EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

laevo-cystine
L-cystine

Sponsors

CAS Number: 56-89-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-296-3
FDA UNII:48TCX9A1VT
Nikkaji Web:J9.172C
Beilstein Number:1728094
MDL:MFCD00064228
CoE Number:11747
XlogP3-AA:-6.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:240.30244000
Formula:C6 H12 N2 O4 S2
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
Register name to be changed to L-cystine (EFSA, 2006b)
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
FLAVIS Number:17.006 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:17.006 L-cystine
FDA Mainterm: L-CYSTINE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 241.00 to 254.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 467.00 to 469.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 458.00 °F. TCC ( 236.67 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.773 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 190 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
masking agents
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
L-Cystine
AIDP
L-Cystine 98.5% min
Ajinomoto USA
L-Cystine
Flavor: characteristic
L-Cystine is a non-essential amino acid. This means your body can synthesize sufficient L-cystine to meet its requirements.
Ajinomoto USA
L-Cystine
EP
AuNutra® Industries
L-Cystine
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
(H-Cys-OH)2
Charkit Chemical
CYSTINE, L- BASE
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
L-Cystine
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
L-Cystine
George Uhe Company
L-Cystine
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Cystine
Penta International
L-CYSTINE NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
L-CYSTINE, Kosher
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
L-(-)-Cystine >98.0%(HPLC)(N)
 
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 [sex: M,F] > 25000 mg/kg
(Kawai et al., 1978)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 > 961 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 94, Pg. 1419, 1974.

oral-rat LDLo 25000 mg/kg
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 15, Pg. 199, 1978.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-cystine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 2.40 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 23000 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): --
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): --
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): --
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): --
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): --
Bakery wares (07.0): --
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): --
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): --
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): --
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 70.00000-
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): --
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): --
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):56-89-3
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :67678
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
(2R)-2-amino-3-[(2R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-3-oxopropyl]disulfanylpropanoic acid
Chemidplus:0000056893
RTECS:HA2690000 for cas# 56-89-3
 
References:
 (2R)-2-amino-3-[(2R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-3-oxopropyl]disulfanylpropanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:56-89-3
Pubchem (cid):67678
Pubchem (sid):134970532
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00491
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00192
FooDB:FDB012563
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00886
Export Tariff Code:2930.90.4950
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
 hair conditioning
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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 goosefoot plant
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 kohlrabi stem
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 lentil seed
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 lentil sprout
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 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
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 lettuce leaf
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 lotus indian lotus rhizome
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 lotus indian lotus seed
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 macadamia nut
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 mallow jew's mallow leaf
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 marango shoot
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 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
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 pea black-eyed pea seed
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 peanut seed
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 peppermint leaf
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 pine pinyon pine seed
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 pistachio nut
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 poppy opium poppy seed
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 radish root
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 rosemary leaf
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 rye seed
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 saffron bulb
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 soybean shoot
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 spearmint leaf
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 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach water spinach leaf
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 squash summer squash fruit
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 taro leaf
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 taro root
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 tea leaf
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 thyme plant
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 tomato fruit
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 turnip indian turnip root
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 wheat seed
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 yam mountain yam root
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Synonyms:
L-alanine, 3,3'-dithiobis-
(2R)-2-amino-3-[(2R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-3-oxopropyl]disulfanylpropanoic acid
(2R)-2-amino-3-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]disulfanyl}propanoic acid
 cysteine disulfide
L-cystine
L-(-)-cystine
L-cystine (9CI)
 cystine (L)-
 dicysteine
(2R,2'R)-3,3'-disulfanediylbis(2-aminopropanoic acid)
(R-(R*,R*))-3,3'-dithiobis(2-aminopropanoic acid)
(R,R)-3,3'-dithiobis(2-aminopropanoic acid)
3,3'-dithiobis(2-aminopropanoic acid), (R-(R*,R*))-
(R,R)-3,3'-dithiobis(2-aminopropionic acid)
(R,R)-3,3'-dithiobis(2-aminopropionicacid)
 gelucystine
 

Articles:

