EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

nitrous oxide
dinitrogen monoxide

Supplier Sponsors

Name:nitrous oxide
CAS Number: 10024-97-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:233-032-0
Nikkaji Web:J2.255.097G
Beilstein Number:8137358
XlogP3-AA:0.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:44.01320000
Formula:N2 O
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:propellants, aerating agents, and gas
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Additive: Nitrous oxide
GSFA Codex: Nitrous oxide (942)
DG SANTE Food Additives:nitrous oxide
FEMA Number:2779 nitrous oxide
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):10024-97-2 ; NITROUS OXIDE
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1545 Nitrous oxide.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless gas (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: -91.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: -88.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:51.700000 mmHg @ 21.00 °C.
Vapor Density:1.53 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 0.430 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 8738 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: propellants
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Nitrous Oxide
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Nitrous oxide 99%
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
O - Oxidizer.
R 08 - Contact with combustible material may cause fire.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 38 - In case of insufficient ventlation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-human TCLo 24 mg/kg/2H
British Journal of Anesthesia. Vol. 35, Pg. 631, 1963.

Safety in Use Information:
propellants, aerating agents, and gas
Recommendation for nitrous oxide usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NIOSH Pocket Guide:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):10024-97-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :948
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
nitrous oxide
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
 nitrous oxide
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:10024-97-2
Pubchem (cid):948
Pubchem (sid):134990167
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00887
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB35807
Export Tariff Code:2811.29.5000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
•entonox is a mixture of equal volumes of nitrous oxide & oxygen. •nitrous oxide contains not less than 99.0%, by volume, of nitrous oxide. the remainder is chiefly nitrogen. •various grades available electronic technical (99.0%, liquid phase) cp (99.0%), uhp (99.99%), atomic absorption (99.0%), usp. •pure, 98% min, usp (97% min).
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 analgesic agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 diazyne 1-oxide
 dinitrogen monoxide
 dinitrogen oxide
 factitious air
 hyponitrous acid anhydride
 laughing gas
 nitrogen hypoxide
 nitrogen monoxide
 nitrogen oxide
 nitrogen oxide (N2O)
 nitrogen protoxide


Info:Nitrous oxide
PubMed:Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.
PubMed:Sustained hunger suppression from stable liquid food foams.
PubMed:Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.
PubMed:Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.
PubMed:Review and analysis of global agricultural N₂O emissions relevant to the UK.
PubMed:Production and consumption of nitrous oxide in nitrate-ammonifying Wolinella succinogenes cells.
PubMed:Postoperative nausea and vomiting in pediatric anesthesia.
PubMed:The nitrate-ammonifying and nosZ-carrying bacterium Bacillus vireti is a potent source and sink for nitric and nitrous oxide under high nitrate conditions.
PubMed:Role of norEF in Denitrification, Elucidated by Physiological Experiments with Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
PubMed:Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: a two-year field study.
PubMed:Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting in practice.
PubMed:Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system.
PubMed:A cancer vaccine based on the marine antimicrobial peptide pardaxin (GE33) for control of bladder-associated tumors.
PubMed:Grass gets greener.
PubMed:Measuring and modeling the effects of drainage water management on soil greenhouse gas fluxes from corn and soybean fields.
PubMed:A review of nitrous oxide mitigation by farm nitrogen management in temperate grassland-based agriculture.
PubMed:Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.
PubMed:Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.
PubMed:Technical options for the mitigation of direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock: a review.
PubMed:An LCA researcher's wish list--data and emission models needed to improve LCA studies of animal production.
PubMed:Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?
PubMed:Consequences of human modification of the global nitrogen cycle.
PubMed:Scope for improved eco-efficiency varies among diverse cropping systems.
PubMed:Closing the yield gap could reduce projected greenhouse gas emissions: a case study of maize production in China.
PubMed:Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from growing beef cattle.
PubMed:Climate change reduces the net sink of CH4 and N2O in a semiarid grassland.
