the determination of phosphate.
PubMed:Free radical scavenging action of Bio-catalyzer alpha.rho No.11 (Bio-normalyzer) and its by-product.
PubMed:Enhancement of maximal thermogenesis by reducing endogenous adenosine activity in the rat.
PubMed:Effects of dietary iron deficiency and tungsten supplementation on 59Fe absorption and gastric retention from 59Fe compounds in rats.
PubMed:Protection against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats by 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine or by irradiation.
PubMed:Effect of nutritional state and allopurinol on purine metabolism in the rat small intestine.
PubMed:Characteristics of purified cows' milk xanthine oxidase and its submolecular characteristics.
PubMed:Effect of acute Yersinia enterocolitica infection on in vivo and in vitro small intestinal solute and fluid absorption in the rabbit.
PubMed:The effects of recessive lethal Notch mutations of Drosophila melanogaster on flavoprotein enzyme activities whose inhibitions cause Notch-like phenocopies.
PubMed:Influences of dietary restriction and age on liver enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in mice.
PubMed:Determination of phosphate ions with an enzyme sensor system.
PubMed:Milk and arteriosclerosis.
PubMed:Effect of synthetic antioxidants on hydrogen peroxide formation, oxyferro cytochrome P-450 concentration and oxygen consumption in liver microsomes.
PubMed:Conformational analysis of erythrosine B (FD&C Red No. 3) and its comparison with thyroid hormone structures.
PubMed:Effect of erythrosin B on hyperpolarizing responses to catecholamines in amphibian sympathetic ganglia.
PubMed:Nucleoside and oxypurine homeostasis in adult rabbit cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.
PubMed:Testicular effects of some xanthine derivatives in the rat.
PubMed:Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products.
PubMed:Effects of molybdenum on the organism (a review).
PubMed:[Xanthine oxidase in homogenized cow's milk and Oster's hypothesis: a review].
PubMed:Theobromine metabolism.
PubMed:The use of prostaglandin inhibitors for the premenstrual syndrome.
PubMed:Homogenized milk and atherosclerotic disease: a review.
PubMed:Liposomes as a proposed vehicle for the persorption of bovine xanthine oxidase.
PubMed:Correlation of dairy food intake with human antibody to bovine milk xanthine oxidase.
PubMed:[Is homogenated milk injurious to health?].
PubMed:Determination of hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid in ruminant's urine.
PubMed:Influence of storage, heat, and homogenization upon xanthine oxidase activity of milk.
PubMed:Influence of overfeeding on growth, obesity and intestinal tract in young chicks of light and heavy breeds.
PubMed:[Effect of accelerations, additional weight load and hypokinesia on protein catabolism in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)].
PubMed:Homogenized milk: is it really the culprit in dietary-induced atherosclerosis?
PubMed:The nutritive value of biscuits protein-enriched with soy-bean meal.
PubMed:Low gene variation in Drosophila busckii.
PubMed:Observations on the regulation of uricase activity during development of Drosophila melanogaster.
PubMed:Influence of various purines on uric acid metabolism.
PubMed:[Effect of the nature of ternary foods on the utilization of dietary proteins].
PubMed:[The effect of molybdenum contain in food on certain indices of purine metabolism].
PubMed:Application of metabolic data to the evaluation of drugs. A report prepared by the committee on problems of drug safety of the drug research board, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council.
PubMed:The toast, ladies and gentlemen, is to alcohol.
PubMed:Mechanisms of pathogenesis in Listeria monocytogenes infection. II. Characterization of listeriosis in the CD-1 mouse and survey of biochemical lesions.
PubMed:[Cellular physiological studies on the toxicity of ethyl alcohol].
PubMed:Distribution of the xanthine oxidase factor (molybdenum) in foods.
a purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. it is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. the methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (dorland, 28th ed) Found in potatoes, coffee beans, etc.
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