PubMed:Heterologous production of methionine-gamma-lyase from Brevibacterium linens in Lactococcus lactis and formation of volatile sulfur compounds.
PubMed:YtjE from Lactococcus lactis IL1403 Is a C-S lyase with alpha, gamma-elimination activity toward methionine.
PubMed:The effects of glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine supplementation to a 9% casein diet on the conversions of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide and to serotonin in rats.
PubMed:Nonchromatographic speciation of selenium in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.
PubMed:Organoselenium compounds modulate extracellular redox by induction of extracellular cysteine and cell surface thioredoxin reductase.
PubMed:New insights into the metabolism of organomercury compounds: mercury-containing cysteine S-conjugates are substrates of human glutamine transaminase K and potent inactivators of cystathionine γ-lyase.
PubMed:Optimized method for determining free L-cysteine in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with the 4-aminosulfonyl-7-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole conversion reagent.
PubMed:Heterologous production of methionine-gamma-lyase from Brevibacterium linens in Lactococcus lactis and formation of volatile sulfur compounds.
PubMed:[Fermentation and polysaccharide antioxidative activity of a Libertella strain].
PubMed:Advances in protein-amino acid nutrition of poultry.
PubMed:Sulfite-radical anions in isolated soy proteins.
PubMed:Antioxidant impacts on volatile formation in high-pressure-processed milk.
PubMed:Adsorption of pesticides from water by functionalized organobentonites.
PubMed:Alternative anaerobic enrichments to the bacteriological analytical manual culture method for isolation of Shigella sonnei from selected types of fresh produce.
PubMed:Renal response to lithogenic and anti-lithogenic supplement challenges in a stone-free population group.
PubMed:Sulfur amino acid deficiency depresses brain glutathione concentration.
PubMed:Biochemical characterization of cystine lyase from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).
PubMed:Fas ligand induction in human NK cells is regulated by redox through a calcineurin-nuclear factors of activated T cell-dependent pathway.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of cystathionine gamma-lyase from Lactobacillus fermentum DT41.
PubMed:Plasma arginine-vasotocin and hydroosmotic status of the terrestrial pit viper Bothrops jararaca.
PubMed:Control of cell cycle progression in human natural killer cells through redox regulation of expression and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product protein.
PubMed:Components of the AIN-93 diets as improvements in the AIN-76A diet.
PubMed:Sulfur amino acid requirement and cystine replacement value of broiler chicks during the period three to six weeks posthatching.
PubMed:Supplemental dietary cystine elevates kidney metallothionein in rats by a mechanism involving altered zinc metabolism.
PubMed:Rats fed a low protein diet supplemented with sulfur amino acids have increased cysteine dioxygenase activity and increased taurine production in hepatocytes.
PubMed:Requirement of thiol compounds as reducing agents for IL-2-mediated induction of LAK activity and proliferation of human NK cells.
PubMed:Bioavailable level and source of cysteine determine protein quality of a commercial enteral product: adequacy of tryptophan but deficiency of cysteine for rats fed an enteral product prepared fresh or stored beyond shelf life.
PubMed:Efficiency of dietary methionine utilization by young pigs.
PubMed:The C-S lyases of higher plants: homogeneous beta-cystathionase of spinach leaves.
PubMed:A resuscitation/selection system for rapid determination of Salmonella in foods.
PubMed:The C-S Lyases of Higher Plants : Isolation and Properties of Homogeneous Cystine Lyase from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var botrytis) Buds.
PubMed:The utilization and safety of isomeric sulfur-containing amino acids in mice.
PubMed:Methionine, cystine, sodium sulfate, and Fermacto-500 supplementation of practical-type diets for young turkeys.
PubMed:The choline-methionine interrelationship for growth of the chick.
PubMed:The ineffectiveness of supplementary cystine in legume-based rat diets.
PubMed:Growth and liver enzyme response in growing rats to graded levels of methionine plus cystine in fortified-barley diets. Response at constant methionine:cystine.
PubMed:Inactivation of phosphoenolypyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) by liver extracts.
 
Notes:
a covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of cysteine. two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine. Flavouring ingredient; dietary supplement Cystine is an oxidized dimeric form of cysteine. It is formed by linking two cysteine residues via a disulfide bond (cys-S-S-cys) between the -SH groups. Cystine is found in high concentrations in the cells of the immune system, skeletal and connective tissues, skin, digestive enzymes, and in hair. Hair and skin are 10-14% cystine. Cystine is the preferred form of cysteine for the synthesis of glutathione in cells involved in the immune function including macrophages and astrocytes. Lymphocytes and neurons prefer cysteine for glutathione production. Optimizing glutathione levels in macrophages and astrocytes with cystine allows these cells to provide cysteine to lymphocytes and neurons directly upon demand. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cystine); Cystine is the amino acid formed by the oxidation of cysteine molecules to give a disulfide bond. This organosulfur compound has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2. It is a colorless solid, and melts at 247-249 C. It was discovered in 1810 by William Hyde Wollaston but was not recognized as being derived of proteins until it was isolated from the horn of a cow in 1899. Through formation of disulfide bonds within and between protein molecules, cystine is a significant determinant of the tertiary structure of most proteins. Disulfide bonding, along with hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions is partially responsible for the formation of the gluten matrix in bread. Human hair contains approximately 5% cystine by mass.; L-Cystine is a covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of cysteine. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine. Cystine is a chemical substance which naturally occurs as a deposit in the urine, and can form a calculus (hard mineral formation) when deposited in the kidney. The compound produced when two cysteine molecules linked by a disulfide (S-S) bond. Cystine is required for proper vitamin B6 utilization and is also helpful in the healing of burns and wounds, breaking down mucus deposits in illnesses such as bronchitis as well as cystic fibrosis. Cysteine also assists in the supply of insulin to the pancreas, which is needed for the assimilation of sugars and starches. It increases the level of glutathione in the lungs, liver, kidneys and bone marrow, and this may have an anti-aging effect on the body by reducing age-spots etc.
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