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ascorbyl palmitate
vitamin C palmitate

Supplier Sponsors

Name:[2-(4,5-dihydroxy-3-oxofuran-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl] hexadecanoate
CAS Number: 137-66-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):120398-58-5
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:205-305-4
Nikkaji Web:J5.632D
Beilstein Number:0096552
XlogP3:6.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:414.53926000
Formula:C22 H38 O7
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
182.3149 Ascorbyl palmitate (palmitoyl L-ascorbic) View - review
EU SANCO Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Ascorbyl Palmitate
GSFA Codex: Ascorbyl palmitate (304)
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:ascorbyl palmitate
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Margarine
Sec. 166.110 Margarine.

Subpart D--Chemical Preservatives
Sec. 182.3149 Ascorbyl palmitate.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to pale yellow solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 107.00 to 117.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 546.00 to 547.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 352.00 °F. TCC ( 177.78 °C. )
logP (o/w): 6.868 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, slightly
 water, 0.06038 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. citrus
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antioxidants
Ascorbyl Palmitate Vitamin C 95%- 100.5%
American International Chemical, LLC.
Ascorbyl Palmitate USP FCC
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Ascorbyl Palmitate >98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Ascorbyl palmitate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and palmitic acid creating a fat-soluble form of vitamin C.
ECSA Chemicals
Foodchem International
Ascorbyl Palmitate
George Uhe Company
Ascorbyl Palmitate
Glentham Life Sciences
6-O-Palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Ascorbyl Palmitate
Jiangyin Healthway
Ascorbyl Palmitate
New functional food ingredients
Penta International
Penta International
For experimental / research use only.
Ascorbic acid 6-palmitate meets USP testing specifications
Sinoway Industrial
For experimental / research use only.
L-Ascorbyl 6-palmitate
(99% up, powder)
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50 25000 mg/kg
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 53A, Pg. 146, 1974.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-guinea pig LD50 > 3000 mg/kg
International Journal of Toxicology. Vol. 18(Suppl

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
Recommendation for ascorbyl palmitate usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for ascorbyl palmitate flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of ascorbyl palmitate (E 304(i)) and ascorbyl stearate (E 304(ii)) as food additives
View page or View pdf

Opinion on the re-evaluation of ascorbyl palmitate (E 304i) as a food additive in foods for infants below 16 weeks of age and the follow-up of its re-evaluation as a food additive for uses in foods for all population groups
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):137-66-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :54680660
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
[2-(4,5-dihydroxy-3-oxofuran-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl] hexadecanoate
RTECS:CI7671040 for cas# 137-66-6
 [2-(4,5-dihydroxy-3-oxofuran-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl] hexadecanoate
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:137-66-6
Pubchem (cid):54680660
Pubchem (sid):134973737
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):D02412
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB39883
Export Tariff Code:2915.70.0050
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food:Read Report
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
laevo-ascorbic acid 6-hexadecanoate
laevo-ascorbic acid 6-palmitate
 ascorbic acid palmitate
 ascorbic palmitate
 ascorboyl palmitate
 ascorbyl 6-palmitate
 ascorbyl monopalmitate
1-ascorbyl palmitate
 ascorbyl palmitic acid
 ascorbylpalmitic acid
 cetyl ascorbate
[2-(4,5-dihydroxy-3-oxofuran-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl] hexadecanoate
 hexadecanoic acid 2-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-furan-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-ethyl ester
 palmitic acid, ester with ascorbic acid
6-O-palmitoyl ascorbate
6-O-palmitoyl ascorbic acid
6-O-palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid
6-palmitoylascorbic acid
6-O-palmitoylascorbic acid
 vitamin C palmitate


PubMed:Protective effects of equimolar mixtures of monomer and dimer of dehydrozingerone with α-tocopherol and/or ascorbyl palmitate during bulk lipid autoxidation.
PubMed:Study of the influence of ascorbyl palmitate and amiodarone in the stability of unilamellar liposomes.
PubMed:Enhanced In Vitro Skin Deposition Properties of Retinyl Palmitate through Its Stabilization by Pectin.
PubMed:Adjuvant activity of CpG-ODN formulated as a liquid crystal.
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate/DSPE-PEG nanocarriers for oral iron delivery: Preparation, characterisation and in vitro evaluation.
