maleic acid
cis-1,2-ethylenedicarboxylic acid
Maleic acid is an industrial raw material for the production of glyoxylic acid by ozonolysis. Maleic acid is an organic compound which is a dicarboxylic acid (molecule with two carboxyl groups). The molecule consists of an ethylene group flanked by two carboxylic acid groups. Maleic acid is the cis isomer of butenedioic acid, whereas fumaric acid is the trans isomer. The cis isomer is the less stable one of the two; the difference in heat of combustion is 22.7 kJ/mol. The physical properties of maleic acid are very different from that of fumaric acid. Maleic acid is soluble in water whereas fumaric acid is not and the melting point of maleic acid (130 - 131 degree centigrade) is also much lower than that of fumaric acid (287 degree centigrade). Both properties of maleic acid can be explained on account of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding that takes place at the expense of intermolecular interactions. Maleic acid is converted into maleic anhydride by dehydration, to malic acid by hydration, and to succinic acid by hydrogenation. It reacts with thionyl chloride or phosphorus pentachloride to give the maleic acid chloride (it is not possible to isolate the mono acid chloride). Maleic acid is a reactant in many Diels-Alder reactions. [HMDB]
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
      The Specialty Chemical Specialists
      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve as our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Our substantial portfolio of personal care ingredients now include a wide array of luxury and exotic components to compliment the key products we have always offered. We have expanded our offerings to the nutraceutical, industrial, and resin markets with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. We continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions. Please contact us to learn how we can help you reach your goals.
      Email: Sales
      Voice: 203-299-3220
      Fax: 203-299-1355
      Latest News
      Products List: View
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      13-02000 MALEIC ACID
      13-02020 MALEIC ACID NF& EP GRADE
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Email: Global Business
      Voice: +81-3-5640-8878
      Fax: +81-3-5640-8902
      US Voice: 800-423-8616
      US Fax: 888-520-1075
      Tokyo Tel:03-5640-8851
      Tokyo Fax:03-5640-8865
      M0006 Maleic Acid >99.0%(T)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
(Z)-but-2-enedioic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 110-16-7Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 203-742-5
Nikkaji Web: J2.446E
Beilstein Number: 0605762
MDL: MFCD00063177
XlogP3: -0.30 (est)
Molecular Weight: 116.07268000
Formula: C4 H4 O4
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: cosmetic agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials: maleic acid
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white crystalline solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 1.59000 @  25.00 °C.
Melting Point: 130.00 to  131.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 355.00 to  356.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure: 0.000005 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 361.00 °F. TCC ( 183.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -0.480
Soluble in:
 water, 4.41E+05 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
but-2-enedioic acid >98%
Charkit Chemical
Covalent Chemical
Maleic Acid
For experimental / research use only.
Maleic Acid
Penta International
Penta International
Maleic Acid
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Maleic Acid ≥99%
For experimental / research use only.
Maleic acid ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
For experimental / research use only.
Maleic Acid >99.0%(T)
Maleic Acid
Odor: bland
Use: It is employed in the manufacture of phthalic-type alkyd and polyester resins, surface coatings, copolymers, plasticizers, lubricant additives and agricultural chemicals; in adhesives and sealants; as a preservative for oils and fats; organic synthesis; dyeing and finishing wool, cotton and silk; and preparing the maleate salts of antihistamines and similar drugs.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  708 mg/kg
BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 7-4/1970

oral-mouse LD50  2400 mg/kg
Biochemical Journal. Vol. 34, Pg. 1196, 1940.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 1560 mg/kg
BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 7-4/1970

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-rat LC50 > 720 mg/m3/1H
BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 7-4/1970

Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic agents
Recommendation for maleic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for maleic acid flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 110-16-7
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 444266
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 (Z)-but-2-enedioic acid
Chemidplus: 0000110167
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 110-16-7
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
 (Z)-but-2-enedioic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 110-16-7
Pubchem (cid): 444266
Pubchem (sid): 135018439
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C01384
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00176
FooDB: FDB008113
Export Tariff Code: 2917.19.2300
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
grades of purity: reagent; technical
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 buffering agents 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 cacao plant
Search Trop  Picture
 cherry sour cherry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 corn plant
Search Trop  Picture
 lovage root
Search Trop  Picture
 roselle flower
Search Trop  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
(2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid
(Z)-but-2-enedioic acid
cis-but-2-enedioic acid
(2Z)-2-butene dioic acid
(Z)-butene dioic acid
(Z)-2-butene dioic acid
cis-butene dioic acid
(2Z)-2-butenedioic acid
(Z)-butenedioic acid
(Z)-2-butenedioic acid
cis-2-butenedioic acid
2-butenedioic acid (2Z)-
2-butenedioic acid (Z)-
2-butenedioic acid, (2Z)-
2-butenedioic acid, (Z)-
(Z)-1,2-ethylene dicarboxylic acid
cis-1,2-ethylene dicarboxylic acid
cis-1,2-ethylenedicarboxylic acid
1,2-ethylenedicarboxylic acid, (Z)
 maleinic acid
 malenic acid
 toxilic acid
(Z)-tumaric acid
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
PubMed: Effects of acid extrusion on the degradability of maize distillers dried grain with solubles in pigs.
PubMed: An in silico toxicogenomics approach for inferring potential diseases associated with maleic acid.
PubMed: Impurity profiling of carbocisteine by HPLC-CAD, qNMR and UV/vis spectroscopy.
PubMed: Quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance for the structural and quantitative analysis of atropine sulfate.
PubMed: Ca2+ ion responsive pickering emulsions stabilized by PSSMA nanoaggregates.
PubMed: Metabolic profiling of Chinese tobacco leaf of different geographical origins by GC-MS.
PubMed: CO₂ and O₂ respiration kinetics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils amended with organic carbon sources used to determine catabolic diversity.
PubMed: Self-assembly and emulsification of poly{[styrene-alt-maleic acid]-co-[styrene-alt-(N-3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl-maleamic acid)]}.
PubMed: Dual-responsive poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) micelles as switchable emulsifiers.
PubMed: Integrated separation process for isolation and purification of biosuccinic acid.
PubMed: Michael acceptor based antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal cysteine protease inhibitors with unusual amino acids.
PubMed: Comparison of the skin sensitizing potential of unsaturated compounds as assessed by the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT).
PubMed: A convenient route to the synthesis of isotopomeric dihydro-2(3H)furanones.
PubMed: Comparative analysis of influence of promoters and inhibitors on in vitro available iron using two methods.
PubMed: Interactions of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes with nonionic surfactants.
PubMed: NMR regulatory analysis: determination and characterization of Chinese-herb aristolochic acids.
PubMed: Aqueous photolysis of niclosamide.
PubMed: Development of NMR and raman spectroscopic methods for the determination of the degree of substitution of maleate in modified starches.
PubMed: Modeling solid-to-solid biocatalysis: integration of six consecutive steps.
PubMed: Modulation of allergen-specific immune responses to the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, by specific targeting to scavenger receptors on macrophages.
PubMed: Inhibition of renal uptake of indium-111-DTPA-octreotide in vivo.
PubMed: [The kinetics of the excretion of a choline-containing polymer from the body of rats and its effect on the activity of intestinal enzymes].
PubMed: Thermodynamics of the maleate and citraconate hydration reactions catalysed by malease from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes.
PubMed: Analytical method development and preformulation stability studies of L-665,871 (a beta-agonist) in swine feed.
PubMed: Screening for microorganisms producing D-malate from maleate.
PubMed: Maleic acid dimethylester: evaluation of dermal toxicity and genotoxicity.
PubMed: [Analysis of organic residues in the extracts from the food retortable pouch by HPLC].
PubMed: [The effect of maleic acid hydrazide (MH) on the hexose content of potato tubers].
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Please share your Comments.
Email Address:
Top of Page Home
Copyright © 1980-2018 The Good Scents Company (tgsc) ™ Disclaimer Privacy Policy