laevo-isoleucine
(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
 
Notes:
an essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. it is an isomer of leucine. it is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels. Dietary supplement, nutrient Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids whose carbon structure is marked by a branch point. These three amino acids are critical to human life and are particularly involved in stress, energy and muscle metabolism. BCAA supplementation as therapy, both oral and intravenous, in human health and disease holds great promise. "BCAA" denotes valine, isoleucine and leucine which are branched chain essential amino acids. Despite their structural similarities, the branched amino acids have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates, leucine solely to fats and isoleucine to both. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine and isoleucine respectively. Furthermore, these amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors. BCAA are decreased in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis, hepatic coma, cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia or portacaval shunt; They provide ingredients for the manufacturing of other essential biochemical components in the body, some of which are utilized for the production of energy, stimulants to the upper brain and helping you to be more alert.; aromatic amino acids (AAA)-tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, as well as methionine-are increased in these conditions. Valine, in particular, has been established as a useful supplemental therapy to the ailing liver. All the BCAA probably compete with AAA for absorption into the brain. Supplemental BCAA with vitamin B6 and zinc help normalize the BCAA:AAA ratio. The BCAA are not without side effects. Leucine alone, for example, exacerbates pellagra and can cause psychosis in pellagra patients by increasing excretion of niacin in the urine. Leucine may lower brain serotonin and dopamine. A dose of 3 g of isoleucine added to the niacin regime has cleared leucine-aggravated psychosis in schizophrenic patients. Isoleucine may have potential as an antipsychotic treatment. Leucine is more highly concentrated in foods than other amino acids. A cup of milk contains 800 mg of leucine and only 500 mg of isoleucine and valine. A cup of wheat germ has about 1.6 g of leucine and 1 g of isoleucine and valine. The ratio evens out in eggs and cheese. One egg and an ounce of most cheeses each contain about 400 mg of leucine and 400 mg of valine and isoleucine. The ratio of leucine to other BCAA is greatest in pork, where leucine is 7 to 8 g and the other BCAA together are only 3 to 4 g. (http://www.dcnutrition.com)
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
      The Specialty Chemical Specialists
      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve as our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Our substantial portfolio of personal care ingredients now include a wide array of luxury and exotic components to compliment the key products we have always offered. We have expanded our offerings to the nutraceutical, industrial, and resin markets with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. We continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions. Please contact us to learn how we can help you reach your goals.
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      ISOLEUCINE, L-
       
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    • ECSA Chemicals
      International trading and distribution
      ECSA Group offers its customers in these business segments a complete 'one-stop shopping' solution.
      A hundred years on from its establishment, the Emanuele Centonze Holding SA has developed a solid presence in Switzerland and in Europe. The Group currently includes: ECSA Chemicals AG/ECSA Italia SRL SocietÓ con Unico Socio – ECSA Maintenance AG – ECSA Energy SA – Porta Ticino Easy Stop SA. The Group operates in the distribution of chemical and petroleum products, in the international trading of commodities, and in the distribution of maintenance systems. With 285 employees, a consolidated turnover of 335 million Swiss Francs in 2015, and more than 15,000 active customers, the Group ranks among the top 500 companies in Switzerland. ECSA operates in Switzerland and the EU, and in particular has consolidated its geographical position on the main axis linking northern and southern Europe, thus creating a competitive and privileged logistical hub.
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      Product(s):
      L-IsoLeucine
       
  • Jiangyin Healthway
    • Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co.
      Independent Ingredients Supplier
      We provide custom synthesis and contract manufacturing from milligrams to metric tonnes.
      Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co., Ltd is a professional company, main engaged in manufacturing and exporting aroma chemicals ,food additives , cosmetic ingredient ,pharmaceutical intermediates & other fine chemicals; especially on aroma chemicals , as the major manufacturer of heterocyclic and sulphur aroma compounds , we are the leading independent ingredients supplier to the flavour and fragrance industries in China, can offer hundreds of different high quality aroma chemicals.
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      Product(s):
      125375 L-isoleucine
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      09-49300 L-ISOLEUCINE, Kosher
      09-49305 L-ISOLEUCINE NATURAL, Kosher
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
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      Product(s):
      W527602 L-Isoleucine, 99%, FCC, FG
      SDS
       
  • TCI AMERICA
    • TCI AMERICA
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      Email: Sales
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      Product(s):
      I0181 L-isoLeucine >98.0%(T)
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 73-32-5Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 200-798-2
FDA UNII: 04Y7590D77
Nikkaji Web: J2.818E
Beilstein Number: 1721792
MDL: MFCD00064222
CoE Number: 10482
XlogP3: -1.70 (est)
Molecular Weight: 131.17501000
Formula: C6 H13 N O2
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 2118  L-isoleucine
FEMA Number: 4675  L-isoleucine
FDA Mainterm: L-ISOLEUCINE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 287.00 to  288.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 225.77 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure: 0.031000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 194.00 °F. TCC ( 90.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.799 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 2.191e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 3.44E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
odorless
  
