EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

3-benzisothiazolinone 1,1-dioxide

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 81-07-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:201-321-0
Nikkaji Web:J3.855E
Beilstein Number:006888
XlogP3:0.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:183.18645000
Formula:C7 H5 N O3 S
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:sweetening agent only in special dietary foods
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Additive: Saccharin
GSFA Codex: Saccharin (954(i))
DG SANTE Food Additives:saccharin
FDA Mainterm (SATF):81-07-2 ; SACCHARIN
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.116 Artificially sweetened canned apricots.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.131 Artificially sweetened canned figs.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.171 Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
Sec. 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.141 Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.161 Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.812 Glycine.

Subpart B--Specific Requirements for Certain Food Additives
Sec. 180.37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 228.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 0.910
Soluble in:
 water, 4000 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
 basic solutions
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: fragrance
oral care agents
Anhui Haibei
Atlantic Chemicals
Saccharin Base 550x
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Saccharin insoluble 95%
George Uhe Company
Glentham Life Sciences
Northwestern Extract
Saccharin FCC
Saccharin (Insoluble)
Penta International
Penta International
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Insoluble Saccharin
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Saccharin ≥99%
United International
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50 17000 mg/kg
Experientia. Vol. 35, Pg. 1364, 1979.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
sweetening agent only in special dietary foods
Recommendation for saccharin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Outcome of the public consultation on a draft protocol for assessing exposure to sweeteners as part of their safety assessment under the food additives re-evaluation programme
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):81-07-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :5143
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:DE4200000 for cas# 81-07-2
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:81-07-2
Pubchem (cid):5143
Pubchem (sid):134972500
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C12283
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB29723
Export Tariff Code:2925.11.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
•grades: commercial; cp chemically pure: a grade designation signifying a minimum of impurities, but not 100% pure; usp united states pharmacopeia; fcc food chemicals codex. •sodium saccharin fcc (food chemicals codex) is available in the usa in four grades: spray-dried, containing 3.0% moisture; powder, containing 5.0-5.8% moisture; pelletized, containing 10.5-11.5% moisture; and granular, containing 14.0-15.0% moisture. each of these grades meets or exceeds the following food chemicals codex specifications: 98-101% active ingredient on an anhydrous basis, 3-15% water, 100 mgkg toluenesulphonamides, 30 mgkg selenium, 10 mgkg heavy metals (as lead) and 3 mgkg arsenic. sodium saccharin •trade names: assugrin vollsuss (also contains sodium cyclamate); garantose; glucid; gluside; hermesetas; kandiset; natreen (also contains sodium cyclamate); sacarina; 550 saccharin; saccharina; saccharinol; saccharinose; saccharol; saxin; sucre edulcor; sucrette; sykose; zaharina. •available in the usa as saccharin insoluble powder fcc (food chemicals codex): 98-101% active ingredient on an anhydrous basis, a maximum of 100 mgkg toluenesulphonamides, 30 mgkg selenium, 10 mgkg heavy metals (as lead) & 3 mgkg arsenic available in the usa as a usp grade containing 98-101% active ingredient on an anhydrous basis.
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 oral care agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 anhydro-o-sulfaminebenzoic acid
1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide
1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one, 1,1-dioxide
1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one 1,1-dioxide
1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one, 1,1-dioxide
1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one 1,1-dioxide
3-benzisothiazolinone 1,1-dioxide
o-benzoic acid sulfimide
 benzoic sulfimide
o-benzoic sulfimide
 benzoic sulphinide
1,2-benzothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide
3-hydroxybenzisothiazole S,S-dioxide
2-sulfobenzoic acid imide
2-sulphobenzoic imide


PubMed:Circulating Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Inhibits Eating in Male Rats by Acting in the Hindbrain and Without Inducing Avoidance.
PubMed:Post-oral fat stimulation of intake and conditioned flavor preference in C57BL/6J mice: A concentration-response study.
PubMed:Evaluation of saccharin intake and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences following opioid receptor antagonism in the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala or lateral hypothalamus in rats.
