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syringic acid
benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-

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CAS Number: 530-57-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:208-486-8
FDA UNII: E390O181H5
Nikkaji Web:J11.712I
Beilstein Number:2115262
CoE Number:10111
XlogP3:1.00 (est)
Molecular Weight:198.17470000
Formula:C9 H10 O5
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.087 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to pale tan solid powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 206.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 440.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.000001 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 311.00 °F. TCC ( 155.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.040
Soluble in:
 water, 5783 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Syringic acid 98%
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Syringic Acid
For experimental / research use only.
Syringic Acid (HPLC) ≥95%
Glentham Life Sciences
Syringic acid
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Syringic Acid ≥98%
For experimental / research use only.
Syringic Acid
analytical standard
For experimental / research use only.
Syringic Acid >97.0%(T)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavoring agents
Recommendation for syringic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 1.20 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 3200 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 3.0000015.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 2.0000010.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 3.0000015.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): 2.0000010.00000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 10.0000050.00000
Chewing gum (05.3): --
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 5.0000025.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 10.0000050.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 2.0000010.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 2.0000010.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 5.0000025.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 10.0000050.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 3.0000015.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 10.0000050.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 15.0000075.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 5.0000025.00000
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 20 (FGE.20): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical group 23
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 52 (FGE.52): Consideration of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.20 (2005) (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 54 (FGE.54)[1] - Consideration of benzyl derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.20 (2005) - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 1 (FGE.20Rev1): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters from chemical group 23
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 54, Revision 1 (FGE.54Rev1): Consideration of benzyl derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.20Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 2 (FGE.20Rev2): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3(FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 4 (FGE.20Rev4): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):530-57-4
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :10742
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid
RTECS:DH2090000 for cas# 530-57-4
 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:530-57-4
Pubchem (cid):10742
Pubchem (sid):134976316
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C10833
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB02085
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01787
Export Tariff Code:2918.99.4700
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 arrowroot leaf
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 barley plant
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 beer - up to 1.1 mg/kg
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 beet root
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 bilberry fruit
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 bilberry fruit juice
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 bilberry leaf
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 buckwheat testa
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 cacao bean
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 carrot root
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 coconut leaf
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 corn tissue culture
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 currant black currant fruit
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 evening-primrose plant
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 fennel seed
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 fig wood
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 grape - 1.3 mg/kg
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 grape hull husk
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 grape leaf
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 mango fruit - up to 0.096 mg/kg
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 olive fruit
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 oregano plant
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 pea root
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 pea seed
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 peanut nut
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 rum - up to 18 mg/kg
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 soybean - up to 34 mg/kg
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 soybean root
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 soybean seed
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 sunflower seed
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 tarragon leaf
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 turmeric leaf
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut testa
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 wheat seed
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 whiskey - up to 1.4 mg/kg
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 wine - up to 10 mg/kg
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 benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-
 cedar acid
3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid
3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl acid
 gallic acid 3,5-dimethyl ether
4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-benzoic acid
4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid


PubMed:Anti-thrombosis Activity of Sinapic Acid Isolated from the Lees of Bokbunja Wine.
PubMed:Antifungal activity of salicylic acid against Penicillium expansum and its possible mechanisms of action.
PubMed:Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.
PubMed:Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from XiLan olive fruit dreg.
PubMed:Antioxidant capacity and chemical profiles of Satureja montana L. Honey: hotrienol and syringyl derivatives as biomarkers.
PubMed:The antibiotic activity and mechanisms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse extract against food-borne pathogens.
PubMed:Breads enriched with guava flour as a tool for studying the incorporation of phenolic compounds in bread melanoidins.
PubMed:Anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed on high-fat diet Sprague dawley rats.
PubMed:Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Leaves Phenolic Fraction.
PubMed:Inhibitory Effects of Chemical Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra on Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cell.
PubMed:Winery by-products: extraction optimization, phenolic composition and cytotoxic evaluation to act as a new source of scavenging of reactive oxygen species.
PubMed:Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.
PubMed:Phenolic and carotenoid profiles and antiproliferative activity of foxtail millet.
PubMed:Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.
PubMed:Optimization of extraction conditions of areca seed polyphenols and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.
PubMed:Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of extracts prepared from fermented heat-stabilized defatted rice bran.
PubMed:Copigmentation of malvidin-3-O-glucoside with five hydroxybenzoic acids in red wine model solutions: experimental and theoretical investigations.
PubMed:Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Miracle Fruit leaves on mutation and oxidative damage.
