urea
carbonamidimidic acid
 
Notes:
a compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. it is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids. Formulation aid. Cattle feed supplement
  • American International Chemical, LLC.
    • American International Chemical, Inc.
      Consistent sources
      North American supplier for globally sourced ingredients.
      AIC is a Framingham, MA based ISO Certified sales and marketing company serving the food, pharmaceutical, nutritional, personal care, biotech, and industrial markets of North America since 1972. Our success is a result of a company culture built on customer needs, along with partnerships with global manufacturers committed to the rigors and demands of the North American market. Our team of 30 Sales Representatives, along with our 19 strategically located warehouses are ready to supply product when and where you need it.
      Email: Info
      Voice: (800) 238-0001
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      Product(s):
      URUPMC Urea
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      21-85000 UREA
      21-85025 UREA USP / JP GRADE
       
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urea (Click)
CAS Number: 57-13-6Picture of molecule
Other: 30535-50-3
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 200-315-5
FDA UNII: 8W8T17847W
Nikkaji Web: J2.322A
Beilstein Number: 773698
MDL: MFCD00008022
XlogP3-AA: -1.40 (est)
Molecular Weight: 60.05608000
Formula: C H4 N2 O
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: formulation aids, fermentation aids
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1923 Urea View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Urea
DG SANTE Food Additives: carbamide
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials: carbamide
FDA Mainterm: UREA
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.180 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1200 Cellophane.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces
Sec. 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.


FDA PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1923 Urea.
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 1.33500 @  25.00 °C.
Melting Point: 132.00 to  134.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 196.00 to  197.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure: 0.395000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 163.00 °F. TCC ( 72.70 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -1.660 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 545000 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
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Organoleptic Properties:
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
buffering agents
humectants
skin conditioning
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Suppliers:
American International Chemical, LLC.
Urea
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Urea >98%
Covalent Chemical
Urea
Graham Chemical
Urea
Lianyungang Yunbo Chemical
UREA
Penta International
UREA USP / JP GRADE
Penta International
UREA
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Urea powder, BioReagent, for molecular biology, suitable for cell culture
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
UREA CHEMICAL GRADE PRILLED
Odor: characteristic
Use: Urea is a raw material for the manufacture of two main classes of materials: urea-formaldehyde resins and urea-melamine-formaldehyde used in marine plywood. Urea can be used to make urea nitrate, a high explosive that is used industrially and as part of some improvised explosive devices. It is a stabilizer in nitrocellulose explosives. Urea in concentrations up to 10 M is a powerful protein denaturant as it disrupts the noncovalent bonds in the proteins. This property can be exploited to increase the solubility of some proteins. A mixture of urea and choline chloride is used as a deep eutectic solvent, a type of ionic liquid.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
UREA COMMERCIAL GRADE
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
UREA USP KOSHER
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  8471 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 51(6), Pg. 8, 1986.

intravenous-rat LD50  5300 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) BEHAVIORAL: ANTIPSYCHOTIC
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 13, Pg. 749, 1977.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50  > 5000 mg/kg
Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fuer Pharmakologie und Experimentelle Pathologie. Vol. 257, Pg. 296, 1967.

intravenous-dog LDLo  3000 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1353, 1935.

intravenous-mouse LD50  4600 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ANTIPSYCHOTIC BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 13, Pg. 749, 1977.

oral-mouse LD50  11000 mg/kg
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 31(12), Pg. 53, 1987.

intraperitoneal-mouse LDLo  6608 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: COMA BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 57, Pg. 19, 1936.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo  4800 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1353, 1935.

oral-rabbit LDLo  10000 mg/kg
BLOOD: HEMORRHAGE LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: STRUCTURAL OR FUNCTIONAL CHANGE IN TRACHEA OR BRONCHI BRAIN AND COVERINGS: OTHER DEGENERATIVE CHANGES
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science. Vol. 15, Pg. 125, 1953.

intratracheal-rat LD50  567 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA BLOOD: METHEMOGLOBINEMIA-CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 30(3), Pg. 43, 1986.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-rat LD50 8200 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) BEHAVIORAL: ANTIPSYCHOTIC BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 13, Pg. 749, 1977.

subcutaneous-dog LDLo 3000 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1353, 1935.

subcutaneous-frog LDLo 600 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1353, 1935.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 9200 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) BEHAVIORAL: ANTIPSYCHOTIC BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 13, Pg. 749, 1977.

subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 3000 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1353, 1935.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: formulation aids, fermentation aids
Recommendation for urea usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for urea flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance urea
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Urea for ruminants
View page or View pdf
Outcome of the consultation with Member States, the applicant and EFSA on the pesticide risk assessment for urea in light of confirmatory data
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 57-13-6
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 1176
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 urea
Chemidplus: 0000057136
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 57-13-6
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References:
 urea
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 57-13-6
Pubchem (cid): 1176
Pubchem (sid): 134970701
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
UM BBD: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00086
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00294
FooDB: FDB012174
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00003
Export Tariff Code: 3102.10.0000
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Formulations/Preparations:
•dosage forms--sterile usp: 40 & 90 g. •ultrahigh purity grades; solutions at 5m american research products co •ual-37 contains 35% urea •n-dure contains 26% urea •uf concentrate-85 contains 26% urea •urea is pelletized or prilled to avoid caking and to make it easy to handle. •ureacin-20 creme contains urea at 20%; ureacin-40 creme contains urea at 40%; ureacin-10 lotion contains urea at 10%. •technical; cp; us; fertilizer (45-46% nitrogen); feed grade (about 42% nitrogen) •formulations (solid form): urea-ammonia phosphate (uap); urea-ammonia sulfate (uas); urea-phosphate. formulations (solution): urea-ammonia nitrate (uan) •grade: reagent-grade; solid urea
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents 
 humectants 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
 purslane plant
Search Trop  Picture
 tea plant
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
 carbamide
 carbamimic acid
 carbamimidic acid
 carbonamidimidic acid
 carbonyl diamide
 carbonyl diamine
 carbonyldiamide
 carbonyldiamine
 urea multicompendium USP EP JP
 urea USP
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Articles:
Info: Urea
PubMed: Microbial cell-free extracts as sources of enzyme activities to be used for enhancement flavor development of ewe milk cheese.
PubMed: Anti-diabetic effects of shubat in type 2 diabetic rats induced by combination of high-glucose-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin.
PubMed: Pediatric drug formulation of sodium benzoate extended-release granules.
PubMed: Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.
PubMed: Simulating protein folding in different environmental conditions.
PubMed: Monitoring the ripening process of Cheddar cheese based on hydrophilic component profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Breeding research on sake yeasts in Japan: history, recent technological advances, and future perspectives.
PubMed: Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.
PubMed: Effects of ad libitum ingestion of monosodium glutamate on weight gain in C57BL6/J mice.
PubMed: SB-334867-A, a selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist, enhances taste aversion learning and blocks taste preference learning in rats.
PubMed: Food flavor cinnamaldehyde-induced biochemical and histological changes in the kidney of male albino wistar rat.
PubMed: Nitrogen catabolite repression modulates the production of aromatic thiols characteristic of Sauvignon Blanc at the level of precursor transport.
PubMed: Carcass, sensory, fat color, and consumer acceptance characteristics of Angus-cross steers finished on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forage or on a high-concentrate diet.
PubMed: Meat quality responses to feeding distiller's grains to finishing Holstein steers.
PubMed: The effect of application of cold natural smoke on the ripening of Cheddar cheese.
PubMed: [A study on formation of N-(nitrosomethyl) urea in experimental pig stomach gavaged with fish sauce].
PubMed: Ripening of cheddar cheese with added attenuated adjunct cultures of lactobacilli.
PubMed: Effect of urea on volatile generation from Maillard reaction of cysteine and ribose.
PubMed: Clinical validation of the Helikit: a 13C urea breath test used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
PubMed: Effect of ethanol in feed on milk flavor and chemical composition.
PubMed: Dietary preferences in early lactation cows as affected by primary tastes and some common feed flavors.
PubMed: Feed and animal factors influencing milk fat composition.
PubMed: Preference of Old World monkeys for amino acids and other gustatory stimuli: the influence of monosodium glutamate.
PubMed: Ingestion of low concentrations of sucrose or hydrochloric acid solutions accelerates mortality in rats with cholestatic liver disease.
PubMed: [Setting a maximum allowable concentration for urea in reclaimed potable water and evaluating the nature of its biological action].
PubMed: Nutritive value of methane fermentation residue in diets fed to feedlot steers.
PubMed: Factors influencing intake of high urea-containing rations by lactating dairy cows.
PubMed: Flavor preferences in malnourished Mexican infants.
PubMed: Milk production of cows on protein-free feed.
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