PubMed:Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost.
PubMed:A post-Kyoto partner: considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide.
PubMed:Life cycle and economic assessment of source-separated MSW collection with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: a case study in China.
PubMed:Denitrifiers in the surface zone are primarily responsible for the nitrous oxide emission of dairy manure compost.
PubMed:Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest.
PubMed:Hazardous gases and oxygen depletion in a wet paddy pile: an experimental study in a simulating underground rice mill pit, Thailand.
PubMed:Strategies to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from herbivore production systems.
PubMed:Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils amended with digestate derived from anaerobic treatment of food waste.
PubMed:Gaseous nitrogen and bacterial responses to raw and digested dairy manure applications in incubated soil.
PubMed:Life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy production in Eastern Canada: a case study.
PubMed:Effects of temperatures near the freezing point on N2O emissions, denitrification and on the abundance and structure of nitrifying and denitrifying soil communities.
PubMed:Biochar and hydrochar effects on greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) fluxes from soils.
PubMed:Sources and pathways of nutrients in the semi-arid region of Beijing-Tianjin, China.
PubMed:High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.
PubMed:Expression of nitrous oxide reductase in Paracoccus denitrificans is regulated by oxygen and nitric oxide through FnrP and NNR.
PubMed:Stimulation of thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidation by ammonia derived from organic nitrogen but not added inorganic nitrogen.
PubMed:Bactericidal effect of supercritical N₂O on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Simulating response of N2O emissions to fertiliser N application and climatic variability from a rain-fed and wheat-cropped soil in Western Australia.
PubMed:Effect of reforestation on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in the catchment ecosystems of subtropical China: the example of the Hanjiang River basin.
PubMed:Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?
PubMed:Procedural sedation practices in Australian Emergency Departments.
PubMed:Influence of fertilisation regimes on a nosZ-containing denitrifying community in a rice paddy soil.
PubMed:Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions. An estimation based on typical farms.
PubMed:The biogeochemistry of bioenergy landscapes: carbon, nitrogen, and water considerations.
PubMed:Inhalation anesthetic-induced neuronal damage in the developing rhesus monkey.
PubMed:Towards food, feed and energy crops mitigating climate change.
PubMed:Effect of fresh green waste and green waste compost on mineral nitrogen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from a Vertisol.
PubMed:Coupled cycles of dissolved oxygen and nitrous oxide in rivers along a trophic gradient in southern Ontario, Canada.
PubMed:Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - how to achieve substantial CO(2) reductions?
PubMed:Death caused by addictive inhalation of nitrous oxide.
PubMed:Anti-inflammatory effects of Cynanchum taiwanianum rhizome aqueous extract in IL-1β-induced NRK-52E cells.
PubMed:Abundance, diversity and functional gene expression of denitrifier communities in adjacent riparian and agricultural zones.
PubMed:Microbiology of nitrogen cycle in animal manure compost.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed:Nitrous oxide causes a regulated hypothermia: rats select a cooler ambient temperature while becoming hypothermic.
PubMed:Inactivation behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by supercritical N₂O compared to supercritical CO₂.
PubMed:Soil nitrous oxide emissions following band-incorporation of fertilizer nitrogen and swine manure.
PubMed:Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change.
PubMed:Life cycle assessment of energy self-sufficiency systems based on agricultural residues for organic arable farms.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives. Seventy-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.
PubMed:The evolution and future of Earth's nitrogen cycle.
PubMed:Modeling nutrient flows in the food chain of China.
PubMed:Denitrification response patterns during the transition to anoxic respiration and posttranscriptional effects of suboptimal pH on nitrous [corrected] oxide reductase in Paracoccus denitrificans.
PubMed:Dexmedetomidine infusion for analgesia and prevention of emergence agitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy.
PubMed:Plant-based strategies towards minimising 'livestock's long shadow'.
