EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

laevo-threonine
L-threonine

Sponsors

Name:(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
CAS Number: 72-19-5Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:1043597-96-1
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-774-1
FDA UNII:2ZD004190S
Nikkaji Web:J21.883I
Beilstein Number:1721646
MDL:MFCD00064270
XlogP3:-2.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:119.12033000
Formula:C4 H9 N O3
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:2119 L-threonine
FEMA Number:4710 L-threonine
FDA Mainterm: L-THREONINE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 256.00 to 272.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 325.00 °F. TCC ( 162.90 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -2.940
Soluble in:
 water, 2.79e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 9.70E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: savory
Odor Description:ADM L-Threonine is a high quality product specifically designed for the feed industry. Produced from advanced technology, ADM L-Threonine is composed of 100% isomerically pure L-Threonine, which translates into 100% bioavailability for swine, poultry, and other animals.mild savory
Flavor Type: sweet
">sweet
Taste Description: sweet
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
hair straightening agents
hair waving agents
 
Suppliers:
A.M.G.L.T.
L-Threonine Feed Grade
Aceto
L-Threonine
Ajinomoto USA
AjiPure™ Threonine
Flavor: characteristic
Manufactured under cGMP conditions using no materials of animal origin.
Ajinomoto USA
L-Threonine
Flavor: characteristic
L-threonine is classified as an essential amino acid. Humans do not synthesize L-threonine, so it must be obtained through the diet. The male adult’s daily requirement is 7 mg per kg of body weight. Most people will get sufficient L-threonine through the diet, but as threonine content in grains is low, vegetarians are more likely than others to have deficiencies and should consider supplementation.
BBFY Industrial
L-Threonine Feed Grade
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
H-Thr-OH >98%
Charkit Chemical
THREONINE, L-
ECSA Chemicals
L-Threonine
Company Profile
Foodchem International
L-Threonine
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Threonine
Graham Chemical
L-Threonine
OQEMA
Threonine
Penta International
L-THREONINE, Kosher
Prinova
L-Threonine
Sigma-Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
L-Threonine reagent grade, ≥98% (TLC)
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
L-(-)-Threonine >99.0%(T)
The Good Scents Company
L-THREONINE 98.5% FEED GRADE (AS IS BASIS)
Flavor: sweet
ADM L-Threonine is a high quality product specifically designed for the feed industry. Produced from advanced technology, ADM L-Threonine is composed of 100% isomerically pure L-Threonine, which translates into 100% bioavailability for swine, poultry, and other animals.
 
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-rat LD50 3098 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol. 58, Pg. 253, 1955.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-threonine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 25
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 50.00000200.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 50.00000200.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 50.00000200.00000
breakfast cereal: 50.00000200.00000
cheese: 50.00000200.00000
chewing gum: 50.00000200.00000
condiments / relishes: 50.00000200.00000
confectionery froastings: 50.00000200.00000
egg products: 50.00000200.00000
fats / oils: 50.00000200.00000
fish products: 50.00000200.00000
frozen dairy: 50.00000200.00000
fruit ices: 50.00000200.00000
gelatins / puddings: 50.00000200.00000
granulated sugar: 50.00000200.00000
gravies: 50.00000200.00000
hard candy: 50.00000200.00000
imitation dairy: 50.00000200.00000
instant coffee / tea: 50.00000200.00000
jams / jellies: 50.00000200.00000
meat products: 50.00000200.00000
milk products: 50.00000200.00000
nut products: 50.00000200.00000
other grains: 50.00000200.00000
poultry: 50.00000200.00000
processed fruits: 50.00000200.00000
processed vegetables: 50.00000200.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 50.00000200.00000
seasonings / flavors: 50000.00000100000.00000
snack foods: 50.00000200.00000
soft candy: 50.00000200.00000
soups: 50.00000200.00000
sugar substitutes: 50.00000200.00000
sweet sauces: 50.00000200.00000
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-threonine produced by Escherichia coli (FERM BP-10942) for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Ajinomoto Eurolysine SAS
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-threonine produced by Escherichia coli for all animal species, based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG on behalf of Global Bio-Chem Technology
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-threonine produced by Escherichia coli for all animal species, based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG on behalf of Star Lake Bioscience Co.
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-threonine produced by Escherichia coli (FERM BP-11383) for all animal species, based on a dossier submitted by Ajinomoto Eurolysine S.A.S.
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-threonine produced by Escherichia coli for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG on behalf of Meihua Holdings Group Co. Ltd
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-threonine produced by Escherichia coli strains NRRL B-30843, DSM 26131, KCCM11133P or DSM 25085 for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by AMAC EEIG
View page or View pdf