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate interaction with phospholipid monolayers: electrostatic and rheological preponderancy.
PubMed:Nanocarrier with self-antioxidative property for stabilizing and delivering ascorbyl palmitate into skin.
PubMed:Lecithin based lamellar liquid crystals as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system for ascorbyl palmitate.
PubMed:Polar paradox revisited: analogous pairs of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants in linoleic acid emulsion containing Cu(II).
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.
PubMed:Production of polymeric micelles by microfluidic technology for combined drug delivery: application to osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (hPDLSCs).
PubMed:Utilization of smoked salmon trim in extruded smoked salmon jerky.
PubMed:Effect of antioxidants on oxidation during the production of whey fat concentrate.
PubMed:The ascorbyl palmitate-polyethyleneglycol 400-water system phase behavior.
PubMed:Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid stability in o/w emulsions for cosmetic application.
PubMed:Effect of the simultaneous interaction among ascorbic acid, iron and pH on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.
PubMed:Lipid-soluble vitamin C palmitate and protection of human high-density lipoprotein from hypochlorite-mediated oxidation.
PubMed:Vitamin C derivatives as new coreactants for tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) electrochemiluminescence.
PubMed:Surface phase behavior and domain topography of ascorbyl palmitate monolayers.
PubMed:Antibacterial electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/ascorbyl palmitate nanofibrous materials.
PubMed:Effect of antioxidants on soy oil conjugated linoleic acid production and its oxidative stability.
PubMed:Drug targeting to inflammation: studies on antioxidant surface loaded diclofenac liposomes.
PubMed:Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic Acid derivatives.
PubMed:Control of lipid oxidation in extruded salmon jerky snacks.
PubMed:New association of surfactants for the production of food and cosmetic nanoemulsions: preliminary development and characterization.
PubMed:Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the chain-breaking antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid derivatives in non-aqueous media.
PubMed:Chemical stabilization of oils rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl palmitate in ultrasound-assisted system: process optimization and kinetic evaluation.
PubMed:Biodistribution of ascorbyl palmitate loaded doxorubicin pegylated liposomes in solid tumor bearing mice.
PubMed:A new approach for increasing ascorbyl palmitate stability by addition of non-irritant co-antioxidant.
PubMed:Palmitic acid analogs exhibit nanomolar binding affinity for the HIV-1 CD4 receptor and nanomolar inhibition of gp120-to-CD4 fusion.
PubMed:Effect of antioxidant vitamins A, C, E and their analogues on azo-dye binding protein in liver of rats treated with p-dimethylaminoazobenzene.
PubMed:SRMS142-based solid lipid microparticles: application in oral delivery of glibenclamide to diabetic rats.
PubMed:Semi-micro flow injection analysis method for evaluation of quenching effect of health foods or food additive antioxidants on peroxynitrite.
PubMed:Encapsulation of ascorbyl palmitate in chitosan nanoparticles by oil-in-water emulsion and ionic gelation processes.
PubMed:Chitosan derivative nanocarrier: safety evaluation,antibacterial property and ascorbyl palmitate encapsulation.
PubMed:Specific effects of single antioxidants in the lipid peroxidation caused by nano-titania used in sunscreen lotions.
PubMed:Stability of vitamin C derivatives in topical formulations containing lipoic acid, vitamins A and E.
PubMed:Coating of peanuts with edible whey protein film containing alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate.
PubMed:Sterol superlattice affects antioxidant potency and can be used to assess adverse effects of antioxidants.
PubMed:Solubilization of nutraceuticals into reverse hexagonal mesophases.
PubMed:Moisturizing potentials of ascorbyl palmitate and calcium ascorbate in various topical formulations.
PubMed:Biocompatible water-in-oil emulsion as a model to study ascorbic acid effect on lipid oxidation.
PubMed:Modulation of digestive enzyme activities during ontogeny of Labeo rohita larvae fed ascorbic acid enriched zooplankton.
PubMed:Physicochemical characterization and in vitro release studies of ascorbyl palmitate-loaded semi-solid nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC gels).
PubMed:Development of ascorbyl palmitate nanocrystals applying the nanosuspension technology.
PubMed:Environmentally friendly LC for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and its derivatives in skin-whitening cosmetics.