PubMed:Controversial issues in treating the dental patient with autism.
PubMed:An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the Australian vegetables industry.
PubMed:Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa.
PubMed:Denitrification gene pools, transcription and kinetics of NO, N2O and N2 production as affected by soil pH.
PubMed:Quality of fresh-cut baby spinach grown under a floating trays system as affected by nitrogen fertilisation and innovative packaging treatments.
PubMed:Sodium arsenite mediated immuno-disruption through alteration of transcription profile of cytokines in chicken splenocytes under in vitro system.
PubMed:Mitigating climate change: the role of domestic livestock.
PubMed:Changes in denitrifier abundance, denitrification gene mRNA levels, nitrous oxide emissions, and denitrification in anoxic soil microcosms amended with glucose and plant residues.
PubMed:Source of nitrous oxide emissions during the cow manure composting process as revealed by isotopomer analysis of and amoA abundance in betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.
PubMed:Comparison of five organic wastes regarding their behaviour during composting: part 2, nitrogen dynamic.
PubMed:Effect of intensification of pastoral farming on greenhouse gas emissions in New Zealand.
PubMed:Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.
PubMed:The impact of using mature compost on nitrous oxide emission and the denitrifier community in the cattle manure composting process.
PubMed:Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry.
PubMed:Effect of pH and temperature on denitrification gene expression and activity in Pseudomonas mandelii.
PubMed:Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change.
PubMed:Measured and simulated nitrogen fluxes after field application of food-processing and municipal organic wastes.
PubMed:Climate change mitigation for agriculture: water quality benefits and costs.
PubMed:Nitric oxide reductase gene expression and nitrous oxide production in nitrate-grown Pseudomonas mandelii.
PubMed:Influence of temperature and soil water content on bacterial, archaeal and denitrifying microbial communities in drained fen grassland soil microcosms.
PubMed:Changes in bacterial denitrifier community abundance over time in an agricultural field and their relationship with denitrification activity.
PubMed:The influence of body mass and thoracic dimensions on arterial oxygenation in anaesthetized horses and ponies.
PubMed:Transcription and activities of NOx reductases in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: the influence of nitrate, nitrite and oxygen availability.
PubMed:The effects of L-carnitine on the combination of, inhalation anesthetic-induced developmental, neuronal apoptosis in the rat frontal cortex.
PubMed:Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model.
PubMed:Carbon sequestration. Should oceanographers pump iron?
PubMed:Bubble-included chocolate: relating structure with sensory response.
PubMed:Greenhouse gas emissions during co-composting of calf mortalities with manure.
PubMed:Gaseous nitrogen emissions and forage nitrogen uptake on soils fertilized with raw and treated swine manure.
PubMed:Specific blockade of morphine- and cocaine-induced reinforcing effects in conditioned place preference by nitrous oxide in mice.
PubMed:Predictive models for post-operative nausea and vomiting in patients using patient-controlled analgesia.
PubMed:Greenhouse gases as clues to permanence of farmlands.
PubMed:Use of anesthetic agents in neonates and young children.
PubMed:Analysis of denitrification genes and comparison of nosZ, cnorB and 16S rDNA from culturable denitrifying bacteria in potato cropping systems.
PubMed:For holistic control of reactive N: regional, national and global perspectives.
PubMed:Climate change and food security.
PubMed:Nitrous oxide and risk of surgical wound infection: a randomised trial.
PubMed:For holistic control of reactive N: regional, national and global perspectives.
PubMed:Manipulation of dietary protein and nonstarch polysaccharide to control swine manure emissions.
PubMed:Aerobic nitrification-denitrification by heterotrophic Bacillus strains.
PubMed:Experimental evidence for plasmid-borne nor-nir genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti JJ1c10.
PubMed:Experimenting with hydroelectric reservoirs.
PubMed:Determination of CH4, CO2 and N2O in air samples and soil atmosphere by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, GC-MS.
