EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

polyvinyl alcohol
poly(vinyl alcohol)

Sponsors

CAS Number: 9002-89-5Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:106442-33-5
FDA UNII:532B59J990
MDL:MFCD00081922
Formula:(C2 H4 O)x-
Category:coatings, binding agents, sealing agents and surface-finishing agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 141 Polyvinyl alcohol View-notice PDF
JECFA Food Additive: Polyvinyl alcohol
GSFA Codex: Polyvinyl alcohol (1203)
DG SANTE Food Additives:polyvinyl alcohol
FDA Mainterm: POLYVINYL ALCOHOL
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.320 Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.170 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.180 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1200 Cellophane.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces
Sec. 177.1670 Polyvinyl alcohol film.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2260 Filters, resin-bonded.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2800 Textiles and textile fibers.


FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart D--Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids
Sec. 178.3910 Surface lubricants used in the manufacture of metallic articles.


FDA PART 181 -- PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS
Subpart B--Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients
Sec. 181.30 Substances used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard products used in food packaging.


FDA PART 73 -- LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION
Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.1 Diluents in color additive mixtures for food use exempt from certification.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to cream powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Soluble in:
 water
 alcohol, very slightly
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: film formers
viscosity controlling agents
 
Suppliers:
ECSA Chemicals
Polyvinyl Alcohol
Company Profile
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Polyvinyl alcohol, fully hydrolyzed
Penta International
POLYVINYL ALCHOL COSMETIC GRADE
Penta International
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL 98-99% HYDROLYZED
Penta International
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL 99% POWDER
Penta International
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL USP/NF (20 - 50 cps)
Penta International
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL USP/NF (43 - 55 cps)
Sarchem Laboratories
For experimental / research use only.
Polyvinyl Alcohol (Ethanol)
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Poly(vinyl alcohol) Mw 146,000-186,000, 99+% hydrolyzed
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Poly(vinyl alcohol) Mw 89,000-98,000, 99+% hydrolyzed
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
PVA BP24
Odor: characteristic
Use: It can be used as a paper adhesive with boric acid in spiral tube winding and solid board production, a textile izing agent, a thickener and modifier in polyvinyl glues, it is also used in paper coatings as a release liner.
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 23854 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA" BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS LIVER: OTHER CHANGES
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 55(5), Pg. 9, 1990.

oral-guinea pig LD50 18750 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA" LIVER: OTHER CHANGES
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 55(5), Pg. 9, 1990.

oral-mouse LD50 14270 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA" LIVER: OTHER CHANGES BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 55(5), Pg. 9, 1990.

oral-mouse LD50 14700 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 51(10), Pg. 75, 1986.

oral-rat LD50 > 20000 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 51(10), Pg. 75, 1986.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: coatings, binding agents, sealing agents and surface-finishing agents
Recommendation for polyvinyl alcohol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for polyvinyl alcohol flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request related to a 17th list of substances for food contact materials
View page or View pdf

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to the use of polyvinyl alcohol as a coating agent for food supplements
View page or View pdf

Statement on the request for a modification of the specification on solubility of the food additive polyvinyl alcohol (E 1203) in ethanol and its possible impact on the safety assessment
View page or View pdf

Solubility of Polyvinyl Alcohol in Ethanol
View page or View pdf

Annual report on the preparatory work for the evaluation of food enzymes ľ Toxicological part
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):9002-89-5
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
Chemidplus:0009002895
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:9002-89-5
 
References:
Canada Domestic Sub. List:9002-89-5
Pubchem (sid):134991391
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00980
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
FooDB:FDB016802
Export Tariff Code:3905.20.0000
Haz-Map:View
Household Products:Search
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 film formers
 viscosity controlling agents
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 
Synonyms:
 ethenol homopolymer
 ethenol, homopolymer
 partially hydrolysed polyvinyl alcohol
 poly(1-hydroxyethylene)
 poly(vinyl alcohol)
 polyethenol
 polyvinyl alcohol 18/11
 PVA
 vinyl alcohol polymer
 

Articles:

Info:EVALUATION OF CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS
PubMed:Hybrid encapsulation structures based on ╬▓-carotene-loaded nanoliposomes within electrospun fibers.
PubMed:Comparative examination of adsorption of serum proteins on HSA- and PLGA-based nanoparticles using SDS-PAGE and LC-MS.
PubMed:Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella)-resistant food packaging film development using microencapsulated cinnamon oil.
PubMed:Immobilised whole-cell recombinant monoamine oxidase biocatalysis.
PubMed:Natamycin based sol-gel antimicrobial coatings on polylactic acid films for food packaging.
PubMed:Selective and simultaneous determination of trace bisphenol A and tebuconazole in vegetable and juice samples by membrane-based molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and HPLC.
PubMed:Biocompatible core-shell electrospun nanofibers as potential application for chemotherapy against ovary cancer.
PubMed:Modification of fish skin collagen film and absorption property of tannic acid.
PubMed:Physicochemical and morphological properties of plasticized poly(vinyl alcohol)-agar biodegradable films.
PubMed:Operational stability of naringinase PVA lens-shaped microparticles in batch stirred reactors and mini packed bed reactors-one step closer to industry.
PubMed:Chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol composite films containing nitrofurazone: preparation and evaluation.
PubMed:Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate immobilized biomass system: a potential tool to maintain anammox biomass in application.
PubMed:Biocompatible sodium alginate fibers by aqueous processing and physical crosslinking.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of acetylated corn starch-(PVOH)/clay nanocomposite films.
PubMed:Biocatalysis with Escherichia coli-overexpressing cyclopentanone monooxygenase immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol gel.
PubMed:Characterization and potential applications of gamma irradiated chitosan and its blends with poly(vinyl alcohol).
PubMed:Preparation, characterization of electrospun meso-hydroxylapatite nanofibers and their sorptions on Co(II).
PubMed:Development of an anti-insect sachet using a polyvinyl alcohol-cinnamon oil polymer strip against Plodia interpunctella.
PubMed:Antimicrobial-coated polypropylene films with polyvinyl alcohol in packaging of fresh beef.
PubMed:Durable contact active antimicrobial materials formed by a one-step covalent modification of polyvinyl alcohol, cellulose and glass surfaces.
PubMed:Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs I--elucidating the release mechanism of lysozyme during lipolysis.
PubMed:Cross-linked potato starch-based blend films using ascorbic acid as a plasticizer.
PubMed:Enhanced thermal stability of eugenol by cyclodextrin inclusion complex encapsulated in electrospun polymeric nanofibers.
PubMed:A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.
PubMed:Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with biopolymer encapsulated silver nanosubstrates for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens.
PubMed:Soy proteins as environmentally friendly sizing agents to replace poly(vinyl alcohol).
PubMed:Polyethylene glycol-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: study of the bioavailability after oral administration to rats.
PubMed:Conclusion. Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer toxicity.
PubMed:Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: reproductive toxicity study in Wistar rats.
PubMed:Subchronic toxicity of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer.
PubMed:Classy non-wovens based on animate L. gasseri-inanimate poly(vinyl alcohol): upstream application in food engineering.
PubMed:Developmental toxicity of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer in rats and rabbits.
PubMed:Electrospun polyvinyl-alcohol nanofibers as oral fast-dissolving delivery system of caffeine and riboflavin.
PubMed:Biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste.
PubMed:Carboxymethyl chitin/organic rectorite composites based nanofibrous mats and their cell compatibility.
PubMed:Quaternized chitosan-layered silicate intercalated composites based nanofibrous mats and their antibacterial activity.
PubMed:Recent advances in biopolymers and biopolymer-based nanocomposites for food packaging materials.
PubMed:Application of novel electrospun nanofibrous membranes with different modifications for immobilising glutamine synthetase.
PubMed:Rapid and sensitive determination of sulfonamide residues in milk and chicken muscle by microfluidic chip electrophoresis.
PubMed:Microwave-assisted hydrogel synthesis: a new method for crosslinking polymers in aqueous solutions.
PubMed:Structure and physical properties of starch/poly vinyl alcohol/laponite RD nanocomposite films.