PubMed:Role of NMDA, opioid and dopamine D1 and D2 receptor signaling in the acquisition of a quinine-conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.
PubMed:Persistent enhancement of ethanol drinking following a monosodium glutamate-substitution procedure in C57BL6/J and DBA/2J mice.
PubMed:"Jello® shots" and cocktails as ethanol vehicles: parametric studies with high- and low-saccharin-consuming rats.
PubMed:Effect of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonism in the lateral hypothalamus on the expression and acquisition of fructose-conditioned flavor preference in rats.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric monosodium glutamate in mice.
PubMed:Contextual control of flavor neophobia.
PubMed:Sensory-specific appetition: Postingestive detection of glucose rapidly promotes continued consumption of a recently encountered flavor.
PubMed:Refeeding after acute food restriction: differential reduction in preference for ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors in selectively bred rats.
PubMed:Post-oral glucose stimulation of intake and conditioned flavor preference in C57BL/6J mice: a concentration-response study.
PubMed:Double-dissociation of D1 and opioid receptor antagonism effects on the acquisition of sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in BALB/c and SWR mice.
PubMed:Do gastrointestinal taste receptors contribute to associative learning and foraging behavior?
PubMed:Saccharin pre-exposure enhances appetitive flavor learning in pre-weanling rats.
PubMed:Dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala is required for the acquisition of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:Flavor avoidance learning based on missing calories but not on palatability reduction.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric glucose but not fructose or galactose in C57BL/6J mice.
PubMed:Roles of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of fat-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:MK-801 induces a low intensity conditioned taste aversion.
PubMed:Rapid post-oral stimulation of intake and flavor conditioning by glucose and fat in the mouse.
PubMed:Strain differences in sucrose- and fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by post-oral infusion of monosodium glutamate in rats.
PubMed:Dopamine and learned food preferences.
PubMed:SB-334867-A, a selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist, enhances taste aversion learning and blocks taste preference learning in rats.
PubMed:Rats' learned preferences for flavors encountered early or late in a meal paired with the postingestive effects of glucose.
PubMed:Rational development of taste masked oral liquids guided by an electronic tongue.
PubMed:Opioid mediation of starch and sugar preference in the rat.
PubMed:Increased liking for a solution is not necessary for the attenuation of neophobia in rats.
PubMed:Latent inhibition of conditioned disgust reactions in rats.
PubMed:Post-oral infusion sites that support glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:Opioid receptor antagonism in the nucleus accumbens fails to block the expression of sugar-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:Ondansetron blocks LiCl-induced conditioned place avoidance but not conditioned taste/flavor avoidance in rats.
PubMed:Role of amygdala dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:Rapid acquisition of conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:Conditioned flavor avoidance as a measure of withdrawal in rats chronically exposed to a caffeine solution.
PubMed:Sucrose taste but not Polycose taste conditions flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:Impact of brief or extended extinction of a taste aversion on inhibitory associations: evidence from summation, retardation, and preference tests.
PubMed:Role of systemic endocannabinoid CB-1 receptor antagonism in the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor-flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:Role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell on the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor-flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:Potentiation of taste and extract stimuli in conditioned flavor preference learning.
PubMed:The effects of continuous and intermittent ethanol exposure in adolesence on the aversive properties of ethanol during adulthood.
PubMed:CD36 gene deletion reduces fat preference and intake but not post-oral fat conditioning in mice.
PubMed:Overeating by young obesity-prone and lean rats caused by tastes associated with low energy foods.
PubMed:Effect of prior exposure to a lithium- and an amphetamine-paired flavor on the acoustic startle response in rats.
PubMed:NMDA receptor in conditioned flavor-taste preference learning: blockade by MK-801 and enhancement by D-cycloserine.
PubMed:Conditioned preference for sweet stimuli in OLETF rat: effects of food deprivation.
PubMed:Fat and sugar flavor preference and acceptance in C57BL/6J and 129 mice: experience attenuates strain differences.
PubMed:Persistence of conditioned flavor preferences is not due to inadvertent food reinforcement.
PubMed:Robust preference for a flavor paired with intragastric glucose acquired in a single trial.