PubMed:Phytochemical and antiproliferative activity of proso millet.
PubMed:High levels of Bifidobacteria are associated with increased levels of anthocyanin microbial metabolites: a randomized clinical trial.
PubMed:In vitro anti-osteoporosis properties of diverse Korean Drynariae rhizoma phenolic extracts.
PubMed:Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography for analysis of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in Thai local wines.
PubMed:Determination of polyphenolic compounds of red wines by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics tools.
PubMed:Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.
PubMed:Electron transfer from plant phenolates to carotenoid radical cations. Antioxidant interaction entering the Marcus theory inverted region.
PubMed:Changes in antioxidant activity and phenolic acid composition of tarhana with steel-cut oats.
PubMed:Comparison of phenolic compounds of orange juice processed by pulsed electric fields (PEF) and conventional thermal pasteurisation.
PubMed:Spectrophotometric study of the copigmentation of malvidin 3-O-glucoside with p-coumaric, vanillic and syringic acids.
PubMed:The identification of degradation products and degradation pathway of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside under microwave treatment.
PubMed:Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of low molecular weight polyphenolics from Inonotus obliquus on human DNA topoisomerase activity and cancer cell proliferation.
PubMed:Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.
PubMed:New limonoids and a dihydrobenzofuran norlignan from the roots of Toona sinensis.
PubMed:Structure selective complexation of cyclodextrins with five polyphenols investigated by capillary electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:A new and improved strategy combining a dispersive-solid phase extraction-based multiclass method with ultra high pressure liquid chromatography for analysis of low molecular weight polyphenols in vegetables.
PubMed:Potential for food-drug interactions by dietary phenolic acids on human organic anion transporters 1 (SLC22A6), 3 (SLC22A8), and 4 (SLC22A11).
PubMed:Determination of polyphenols in Spanish wines by capillary zone electrophoresis. Application to wine characterization by using chemometrics.
PubMed:Classification and characterization of manuka honeys based on phenolic compounds and methylglyoxal.
PubMed:Metabolism of anthocyanins by human gut microflora and their influence on gut bacterial growth.
PubMed:Color of whole-wheat foods prepared from a bright-white hard winter wheat and the phenolic acids in its coarse bran.
PubMed:Pomological features, nutritional quality, polyphenol content analysis, and antioxidant properties of domesticated and 3 wild ecotype forms of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.).
PubMed:Chemical constituents comparison between Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae and Rhizoma Smilacis Chinae by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS.
PubMed:Impact of short-term intake of red wine and grape polyphenol extract on the human metabolome.
PubMed:Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a post-column derivatization technique.
PubMed:Preparation of free, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenolic compounds from peels of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and evaluation of antioxidant activities in vitro.
PubMed:Assessment of antioxidant potentials of free and bound phenolics of Hemidesmus indicus (L) R.Br against oxidative damage.
PubMed:Lignin depolymerisation in supercritical carbon dioxide/acetone/water fluid for the production of aromatic chemicals.
PubMed:Isolation of methyl syringate as a specific aflatoxin production inhibitor from the essential oil of Betula alba and aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of its related compounds.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds in wheat grain cultivars.
PubMed:Determination of low-molecular mass phenols in red wines: the influence of chips, staves and micro-oxygenation aging tank.
PubMed:Enhancement of soluble dietary fibre, polyphenols and antioxidant properties of chapatis prepared from whole wheat flour dough treated with amylases and xylanase.
PubMed:Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.
PubMed:Structure and function of the oxidation products of polyphenols and identification of potent lipoxygenase inhibitors from Fe-catalyzed oxidation of resveratrol.
PubMed:Phenolic acid composition of sprouted wheats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and their antioxidant activities.
PubMed:Effect of processing methods on the nutraceutical and antioxidant properties of little millet (Panicum sumatrense) extracts.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and HPLC analyses of the phenolic compounds of extracts from common Mediterranean plants.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of hard wheat flour, dough and bread prepared using various processes with the addition of different phenolic acids.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds as cultivar- and variety-distinguishing factors in some plant products.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of the avenanthramide-rich extract from oat and its effect on D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice.
PubMed:Maple syrup phytochemicals include lignans, coumarins, a stilbene, and other previously unreported antioxidant phenolic compounds.
PubMed:Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.
PubMed:Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of lyophilized aqueous extract of propolis from Erzurum, Turkey.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of wine vinegars produced by two different techniques.
