polyethylene
ethylene polymer
 
Notes:
a vinyl polymer made from ethylene. it can be branched or linear. branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.
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CAS Number: 9002-88-4Picture of molecule
FDA UNII: J245LN42AI
MDL: MFCD00084423
Formula: (C2 H4)x-
Category: multipurpose additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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DG SANTE Food Contact Materials: polyethylene wax
FDA Mainterm: POLYETHYLENE (M W 2,000-21,000)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart G--Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances
Sec. 172.615 Chewing gum base.


FDA PART 173 -- SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart A--Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment
Sec. 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.180 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.200 Defoaming agents used in coatings.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.210 Defoaming agents used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1200 Cellophane.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1390 Laminate structures for use at temperatures of 250 deg. F and above.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces
Sec. 177.1395 Laminate structures for use at temperatures between 120 deg. F and 250 deg. F.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces
Sec. 177.1520 Olefin polymers.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces
Sec. 177.1615 Polyethylene, fluorinated.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces
Sec. 177.1620 Polyethylene, oxidized.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2210 Ethylene polymer, chlorosulfonated.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2600 Rubber articles intended for repeated use.


FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart B--Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms
Sec. 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution.


FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart D--Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids
Sec. 178.3570 Lubricants with incidental food contact.


FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart D--Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids
Sec. 178.3850 Reinforced wax.


FDA PART 179 -- IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD
Subpart C--Packaging Materials for Irradiated Foods
Sec. 179.45 Packaging materials for use during the irradiation of prepackaged foods.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.94000 @  25.00 °C.
Soluble in:
 water, 7.97e-013 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: abrasives
film formers
viscosity controlling agents
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Suppliers:
Chevron Phillips
LDPE
Odor: characteristic
Use: Chevron Phillips Chemical has produced LDPE on the Autoclave process since 1955. Since that time we have continually maintained a leadership position in process technology, quality and services.
Exxon Mobil
Polyethylene
Koster Keunen
Kostene C-30
Odor: characteristic
Use: Kostene C-30 is a low molecular weight polyethylene that acts as a thickener and adds hardness and slip to formulations when used in conjunction with volatile oils and solvents such as cyclomethicones, isopar, and isododecane.
Koster Keunen
Siliconyl Polyethylene
Odor: characteristic
Use: Siliconyl Polyethylene is a mixture of polymers with unique formulating advantages. The starting point is a low melt point polyethylene to which silicone molecules are added.
LyondellBasell Industries
high density Polyethylene
LyondellBasell Industries
low density Polyethylene
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Polyethylene average Mw ∼4,000 by GPC, average Mn ∼1,700 by GPC
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  > 3000 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: OTHER CHANGES
Kiso to Rinsho. Clinical Report. Vol. 16, Pg. 175, 1982.

oral-mouse LD50  5000 mg/kg
Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 5, Pg. 136, 1963.

oral-mouse LDLo  5000 mg/kg
Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 5, Pg. 136, 1963.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-mouse LC50 12 gm/m3/30M
Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society. Vol. 21, Pg. 167, 1978.

inhalation-mouse LC50 12000 mg/m3/30M
Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society. Vol. 21, Pg. 167, 1978.

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Safety in Use Information:
Category: multipurpose additives
Recommendation for polyethylene usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for polyethylene flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to a 3rd list of substances for food contact materials
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “Schoeller Arca Systems”, used to recycle polypropylene and high-density polyethylene crates for use as food contact material
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 9002-88-4
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
Chemidplus: 0009002884
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 9002-88-4
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References:
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 9002-88-4
Pubchem (sid): 134991390
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): Search
Export Tariff Code: 3901.10.0030
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents 
 binding agents 
 emulsion stabilisers 
 film formers 
 viscosity controlling agents 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
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Synonyms:
 ambythene
 ethylene polymer
high density polyethylene
 polyethylene, high density
 polyethylene wax
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Articles:
PubMed: Packaging modifications for protecting flavor of extended-shelf-life milk from light.
PubMed: Effect of ambient storage on the quality characteristics of aerobically packaged fish curls incorporated with different flours.
PubMed: Pharmaceutical optimization of lipid-based dosage forms for the improvement of taste-masking, chemical stability and solubilizing capacity of phenobarbital.
PubMed: To flavor or not to flavor the colonoscopy preparation solution?
PubMed: Room temperature ionic liquids: new GC stationary phases with a novel selectivity for flavor and fragrance analyses.
PubMed: Evaluation of a medium-polarity ionic liquid stationary phase in the analysis of flavor and fragrance compounds.
PubMed: Electrospun polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin inclusion complex.
PubMed: The impact of packaging materials on the antioxidant phytochemical stability of aqueous infusions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) during cold storage.
PubMed: Influence of droplet charge on the chemical stability of citral in oil-in-water emulsions.
PubMed: Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.
PubMed: Effect of different colored filters on photooxidation in pasteurized milk.
PubMed: Sensory stability of ultra-high temperature milk in polyethylene bottle.
PubMed: Oral toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity studies with a spunbond polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate polymer fabric.
PubMed: Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of specific flavors in enzyme modified and natural Cheddar cheese using factorial design and response surface methodology.
PubMed: Opportunities for bio-based packaging technologies to improve the quality and safety of fresh and further processed muscle foods.
PubMed: Identification of 8-nonenal as an important contributor to "plastic" off-odor in polyethylene packaging.
PubMed: Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.
PubMed: Microwave-assisted extraction and quantitative analysis of high-density polyethylene pellets fortified with flavors.
PubMed: Bowel preparation comparison: flavored versus unflavored colyte.
PubMed: The effect of potassium permanganate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate on metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica.
PubMed: Consumer acceptance of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce treated with 2% hydrogen peroxide and mild heat.
PubMed: Effectiveness of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and high-density polyethylene in protection of milk flavor.
PubMed: Light reflected from colored mulches affects aroma and phenol content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves.
PubMed: Flavor, color, and vitamin C retention of pulsed electric field processed orange juice in different packaging materials.
PubMed: Infusion of volatile flavor compounds into low-density polyethylene.
PubMed: Effects of vine or bunch shading on the glycosylated flavor precursors in grapes of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. syrah.
PubMed: [Comparative study of the use of sennoside A and B vs polyethylene glycol and electrolytes in anterograde preparation of the colon].
PubMed: Fermentation of low-salt miso as affected by supplementation with ethanol.
PubMed: [Shelf-life and sensorial evaluation of corn tortillas, made with preservatives and texture conditioners].
PubMed: Effect of muscle type, packaging, and irradiation on lipid oxidation, volatile production, and color in raw pork patties.
PubMed: beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase-catalase for use as an antioxidant system.
PubMed: Palatability of colonic lavage solution is improved by the addition of artificially sweetened flavored drink mixes.
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