PubMed:Extinction of a saccharin-lithium association: assessment by consumption and taste reactivity.
PubMed:Nutrient-conditioned flavor preference and incentive value measured by progressive ratio licking in rats.
PubMed:Ethanol withdrawal and proclivity are inversely related in rats selectively bred for differential saccharin intake.
PubMed:Flavor preference conditioning as a function of fat source.
PubMed:Sugar and fat conditioned flavor preferences in C57BL/6J and 129 mice: oral and postoral interactions.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by postingestive effects of nutrients in preweanling rats.
PubMed:Flavor processing: perceptual and cognitive factors in multi-modal integration.
PubMed:Stability of an Extemporaneously Compounded Propylthiouracil Suspension.
PubMed:Odor of taste stimuli in conditioned "taste" aversion learning.
PubMed:'Thermal taste' predicts higher responsiveness to chemical taste and flavor.
PubMed:Naltrexone does not prevent acquisition or expression of flavor preferences conditioned by fructose in rats.
PubMed:Fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in male and female rats: effects of sweet taste and sugar concentration.
PubMed:Lateral parabrachial lesions impair lithium chloride-induced aversive responses but not saccharin-induced flavor preference.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned in C57BL/6 mice by intragastric carbohydrate self-infusion.
PubMed:Simmondsin: effects on meal patterns and choice behavior in rats.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric ethanol with limited access training.
PubMed:Dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists reduce the acquisition and expression of flavor-preferences conditioned by fructose in rats.
PubMed:Selective effects of vagal deafferentation and celiac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy on the reinforcing and satiating action of intestinal nutrients.
PubMed:Flavor quality and ethanol concentration affect ethanol-conditioned flavor preferences.
PubMed:Naltrexone suppresses the late but not early licking response to a palatable sweet solution: opioid hedonic hypothesis reconsidered.
PubMed:Low body temperature, time dilation, and long-trace conditioned flavor aversion in rats.
PubMed:Conditioned inhibition of cyclophosphamide-induced taste aversion.
PubMed:Conditioning tastant and the acquisition of conditioned taste avoidance to drugs of abuse in DBA/2J mice.
PubMed:Amphetamine and morphine produce a conditioned taste and place preference in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).
PubMed:Conditioned enhancement of flavor evaluation reinforced by intragastric glucose. II. Taste reactivity analysis.
PubMed:D1 but not D2 dopamine receptor antagonism blocks the acquisition of a flavor preference conditioned by intragastric carbohydrate infusions.
PubMed:Two procedures establishing preference for oral cocaine and lidocaine solutions which do not use an associative history with a reinforcer.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric infusion of ethanol in rats.
PubMed:Basolateral and central amygdaloid lesions leave aversion to dietary amino acid imbalance intact.
PubMed:Naltrexone fails to block the acquisition or expression of a flavor preference conditioned by intragastric carbohydrate infusions.
PubMed:Role of D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptors in the acquisition and expression of flavor-preference conditioning in sham-feeding rats.
PubMed:Establishing preference for lidocaine solution to water: comparison between a fading and an abrupt-removal procedure for withdrawing a compound vehicle.
PubMed:Pharmacology of flavor preference conditioning in sham-feeding rats: effects of dopamine receptor antagonists.
PubMed:Motivational state regulates the content of learned flavor preferences.
PubMed:Pharmacology of flavor preference conditioning in sham-feeding rats: effects of naltrexone.
PubMed:Conditioned flavor avoidance, preference, and indifference produced by intragastric infusions of galactose, glucose, and fructose in rats.
PubMed:Galactose consumption induces conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.
PubMed:Effects of haloperidol or SCH-23390 on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by high-fat versus high-carbohydrate diets vary as a function of session length.
PubMed:Differential reinforcing and satiating effects of intragastric fat and carbohydrate infusions in rats.
PubMed:Palatability and foraging cost interact to control caloric intake.
PubMed:Low body temperature affects associative processes in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion.
PubMed:High-fat diet preference and overeating mediated by postingestive factors in rats.