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
Aceto
isoLeucine
AIDP
L-Isoleucine 98.5%-101.5%
Ajinomoto USA
AjiPure™ Isoleucine
Flavor: characteristic
Manufactured under cGMP conditions using no materials of animal origin.
Ajinomoto USA
isoLucine
Flavor: characteristic
L-isoleucine is one of the branched chain amino acids (L-isoleucine, L-valine, and L-leucine) and is classified as an essential amino acid. This means the body cannot manufacture L-isoleucine; it must be acquired through diet or supplementation. The male adult’s daily requirement is 10 mg per kg of body weight. Food sources for isoleucine include almonds, cashews and soy protein.
Anhui Haibei
L-IsoLeucine
Atlantic Chemicals
L-isoLeucine
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
L-isoLeucine
Charkit Chemical
ISOLEUCINE, L-
ECSA Chemicals
L-IsoLeucine
Company Profile
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
L-isoLeucine
Foodchem International
L-isoLeucine
Glentham Life Sciences
L-isoLeucine
Graham Chemical
L-isoLeucine
Jiangyin Healthway
L-isoleucine
New functional food ingredients
Penta International
L-ISOLEUCINE NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
L-ISOLEUCINE, Kosher
Prinova
L-isoLeucine FCC; USP
Risun Ingredients
L-IsoLeucine USP,FCC
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Isoleucine, 99%, FCC, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
L-isoLeucine >98.0%(T)
Zhong Ya Chemical
L-isoLeucine
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-rat LD50  6822 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol. 58, Pg. 253, 1955.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-isoleucine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 25
Click here to view publication 25
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 50.0000050.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 200.00000250.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 50.0000050.00000
breakfast cereal: 50.0000050.00000
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 50.0000050.00000
milk products: 50.0000050.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: 50.0000050.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 73-32-5
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 6306
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 (2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
Chemidplus: 0000073325
RTECS: NR4705000 for cas# 73-32-5
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
References:
 (2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 73-32-5
Pubchem (cid): 6306
Pubchem (sid): 134972796
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00407
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00172
FooDB: FDB012397
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00038
Export Tariff Code: 2922.49.4050
MedlinePlusSupp: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents 
 hair conditioning 
 skin conditioning 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 almond seed
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 beet root
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 brazil nut
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 breadfruit fruit
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli leaf
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 brussel sprout leaf
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 buckwheat seed
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 burdock root
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 butternut seed
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 cabbage leaf
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 cacao bean
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 caraway seed
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 carob bean seed
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 carrot root
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 cashew nut
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 cassava root
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 cayenne fruit
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 celery plant
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 chayote fruit
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 chestnut sweet chestnut nut
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 chickpea seed
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 chicory leaf
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 chive leaf
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 coconut endosperm
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 coconut seed
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 coriander fruit
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 coriander leaf
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 coriander seed
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 corn seed
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 cucumber fruit
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 currant black currant fruit juice
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 date palm fruit
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 dill seed
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 eggplant fruit
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 endive leaf
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 evening-primrose seed
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 fennel seed
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 fenugreek leaf
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 fenugreek seed
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 fig fruit
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 flax plant
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 flax seed
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 garlic bulb
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 garlic leaf
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 ginger root
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 ginger tuber
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 ginkgo biloba seed
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 goosefoot leaf
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 gourd calabash gourd fruit
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 grape fruit
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 guava fruit
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 guava strawberry guava fruit
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 kohlrabi stem
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 leek wild leek plant
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 lentil seed
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 lentil sprout
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 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
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 lettuce leaf
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 lotus indian lotus rhizome
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 lotus indian lotus seed
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 macadamia nut
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 mallow jew's mallow leaf
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 mandarin fruit
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 mango fruit
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 marango shoot
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 melon bitter melon seed
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 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
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 mustard white mustard seed
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 oat plant
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 oat seed
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 okra fruit
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 onion bulb
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 orange fruit
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 papaya fruit
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 pea black-eyed pea seed
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 pea fruit
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 pea pigeon pea seed
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 pea seed