Safety of L-threonine produced by fermentation using Escherichia coli CGMCC 3703, for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by GBT Europe GmbH
View page or View pdf

Safety of L-threonine, technically pure, produced by fermentation with Escherichia coli CGMCC 7.58 for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Feedway Europe NV
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of l-threonine produced by fermentation with Escherichia coli CGMCC 11473 for all animal species
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):72-19-5
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6288
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
Chemidplus:0000072195
RTECS:XO8590000 for cas# 72-19-5
 
References:
 (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:72-19-5
Pubchem (cid):6288
Pubchem (sid):134972477
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00188
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00167
FooDB:FDB011999
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00214
Export Tariff Code:2922.50.5000
Household Products:Search
MedlinePlusSupp:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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 kohlrabi stem
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 leek wild leek plant
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 lentil sprout
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 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
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 lettuce leaf
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 lotus indian lotus rhizome
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 lotus indian lotus seed
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 macadamia nut
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 papaya fruit
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 pea black-eyed pea seed
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 pea pigeon pea seed
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 peanut seed
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 pear fruit
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 peppermint leaf
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 pigweed leaf
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 pine pinyon pine seed
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 pineapple fruit
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 pistachio nut
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 plum fruit
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 poppy opium poppy seed
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 potato sweet potato root
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 potato tuber
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 purslane herb
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 radish root
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 rice hay
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 rosemary leaf
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 rye seed
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 saffron bulb
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 sesame seed
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 soybean seed
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 soybean shoot
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 spearmint leaf
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 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach plant
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Synonyms:
 ajipure threonine
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
(R-(R*,S*))-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
[R-(R*,S*)]-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid, (R-(R*,S*))-
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid
L-2-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid
 butanoic acid, 2-amino-3-hydroxy-, (R-(R*,S*))-
L-threonin
(2S,3R)-threonine
(2S,3R)-(-)-threonine
(S)-threonine
L-threonine
L-(-)-threonine
 

Articles:

PubMed:Biotechnological production of amino acids and derivatives: current status and prospects.
Leffingwell & Associates:Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals
PubMed:The effects of glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine supplementation to a 9% casein diet on the conversions of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide and to serotonin in rats.
PubMed:The role of ACT-like subdomain in bacterial threonine dehydratases.
PubMed:Molecular evolution of threonine dehydratase in bacteria.
PubMed:Campylobacter jejuni pdxA affects flagellum-mediated motility to alter host colonization.
PubMed:Effect of metformin on the urinary metabolites of diet-induced-obese mice studied by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS).
PubMed:Leucine is essential for attenuating fetal growth restriction caused by a protein-restricted diet in rats.
PubMed:Optimal production of L-threo-2,3-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-threo-DOPS) on a large scale by diastereoselectivity-enhanced variant of L-threonine aldolase expressed in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli XH001, a producer of L-threonine in industry.
PubMed:Dietary self-selection of protein-unbalanced diets supplemented with three essential amino acids in Nile tilapia.
PubMed:Gelatin enhances 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production based on Ketogulonigenium vulgare genome annotation.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of L-threonine.
PubMed:The effect of the combination of reducing and oxidising agents on the viscoelastic properties of dough and sensory characteristics of buns.
PubMed:Metabolic pathways and fermentative production of L-aspartate family amino acids.
PubMed:Safety assessment of N-acetyl-L-threonine.
PubMed:Construction of a novel shuttle vector for use in Brevibacterium flavum, an industrial amino acid producer.
PubMed:Enhanced synthesis of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine by high-density whole-cell biocatalyst of recombinant L-threonine aldolase from Streptomyces avelmitilis.
PubMed:Molecular analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium tdc operon regulation.
PubMed:Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice.
PubMed:Amino acid and carbohydrate preferences in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice.
PubMed:Nitrogen-fixing and cellulose-producing Gluconacetobacter kombuchae sp. nov., isolated from Kombucha tea.
PubMed:On-column coaxial flow chemiluminescence detection for underivatized amino acids by pressurized capillary electrochromatography using a monolithic column.
PubMed:Improved L-threonine production of Escherichia coli mutant by optimization of culture conditions.
PubMed:Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.
PubMed:Regulation of aspartokinase, aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase and dihydrodipicolinate reductase in Lactobacillus plantarum.
PubMed:Effect of adding dietary L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine to a low gluten diet on urea synthesis in rats.
PubMed:Pseudoalteromonas sagamiensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium that produces protease inhibitors.
PubMed:Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of acetaldehyde production by Streptococcus thermophilus.
PubMed:Chlorosis-inducing products from Pseudomonas syringae pathovars: new N-coronafacoyl compounds.
PubMed:Changes in nitrogen compounds in must and wine during fermentation and biological aging by flor yeasts.
PubMed:The effects of tannins on nutrient utilisation in the White Pekin duck.
PubMed:Effect of amino acids on the composition and properties of extruded mixtures of wheat flour and glucose.
PubMed:Origin of acetaldehyde during milk fermentation using (13)C-labeled precursors.
PubMed:Time course and pattern of compensatory ingestive behavioral adjustments to lysine deficiency in rats.
PubMed:Vicinal diketone formation in yogurt: (13)C precursors and effect of branched-chain amino acids.
PubMed:Pyrazine formation from serine and threonine.
PubMed:L-threonine injection into PPC modifies food intake, lateral hypothalamic activity, and sympathetic discharge.
PubMed:Dietary protein and amino acid levels alter threonine dehydrogenase activity in hepatic mitochondria of Gallus domesticus.
PubMed:Crystalline lysine and threonine supplementation of soft red winter wheat or triticale, low-protein diets for growing-finishing swine.
PubMed:Response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growing from 50 to 170 g to supplements of either L-arginine or L-threonine in a semipurified diet.
PubMed:Influence of high dietary threonine on growth and amino acids in blood and tissues of rats.
PubMed:Anorexic action of a new potential neuropeptide Y antagonist [D-Tyr27,36, D-Thr32]-NPY (27-36) infused into the hypothalamus of the rat.
PubMed:The addition of glutamic acid or protein to a threonine-deficient diet differentially affects growth performance and threonine dehydrogenase activity in fattening pigs.
PubMed:Nutritional profile and antimicrobial spectrum of the spice Aframomum danielli K. Schum.
PubMed:Timing and dose of amino acids injected into prepyriform cortex influence food intake.
PubMed:Amino acid-supplemented raw soybean diets for finishing swine.
PubMed:Performance and nutrient balance in growing swine fed low-protein diets supplemented with amino acids and potassium.
PubMed:Behavior of L-threonine-degrading enzymes during liver regeneration.
PubMed:Comparative effects of individual amino acid excesses when added to a corn-soybean meal diet: effects on growth and dietary choice in the chick.
PubMed:Effect of excess levels of methionine, tryptophan, arginine, lysine or threonine on growth and dietary choice in the pig.
PubMed:Amino acid excesses for young pigs: effects of excess methionine, tryptophan, threonine or leucine.
PubMed:Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.
PubMed:Preparative resolution of D,L-threonine catalyzed by immobilized phosphatase.
PubMed:Threonine metabolism of chicks fed threonine-imbalanced diets.
PubMed:Fetal growth retardation induced by dietary imbalance of threonine and dispensable amino acids, with adequate energy and protein-equivalent intakes, in pregnant rats.
PubMed:Protein quality, food intake and growth in normal and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma-bearing rats.
PubMed:The amino acid supplementation of barley for the growing pig. 2. Optimal additions of lysine and threonine for growth.
PubMed:Effect of diets supplemented with amino acids on intestinal sucrase and leucine aminopeptidase activities in rats.
PubMed:Bioavailability of acetylated derivatives of methionine, threonine, and lysine.
PubMed:Involvement of food intake in the lysine-arginine antagonism in chicks.
 
Notes:
an essential amino acid occurring naturally in the l-form, which is the active form. it is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins. From wide variety of protein hydrolysates. Dietary supplement, nutrient Threonine (abbreviated as Thr or T) is an essential alpha-amino acid. (Wikipedia)
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