PubMed:Physical properties of whey protein coating solutions and films containing antioxidants.
PubMed:Effects of 6-month daily supplementation with oral beta-carotene in combination or not with benzo[a]pyrene on cell-cycle markers in the lung of ferrets.
PubMed:Encapsulation of ascorbyl palmitate in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC)--effects of formulation parameters on physicochemical stability.
PubMed:Efficiency of natural phenolic compounds regenerating alpha-tocopherol from alpha-tocopheroxyl radical.
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, and EDTA affect lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched salad dressing differently.
PubMed:Skin permeation enhancement of ascorbyl palmitate by liposomal hydrogel (lipogel) formulation and electrical assistance.
PubMed:Design of novel antifungal mucoadhesive films. Part II. Formulation and in vitro biopharmaceutical evaluation.
PubMed:The retinal carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals: a chemiluminescence and ESR study.
PubMed:Design of novel antifungal mucoadhesive films Part I. Pre-formulation studies.
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate enhances iron bioavailability in iron-fortified bread.
PubMed:Production of ascorbyl palmitate by surfactant-coated lipase in organic media.
PubMed:Topical delivery of retinyl ascorbate co-drug. 5. In vitro degradation studies.
PubMed:Ultrasound accelerated esterification of palmitic acid with vitamin C.
PubMed:[Biological synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate].
PubMed:Skin moisturizing effect and skin penetration of ascorbyl palmitate entrapped in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) incorporated into hydrogel.
PubMed:Stability of ascorbyl palmitate molecule in the rat brain.
PubMed:Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.
PubMed:Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for application of ascorbyl palmitate.
PubMed:A multicenter, double-blind, safety study of QR-333 for the treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A preliminary report.
PubMed:Protection against oxidation of fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions through addition of rapeseed oil or antioxidants.
PubMed:Synthesis of mixed esters of ascorbic acid using methyl esters of palm and soybean oils.
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate and its synergism to tocopherols.
PubMed:Nasal delivery of insulin using chitosan microspheres.
PubMed:Aroma analysis of light-exposed milk stored with and without natural and synthetic antioxidants.
PubMed:Topical delivery of retinyl ascorbate co-drug. 1. Synthesis, penetration into and permeation across human skin.
PubMed:Capacity of ascorbyl palmitate to produce the ascorbyl radical in vitro: an electron spin resonance investigation.
PubMed:Artifactual oxidation of cholesterol during the analysis of cholesterol oxidation products: protective effect of antioxidants.
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate augments hypoxic respiratory response in the cat.
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate vesicles (Aspasomes): formation, characterization and applications.
PubMed:Lustra, Lustra-AF and Alustra.
PubMed:Effect of colloidal carriers on ascorbyl palmitate stability.
PubMed:Skin protection against ultraviolet induced free radicals with ascorbyl palmitate in microemulsions.
PubMed:Pulmonary bioavailability of ascorbic acid in an ascorbate-synthesising species, the horse.
PubMed:Reduction of inclusion body pathology in ApoE-deficient mice fed a combination of antioxidants.
PubMed:Ascorbyl palmitate as a carrier of ascorbate into neural tissues.
PubMed:Antioxidative effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate on thermal oxidation of canola oil.
PubMed:Vitamin C derivative ascorbyl palmitate promotes ultraviolet-B-induced lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity in keratinocytes.
PubMed:Evaluation of peppermint oil and ascorbyl palmitate as inhibitors of cytochrome P4503A4 activity in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Free radical scavenging and skin penetration of troxerutin and vitamin derivatives.
PubMed:Evaluation of the surfactant properties of ascorbyl palmitate sodium salt.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of sweetgrass (Hierochloë odorata Wahlnb.) extract in lard and rapeseed oil emulsions.
PubMed:Effects of vitamins and common drugs on reduction of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in rat microsomes.
PubMed:Stability of ascorbyl palmitate in topical microemulsions.
PubMed:Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate on the isomerization and decomposition of methyl linoleate hydroperoxides.
PubMed:[Studies on lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate in non-aqueous phase].
PubMed:A kinetic study of the synthesis of ascorbate fatty acid esters catalysed by immobilized lipase in organic media.
PubMed:Antimetastatic and anti-invasive ability of phospho-ascorbyl palmitate through intracellular ascorbate enrichment and the resultant antioxidant action.