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 peach fruit
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 peanut seed
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 pear fruit
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 peppermint leaf
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 pigweed leaf
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 pine pinyon pine seed
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 pineapple fruit
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 pistachio nut
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 plum fruit
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 poppy opium poppy seed
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 potato sweet potato root
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 potato tuber
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 purslane herb
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 radish root
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 rice hay
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 rosemary leaf
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 rye seed
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 sesame seed
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 soybean seed
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 soybean shoot
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 spearmint leaf
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 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach leaf
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 spinach plant
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 spinach water spinach leaf
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 squash summer squash fruit
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 star fruit fruit
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 sunflower seed
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 taro leaf
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 taro root
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 thyme plant
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 tomato fruit
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 turnip indian turnip root
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 watercress herb
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 watermelon fruit
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 watermelon plant
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 watermelon seed
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 wheat plant
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 wheat seed
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 yam mountain yam root
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Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 ajipure isoleucine
(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methyl pentanoic acid
(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid
(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
[S-(R*,R*)]-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
(2S,3S)-a-amino-b-methyl-N-valeric acid
(2S,3S)-a-amino-b-methylvaleric acid
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-merthyl valeric acid
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-methyl-N-valeric acid
L-isoleucin
(S,S)-isoleucine
(S)-isoleucine
2S,3S-isoleucine
L-isoleucine
L-isoleucine FCC; USP
L-isoleucine natural
isoleucine, L-
 pentanoic acid, 2-amino-3-methyl-, (2S,3S)-
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed on bone mechanical properties in rats.
Leffingwell & Associates: Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals
PubMed: ZnCl2-mediated practical protocol for the synthesis of Amadori ketoses.
PubMed: Gustatory responsiveness to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).
PubMed: Hydrolysis of wheat gluten by combining peptidases of Flammulina velutipes and electrodialysis.
PubMed: Expression of NAD(H) kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase improve NADPH supply and L-isoleucine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum.
PubMed: L-Leucine and L-isoleucine enhance growth of BBN-induced urothelial tumors in the rat bladder by modulating expression of amino acid transporters and tumorigenesis-associated genes.
PubMed: A dipeptide and an amino acid present in whey protein hydrolysate increase translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane in Wistar rats.
PubMed: Increasing l-isoleucine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum by overexpressing global regulator Lrp and two-component export system BrnFE.
PubMed: [Overexpression of Corynebacterium glutamicum NAD kinase improves L-isoleucine biosynthesis].
PubMed: Zn(2+) and L-isoleucine induce the expressions of porcine ╬▓-defensins in IPEC-J2 cells.
PubMed: Long-term treatment with L-isoleucine or L-leucine in AIN-93G diet has promoting effects on rat bladder carcinogenesis.
PubMed: Co-expression of feedback-resistant threonine dehydratase and acetohydroxy acid synthase increase L-isoleucine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
PubMed: Overexpression of NAD kinases improves the L-isoleucine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum.
PubMed: Purification and structure analysis of mycolic acids in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
PubMed: Leucine is essential for attenuating fetal growth restriction caused by a protein-restricted diet in rats.
PubMed: Gelatin enhances 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production based on Ketogulonigenium vulgare genome annotation.
PubMed: Metabolic pathways and fermentative production of L-aspartate family amino acids.
PubMed: Heating improves poor compliance with branched chain amino acid-rich supplementation in patients with liver cirrhosis: A before-after pilot study.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.
PubMed: Pathway analysis of branched-chain ester biosynthesis in apple using deuterium labeling and enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Sequence diversity of the peptaibol antibiotic suzukacillin-A from the mold Trichoderma viride.
PubMed: Effect of individual amino acids and glucose on activation and germination of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores in tempe starter.
PubMed: Lack of carcinogenicity of L-isoleucine in F344/DuCrj rats.
PubMed: Clinical comparison of branched-chain amino acid (l-Leucine, l-Isoleucine, l-Valine) granules and oral nutrition for hepatic insufficiency in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LIV-EN study).
PubMed: Suppression of the bitterness of enteral nutrients using increased particle sizes of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and various flavours: a taste sensor study.
PubMed: Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of strawberry aroma compounds through amino acid metabolism.
PubMed: Effects of copper and zinc on growth, feeding and oxygen consumption of Farfantepenaeus paulensis postlarvae (Decapoda: Penaeidae).
PubMed: Olfactory discrimination of amino acids in brown bullhead catfish.
PubMed: Response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to supplements of individual essential amino acids in a semipurified diet, including an estimate of the maintenance requirement for essential amino acids.
PubMed: Subchronic toxicity study of L-isoleucine in F344 rats.
PubMed: Timing and dose of amino acids injected into prepyriform cortex influence food intake.
PubMed: Performance and nutrient balance in growing swine fed low-protein diets supplemented with amino acids and potassium.
PubMed: Methylmalonic acid concentrations in serum of normal subjects: biological variability and effect of oral L-isoleucine loads before and after intramuscular administration of cobalamin.
PubMed: Effects of valine on 15N incorporation into serum and tissue protein and non-protein fractions following 15N-L-leucine administration to normal and liver-injured rats.
PubMed: Comparative effects of individual amino acid excesses when added to a corn-soybean meal diet: effects on growth and dietary choice in the chick.
PubMed: The inducer of the feeding response in Penaeus paulensis (Crustacea-Decapoda).
PubMed: Production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces rimosus 12,907 as an animal feed supplement.
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