PubMed:Amyloid fibrils as functionalizable components of nanocomposite materials.
PubMed:Structure and physical properties of starch/poly vinyl alcohol/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposite films.
PubMed:Development of active polyvinyl alcohol/╬▓-cyclodextrin composites to scavenge undesirable food components.
PubMed:Poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol for antimicrobial delivery applications.
PubMed:Physical performance of biodegradable films intended for antimicrobial food packaging.
PubMed:Impact of matrix properties on the survival of freeze-dried bacteria.
PubMed:Characterization, antimicrobial activity, and mechanism of a high-performance (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-CuII/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous membrane.
PubMed:High hydrostatic pressure and biopreservation of dry-cured ham to meet the Food Safety Objectives for Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Bacterial cellulose nanocrystals exhibiting high thermal stability and their polymer nanocomposites.
PubMed:Electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers loaded with hexadecane nanodroplets.
PubMed:Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the B├╝chi nano spray dryer B-90.
PubMed:Amperometric biosensor based on a high resolution photopolymer deposited onto a screen-printed electrode for phenolic compounds monitoring in tea infusions.
PubMed:Aminoclay: a designer filler for the synthesis of highly ductile polymer-nanocomposite film.
PubMed:Improving the compatibility of zein/poly(vinyl alcohol) blends by gamma irradiation and graft copolymerization of acrylic acid.
PubMed:Paracoccus denitrificans for the effluent recycling during continuous denitrification of liquid food.
PubMed:Macroporous poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres bearing phosphate groups as a new adsorbent for low-density lipoprotein apheresis.
PubMed:[Application of fluorescence microscopic imaging technique with self-ordered ring to residues detection of antibiotics].
PubMed:Physicochemical and bioactivity of cross-linked chitosan-PVA film for food packaging applications.
PubMed:Screening of food grade lipases to be used in esterification and interesterification reactions of industrial interest.
PubMed:Fabrication of photometric dip-strip test systems for detection of beta(1-->3)-D-glucan using crude beta(1-->3)-D-glucanase from sprouts of Vigna aconitifolia.
PubMed:SAW RFID-Tags for Mass-Sensitive Detection of Humidity and Vapors.
PubMed:Nanofibers as carrier systems for antimicrobial microemulsions. Part I: fabrication and characterization.
PubMed:Ethanol production from starch hydrolyzates using Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase entrapped in polyvinylalcohol hydrogel.
PubMed:Plasticizers in the manufacture of novel skin-bioadhesive patches.
PubMed:The anaerobic degradability of thermoplastic starch: polyvinyl alcohol blends: potential biodegradable food packaging materials.
PubMed:Enzymatic removal of flatulence-inducing sugars in chickpea milk using free and polyvinyl alcohol immobilized alpha-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae.
PubMed:[Spectrum study of organochlorine pesticides after nano TiO2 photocatalytic degradation in AgNO3 medium].
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed:Effect of polymer surface modification on polymer-protein interaction via hydrophilic polymer grafting.
PubMed:Entrapment of beta-galactosidase in polyvinylalcohol hydrogel.
PubMed:Fed-batch cultivation of the marine bacterium Sulfitobacter pontiacus using immobilized substrate and purification of sulfite oxidase by application of membrane adsorber technology.
PubMed:Use of antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.
PubMed:Preparation for nitrocellulose membrane-poly (vinyl alcohol)-ionic imprinting and its application to determine trace copper by room temperature phosphorimetry.
PubMed:Investigation of several parameters influencing signal generation in flow-through membrane-based enzyme immunoassay.
PubMed:Preimplantation and fetal development of mouse embryos cultured in a protein-free, chemically defined medium.
PubMed:A comparison of surface wipe media for sampling lead on hands.
PubMed:Immobilization of lysozyme on polyvinylalcohol films for active packaging applications.
PubMed:Antimicrobial effectiveness of lysozyme immobilized on polyvinylalcohol-based film against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.
PubMed:High temperature lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans immobilized in LentiKats.
PubMed:High efficiency ethanol fermentation by entrapment of Zymomonas mobilis into LentiKats.
PubMed:Stable polymeric microballoons as multifunctional device for biomedical uses: synthesis and characterization.
PubMed:Environmentally degradable bio-based polymeric blends and composites.