PubMed:[A case of intraoperative hyperkalemia induced with administration of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AIIA) and intake of dried persimmons].
PubMed:Carbon, nitrogen balances and greenhouse gas emission during cattle feedlot manure composting.
PubMed:Content of strontium, lithium and calcium in selected milk products and in some marine smoked fish.
PubMed:Assessing nitrate metabolism in the intestinal tract by measuring breath nitric oxide and nitrous oxide, and its clinical significance.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed:Nitrous oxide emissions from aerated composting of organic waste.
PubMed:Greenhouse gas emissions during cattle feedlot manure composting.
PubMed:Adverse sedation events in pediatrics: analysis of medications used for sedation.
PubMed:Current concepts in cobalamin deficiency.
PubMed:Aluminium determination in foods by using spectrophotometric oxine and flame AAS methods.
PubMed:Cobalamin, the stomach, and aging.
PubMed:Minimizing the residual oxygen in modified atmosphere packaging of bakery products.
PubMed:A new nos gene downstream from nosDFY is essential for dissimilatory reduction of nitrous oxide by Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) meliloti.
PubMed:Public health implications of environmental pollution in urban Indonesia.
PubMed:Some observations on the absorption spectra of various myoglobin derivatives found in meat.
PubMed:[Animal housing climatic quality in various harmful conditions in broiler production to avoid heat stress in summer].
PubMed:Identification and analysis of the dissimilatory nitrous oxide reduction genes, nosRZDFY, of Rhizobium meliloti.
PubMed:Aluminium and fluoride in hospital daily diets and in teas.
PubMed:The pregnant dental patient.
PubMed:Nitrous oxide induces feeding in the nondeprived rat that is antagonized by naltrexone.
PubMed:[Occurrence of aluminum in some foodstuffs].
PubMed:The sharing page.
PubMed:Comparative histopathologic consequences of photothrombotic occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.
PubMed:Effect of nitrous oxide exposure on maternal and embryonic S-adenosylmethionine levels and ornithine decarboxylase activity.
PubMed:An evaluation of anesthesiologists' present checkout methods and the validity of the FDA checklist.
PubMed:Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.
PubMed:Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for determination of polydimethylsiloxane residues in pineapple juice: collaborative study.
PubMed:Fatal abuse of nitrous oxide in the workplace.
PubMed:Hyperglycemia increases infarct size in collaterally perfused but not end-arterial vascular territories.
PubMed:The determination of low levels of aluminum in antihemophilic factor (human) preparations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.
PubMed:Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of tin in canned foods, using nitric acid-hydrochloric acid digestion and nitrous oxide-acetylene flame: collaborative study.
PubMed:Reproduction and fetal development in rats exposed to nitrous oxide.
PubMed:Cobalamin metabolism and its clinical aspects.
PubMed:Nitrous oxide production by organisms other than nitrifiers or denitrifiers.
PubMed:Influence of blood glucose concentration on brain lactate accumulation during severe hypoxia and subsequent recovery of brain energy metabolism.
PubMed:Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of tin in canned foods using nitric acid-hydrochloric acid digestion and nitrous oxide-acetylene flame.
PubMed:Nitrous oxide availability.
PubMed:Atomic absorption determination of tin in foods: collaborative study.
PubMed:[Preservation of bread and pastry products in a controlled atmosphere].
PubMed:Letter: Future of inhalational anaesthesia.
PubMed:Nitrite in meat. Effect of various compounds on loss of nitrite.
PubMed:Enhancement of strontium absorption in the nitrous oxide-acetylene flame by potassium and sodium and the determination of strontium in biological material.
PubMed:Nitrous oxide in the food and aerosol industries.
PubMed:[The use of nitrous oxide in the treatment of food stuffs; its determination. I. Physiologic and toxicologic properties of nitrous oxide].
a colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. high concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. it is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream. Aerosol propellant for foods. Flavouring ingredient [DFC]
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