PubMed:Learned suppression of intake based on anticipated calories: cross-nutrient comparisons.
PubMed:Effects of acute and repeated exposures to Aroclor 1254 in adult rats: motor activity and flavor aversion conditioning.
PubMed:Retention of context blocking in taste-aversion learning.
PubMed:Conditioned Inhibition Produced by Extinction of a Conditioned Stimulus
PubMed:The composition of the maintenance diet alters flavor-preference conditioning by intragastric fat infusions in rats.
PubMed:Stimulus specificity in flavor acceptance learning.
PubMed:The importance of taste and palatability in carbohydrate-induced overeating in rats.
PubMed:Food deprivation increases the rat's preference for a fatty flavor over a sweet taste.
PubMed:Carbohydrate- and protein-conditioned flavor preferences: effects of nutrient preloads.
PubMed:Genetic differences in ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion after ethanol preexposure.
PubMed:Investigation of the devaluation interpretation of anticipatory negative contrast.
PubMed:Limited importance of a learned aversion in the hypophagic effect of interleukin-1 beta.
PubMed:Stimulation of fluid intake by maltodextrins and starch.
PubMed:The intensity of a fetal taste aversion is modulated by the anesthesia used during conditioning.
PubMed:Carbohydrate, fat, and protein condition similar flavor preferences in rats using an oral-delay procedure.
PubMed:Morphine-induced taste avoidance is attenuated with multiple conditioning trials.
PubMed:Robust conditioned flavor preferences with a sensory preconditioning procedure.
PubMed:Motivational properties of ethanol in mice selectively bred for ethanol-induced locomotor differences.
PubMed:Glucose- and fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats: taste versus postingestive conditioning.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric infusions of dilute polycose solutions.
PubMed:Dissociation of palatability and calorie effects in learned flavor preferences.
PubMed:Stimulation of fluid intake by carbohydrates: interaction between taste and calories.
PubMed:Effects of neuropeptide Y on ingestion of flavored solutions in nondeprived rats.
PubMed:How herbivores track variable environments: Response to variability of phytotoxins.
PubMed:The alcohol-deprivation effect in hybrid mice.
PubMed:Early onset of reduced morphine analgesia by ingestion of sweet solutions.
PubMed:Morphine acts in the parabrachial nucleus, a pontine viscerosensory relay, to produce discriminative stimulus effects.
PubMed:Ambient temperature effects on taste aversion conditioned by ethanol: contribution of ethanol-induced hypothermia.
PubMed:Conditioned taste and taste-potentiated odor aversions in the Syracuse high- and low-avoidance (SHA/Bru and SLA/Bru) strains of rats (Rattus norvegicus).
PubMed:Determinants of the slow acquisition of medical and sulcal prefrontal cortex self-stimulation: an individual differences approach.
PubMed:Effects of acute swim stress on LiCl-induced conditioned taste aversions.
PubMed:Functional dissociation of acute and persistent cognitive deficits accompanying amygdala-kindled seizures.
PubMed:Lambs form preferences for nonnutritive flavors paired with glucose.
PubMed:Negative anticipatory contrast and preference conditioning: flavor cues support preference conditioning, and environmental cues support contrast.
PubMed:Both conditioned taste preference and aversion induced by corticotropin-releasing factor.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by sugars: rats learn to prefer glucose over fructose.
PubMed:Preference of Old World monkeys for amino acids and other gustatory stimuli: the influence of monosodium glutamate.
PubMed:Cholecystokinin conditions flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:Assessment of ethanol's hedonic effects in mice selectively bred for sensitivity to ethanol-induced hypothermia.
PubMed:Withdrawal from chronic nicotine fails to produce a conditioned taste aversion to saccharin in rats.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric polycose infusions: a detailed analysis using an electronic esophagus preparation.
PubMed:Influence of the sense of taste on broiler chick feed consumption.
PubMed:Effect of ingestion-contingent hypothermia on ethanol self-administration.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric fat infusions in rats.
PubMed:A flavor paired with lithium chloride blocks the formation of a pentobarbital-lithium chloride association.