PubMed:Secondary plant substances in various extracts of the leaves, fruits, stem and bark of Caraipa densifolia Mart.
PubMed:Determination of alkylresorcinol metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Polyphenolics profile, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of leaves and stem of Raphanus sativus L.
PubMed:The metabolic fate of red wine and grape juice polyphenols in humans assessed by metabolomics.
PubMed:Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the edible medicinal halophyte Tamarix gallica L. and related polyphenolic constituents.
PubMed:Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt.
PubMed:Characterization of a rare triterpenoid and minor phenolic compounds in the root bark of Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br.
PubMed:Evaluation of the peroxynitrite scavenging activity of heat-processed ginseng.
PubMed:Metabolism of berry anthocyanins to phenolic acids in humans.
PubMed:Selective bio-availability of phenolic acids from Scottish strawberries.
PubMed:Identification of Cabernet Sauvignon anthocyanin gut microflora metabolites.
PubMed:Quantification of alkylresorcinol metabolites in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric electrode array detection.
PubMed:Chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and thermal stability of a phytochemical enriched oil from Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).
PubMed:Cytoprotective effects of phenolic acids on methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis in Neuro-2A cells.
PubMed:Oxidative transformation of natural and synthetic phenolic mixtures by Trametes versicolor laccase.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of sugar molasses, including protective effect against DNA oxidative damage.
PubMed:Efficiency of natural phenolic compounds regenerating alpha-tocopherol from alpha-tocopheroxyl radical.
PubMed:Differentiation of young red wines based on chemometrics of minor polyphenolic constituents.
PubMed:Inhibition of gastric H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori growth by phenolic antioxidants of Zingiber officinale.
PubMed:High-amylose corn exhibits better antioxidant activity than typical and waxy genotypes.
PubMed:Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from flax shives by pressurized low-polarity water.
PubMed:Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).
PubMed:Conversion of sinapic acid to syringic acid by a filamentous fungus Paecilomyces variotii.
PubMed:Antimutagenic effect of phenolic acids.
PubMed:Genotype and environmental variation in phenolic content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity of hard spring wheat.
PubMed:Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer.
PubMed:Structure influence on biophenols solubility in model biomembranes detected by differential scanning calorimetry.
PubMed:Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolics of three native fresh and sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman.
PubMed:A universal HPLC method for the determination of phenolic acids in compound herbal medicines.
PubMed:Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L.
PubMed:Analyses of phenolic compounds by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:Phenolic profiles of raw apricots, pumpkins, and their purees in the evaluation of apricot nectar and jam authenticity.
PubMed:Protection capacity against low-density lipoprotein oxidation and antioxidant potential of some organic and non-organic wines.
PubMed:Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of cereal brans.
PubMed:Comparison between cachaça and rum using pattern recognition methods.
PubMed:Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in tandem mode applied for the identification of wine markers in residues from ancient Egyptian vessels.
PubMed:Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action.
PubMed:Metabolic profiling of root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:Study of low molecular weight phenolic compounds during the aging of sparkling wines manufactured with red and white grape varieties.
PubMed:Effects of phenolic acids on human phenolsulfotransferases in relation to their antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds profile of cornicabra virgin olive oil.
PubMed:2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging active components from adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) hulls.
PubMed:Determination of free and total phenolic acids in plant-derived foods by HPLC with diode-array detection.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds isolated from Mesona procumbens Hemsl.
PubMed:Separation of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with absorbance and fluorimetric detection.
PubMed:Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum l.): variation of phenolic acids in root tissues.
PubMed:1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging compounds from soybean miso and antiproliferative activity of isoflavones from soybean miso toward the cancer cell lines.
PubMed:Anti-oxidant, pro-oxidant properties of tannic acid and its binding to DNA.
PubMed:Free and conjugated polyamines and phenols in raw and alkaline-clarified sugarcane juices.
PubMed:Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits.
PubMed:Structural features of tannic acid important for DNA degradation in the presence of Cu(II).
PubMed:The blocking effect of phenolic acid on N-nitrosomorpholine formation in vitro.
Present in various plants free and combined, e.g. principal phenolic constit. of soyabean meal (Glycine max) Syringic acid is a phenol present in some distilled alcohol beverages. It is also a product of microbial (gut) metabolism of anthocyanins and other polyphenols that have been consumed (in fruits and alcoholic beverages - PMID: 18767860). Research suggests that phenolics from wine may play a positive role against oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Syringic acid is correlated with high antioxidant activity and inhibition of LDL oxidation. (PMID 15545043)
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