PubMed:Uterine artery embolization of leiomyomas with trisacryl gelatin microspheres (TGM): pathologic features and comparison with polyvinyl alcohol emboli.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed:Microfluidic enzyme immunosensors with immobilised protein A and G using chemiluminescence detection.
PubMed:Epsilon-polylysine inhibits pancreatic lipase activity and suppresses postprandial hypertriacylglyceridemia in rats.
PubMed:A general approach to describe the antimicrobial agent release from highly swellable films intended for food packaging applications.
PubMed:Effects of polyvinyl alcohol administered in the diet to rats on fertility, early embryonic development, growth and development.
PubMed:Subchronic toxicity study in rats and genotoxicity tests with polyvinyl alcohol.
PubMed:NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Polyvinyl Alcohol (CAS No.9002-89-5) in Female B6C3F1 Mice (Intravaginal Studies).
PubMed:Review of the oral toxicity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA).
PubMed:Amino acid turnover by elongating cattle blastocysts recovered on days 14-16 after insemination.
PubMed:Properties of hydrogel materials used for entrapment of microbial cells in production of fermented beverages.
PubMed:N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: results of a prospective, randomized, multi-center trial.
PubMed:The effects of plasticizers and titanium dioxide on the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings.
PubMed:Mechanical and barrier properties of cross-linked soy and whey protein based films.
PubMed:Detection, quantitation, and identification of residual aminopenicillins by high-performance liquid chromatography after fluorescamine derivation.
PubMed:Supplemental dietary arginine enhances wound healing in normal but not inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.
PubMed:Uterine artery embolization for treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids.
PubMed:Growth hormone does not attenuate the inhibitory effects of sepsis on wound healing.
PubMed:Acute protein-calorie malnutrition impairs wound healing: a possible role of decreased wound nitric oxide synthesis.
PubMed:Detrimental effects of an omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet on wound healing.
PubMed:A simple and inexpensive glucose oxidase substrate system for enzyme immunoassay.
PubMed:Infusion of enteral vs parenteral nutrients using high-concentration branch-chain amino acids: effect on wound healing in the postoperative rat.
PubMed:Intramolecular esterification by lipase powder in microaqueous benzene: factors affecting activity of pure enzyme.
PubMed:Escherichia coli Spheroplast-Mediated Transfer of pBR322 Carrying the Cloned Ruminococcus albus Cellulase Gene into Anaerobic Mutant Strain FEM29 by Protoplast Fusion.
PubMed:Improvement of nitrogen retention by arginine and glycine supplementation and its relation to collagen synthesis in traumatized mature and aged rats.
PubMed:Production of NADP by immobilized cells with NAD kinase.
PubMed:The tampon: investigated and challenged.
PubMed:[Hygienic characteristics of artificial sausage casings based on polyvinyl alcohol].
PubMed:Effects of enviromental temperature and femoral fracture on wound healing in rats.
PubMed:[Effect of polymers used in food processing industry on biochemical indicators of the liver].
PubMed:Influence of vitamin A on wound healing in rats with femoral fracture.
PubMed:A note on the gelation behavior of thiolated polyvinylalcohol as a model compound for foodstuffs.
 
Notes:
a polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. it is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products. Diluent in colour additive mixtures for marking food PVA is an atactic material but exhibits crystallinity as the hydroxyl groups are small enough to fit into the lattice without disrupting it.; Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH, PVA, or PVAL) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer (not to be confused with polyvinyl acetate, a popular wood glue).; Polyvinyl alcohol has excellent film forming, emulsifying, and adhesive properties. It is also resistant to oil, grease and solvent. It is odorless and nontoxic. It has high tensile strength and flexibility, as well as high oxygen and aroma barrier properties. However these properties are dependent on humidity, in other words, with higher humidity more water is absorbed. The water, which acts as a plasticiser, will then reduce its tensile strength, but increase its elongation and tear strength. PVA is fully degradable and is a quick dissolver. PVA has a melting point of 230░C and 180?190░C for the fully hydrolysed and partially hydrolysed grades, respectively. It decomposes rapidly above 200░C as it can undergo pyrolysis at high temperatures.
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