PubMed:Conditional immunomodulation following training with cyclophosphamide.
PubMed:Conditioned taste aversion to injected flavor: differential effect of anesthesia on the formation of the gustatory trace and on its association with poisoning in rats.
PubMed:Effects of antihistamines on centrifugal rotation-induced analgesia and conditioned flavor aversions.
PubMed:Drinking saccharin increases food intake and preference--III. Sensory and associative factors.
PubMed:The behavioral effects of pesticides in male mice.
PubMed:Starch-based conditioned flavor preferences in rats: influence of taste, calories and CS-US delay.
PubMed:Tolerance to morphine analgesia from brief exposure to a palatable solution.
PubMed:Aversive conditioning properties of caffeine in rats.
PubMed:Behavioral consequences of chelator administration in acute cadmium toxicity.
PubMed:Conditioned flavor aversion induced by inhaled p-xylene in rats.
PubMed:From contrast to reinforcement: role of response contingency in anticipatory contrast.
PubMed:Non-reinforcing effects of giving 'dessert' in rats.
PubMed:Conditioned flavor aversions: applications in assessing the efficacy of chelators in the treatment of heavy-metal intoxication.
PubMed:Conditioned flavor preferences based on delayed caloric consequences.
PubMed:Hunger enhances the expression of calorie- but not taste-mediated conditioned flavor preferences.
PubMed:Effects of centrifugal rotation on analgesia and conditioned flavor aversions.
PubMed:Caffeine enhancement of saccharin but not cyclamate flavor avoidance.
PubMed:Flavor aversions induced by thallium sulfate: importance of route of administration.
PubMed:Effects of learned flavor avoidance on grooming behavior in rats.
PubMed:Olfactory responses in the gustatory area of the parabrachial pons.
PubMed:Flavor avoidance expressed in grooming by pine voles (Microtus pinetorum): importance of context and hormonal factors.
PubMed:Effects of preexposure flavor concentration on conditioned aversion and neophobia.
PubMed:The effect of intracerebroventricularly infused satietin on conditioned taste aversion and feeding in rats fasted different lengths.
PubMed:Norepinephrine-facilitated eating: reduction in saccharin preference and conditioned flavor preferences with increase in quinine aversion.
PubMed:Aversive consequences of jejunoileal bypass in the rat: a conditioned taste aversion analysis.
PubMed:Involvement of the anterior insular gustatory neocortex in taste-potentiated odor aversion learning.
PubMed:Behavioral conditioned responses across multiple conditioning/testing trials elicited by lithium- and amphetamine-paired flavors.
PubMed:Disparity between formation of conditioned flavor aversions and neophobia during grooming in rats and mice.
PubMed:Potentiation of a conditioned taste aversion in preweanling and adult rats.
PubMed:Developmental flavor experience affects utilization of odor, not taste in toxiphobic conditioning.
PubMed:The effect of CS-preexposure on conditioned taste aversion in young and adult rats.
PubMed:How sensory properties of foods affect human feeding behavior.
PubMed:Long-delay associations between drug states produced in rats by injecting two drugs in sequence.
PubMed:Flavor-illness aversions: potentiation of odor by taste with toxin but not shock in rats.
PubMed:Pre-exposure to flavor and conditioned taste aversion: amphetamine and lithium reinforcers.
PubMed:Alcohol dependence and taste-mediated learning in the rat.
PubMed:Conditioned flavor aversions: a toxicity test of the anticholinesterase agent, physostigmine.
PubMed:Aversion learning in 5-day-old rats: taste-toxicosis and texture-shock associations.
PubMed:Vasopressin and conditioned flavor aversion in aged rats.
PubMed:Flavor and location aversions produced by ethanol.
PubMed:Non-specific enhancement of ethanol-induced taste aversion by naloxone.
PubMed:An associative analysis of pretreatment effects in gustatory conditioning by amphetamine.
PubMed:Flavor-illness aversions: potentiation of odor by taste in rats.
PubMed:Long-term retention of flavor familiarization: effects of number and amount of prior exposures.
PubMed:Fortification of soft drinks with protein from cottage cheese whey.
PubMed:Saccharin sodium as a potential sweetener for antidotal charcoal.
PubMed:Taste-aversion conditioning with expected versus unexpected drug treatment.
PubMed:Evidence for withdrawal from caffeine by rats.
PubMed:Conditioned flavor aversions for assessing precipitated morphine abstinence in rats.
PubMed:Determinants of the enhancement of flavored-water intake by prior exposure.
PubMed:[An organoleptic method for determining optimal flavor composition of foods by exchange of constituents].
PubMed:The nature of the thirst stimulus: a factor in conditioned taste-aversion behavior.
PubMed:Flavor preference: effects of ingestion-contingent intravenous saline or glucose.
flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener. Widely-used sweetening agent. All salts intensely sweet. Permitted in foods at levels of 80-1200 ppm in EU Although saccharin was commercialized not long after its discovery, it was not until sugar shortages during World War I that its use became widespread. Its popularity further increased during the 1960s and 1970s among dieters, since saccharin is a calorie-free sweetener. In the United States saccharin is often found in restaurants in pink packets; the most popular brand is "Sweet'N Low". A small number of soft drinks are sweetened with saccharin, the most popular[citation needed] being the Coca-Cola Company's cola drink Tab, introduced in 1963 as a diet cola soft drink.; Harvey Wiley was one particularly well-known figure involved in the investigation of saccharin. Wiley, then the director of the bureau of chemistry for the USDA, had suspected saccharin to be damaging to human health. Wiley first battled saccharin in 1908. In a clash that epitomizes the controversial history of saccharin, Harvey told then President Theodore Roosevelt directly that "Everyone who ate that sweet corn was deceived. He thought he was eating sugar, when in point of fact he was eating a coal tar product totally devoid of food value and extremely injurious to health." In a heated exchange, Roosevelt angrily answered Harvey by stating "Anybody who says saccharin is injurious to health is an idiot." In 1911, the Food Inspection Decision 135 stated that foods containing saccharin were adulterated. However in 1912, Food Inspection Decision 142 stated that saccharin was not harmful. The government's stance on saccharin has continued to waver ever since. More controversy was stirred in 1969 with the discovery of files from the Food and Drug Administration's investigations of 1948 and 1949. These investigations, which had originally argued against saccharin use, were shown to prove little about saccharin being harmful to human health. In 1972 the USDA made an attempt to completely ban the substance. However, this attempt was unsuccessful and the sweetener remains widely available in the United States; it is the third-most popular after sucralose and aspartame. Cyclamate, however, was banned in the US and saccharin was banned in Canada, leading to different product formulations being marketed in these countries.; Saccharin has the chemical formula C7H5NO3S and it can be produced in various ways. The original route starts with toluene, but yields from this starting point are low. In 1950, an improved synthesis was developed at the Maumee Chemical Company of Toledo, Ohio. In this synthesis, anthranilic acid successively reacts with nitrous acid, sulfur dioxide, chlorine, and then ammonia to yield saccharin. Another route begins with o-chlorotoluene. It is also known as ortho sulfobenzoic acid.; Saccharin is an acid with a pKa of about 2.; Saccharin is an artificial sweetener. The basic substance, benzoic sulfinide, has effectively no food energy and is much sweeter than sucrose, but has an unpleasant bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. In countries where saccharin is allowed as a food additive, it is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste.; Saccharin was first produced in 1878 by Constantin Fahlberg, a chemist working on coal tar derivatives in Ira Remsen's laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University. It was Fahlberg who, accidentally, discovered its intensely sweet nature.[citation needed] Fahlberg and Remsen published articles on benzoic sulfinide in 1879 and 1880. In 1884, now working on his own in New York City, Fahlberg applied for patents in several countries describing methods of producing this substance that he named saccharin. Fahlberg would soon grow wealthy, while Remsen merely grew irate, believing that he deserved credit for substances produced in his laboratory. On the matter, Remsen commented, "Fahlberg is a scoundrel. It nauseates me to hear my name mentioned in the same breath with him." Used as a food additive [EAFUS]
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