PubMed:Antiphotooxidative activity of protoberberines derived from Coptis japonica makino in the chlorophyll-sensitized photooxidation of oil.
PubMed:Degradation of phosphatidylcholine in liposomes containing carboplatin in dependence on composition and storage conditions.
PubMed:Modulation of reduction of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone by vitamin C-palmitate.
PubMed:Multivariate analysis of superficial scald susceptibility on Granny Smith apples dipped with different postharvest treatments.
PubMed:The hydroxyl free radical reactions of ascorbyl palmitate as measured in various in vitro models.
PubMed:Effects of antioxidants and gamma irradiation on the shelf life of beef patties.
PubMed:Effect of beta-carotene on the transformation of tyrosine by nitrogen dioxide and peroxynitrous acid.
PubMed:Simultaneous HPLC determination of multiple components in a commercial cosmetic cream.
PubMed:Controlled insulin release from chitosan microparticles.
PubMed:Oxidation of free fatty acids in low density lipoprotein by 15-lipoxygenase stimulates nonenzymic, alpha-tocopherol-mediated peroxidation of cholesteryl esters.
PubMed:Chitosan microcapsules as controlled release systems for insulin.
PubMed:beta-Carotene effectively scavenges toxic nitrogen oxides: nitrogen dioxide and peroxynitrous acid.
PubMed:Stability of vitamin C derivatives in solution and topical formulations.
PubMed:Inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma development and erythrocyte polyamine levels in ODS rats fed on 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene by hemicalcium ascorbate, 2-O-octadecylascorbic acid, and ascorbyl palmitate.
PubMed:Protective effect evaluation of free radical scavengers on UVB induced human cutaneous erythema by skin reflectance spectrophotometry.
PubMed:Influence of reducing compounds on the formation of DNA-protein cross-links in HL-60 cells induced by hexavalent chromium.
PubMed:Effect of three different preservative systems on the stability of extruded dog food subjected to ambient and high temperature storage.
PubMed:Antioxidant synergism between tocopherols and ascorbyl palmitate in cooked, minced turkey.
PubMed:Inhibition of the bacterial mutagenicity of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate.
PubMed:Influence of vitamins A, C, and E and beta-carotene on aflatoxin B1 binding to DNA in woodchuck hepatocytes.
PubMed:Inhibition of chrysarobin skin tumor promotion in SENCAR mice by antioxidants.
PubMed:Photosensitized formation of ascorbate radicals by riboflavin: an ESR study.
PubMed:Inhibition of cell proliferation and glutathione S-transferase by ascorbyl esters and interferon in mouse glioma.
PubMed:Carbon tetrachloride-induced alterations in hepatic glutathione and ascorbic acid contents in mice fed a diet containing ascorbate esters.
PubMed:Location and dynamics of alpha-tocopherol in model phospholipid membranes with different charges.
PubMed:New isoflavonoids as inhibitors of porcine 5-lipoxygenase.
PubMed:Effect of dietary curcumin and ascorbyl palmitate on azoxymethanol-induced colonic epithelial cell proliferation and focal areas of dysplasia.
PubMed:Inhibition of human term placental and fetal liver glutathione-S-transferases by fatty acids and fatty acid esters.
PubMed:Growth kinetics and chemoprevention of aberrant crypts in the rat colon.
PubMed:Effect of ascorbic acid and its synthetic lipophilic derivative ascorbyl palmitate on phorbol ester-induced skin-tumor promotion in mice.
PubMed:Effect of ascorbic acid esters on hepatic glutathione levels in mice treated with a hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen.
PubMed:[Ascorbyl palmitate--an antimutagen with membrane action].
PubMed:Bioavailability of ascorbic acid in horses.
PubMed:Stability of a novel dithranol ointment formulation, containing ascorbyl palmitate as an anti-oxidant.
PubMed:Generation and recycling of radicals from phenolic antioxidants.
PubMed:Photoprotective effect of superoxide-scavenging antioxidants against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse.
PubMed:Ascorbic acid, glutathione and synthetic antioxidants prevent the oxidation of vitamin E in platelets.
PubMed:Effect of selected antioxidants on the stability of dehydrated mashed potatoes.
PubMed:Determination of non-volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers by high-performance liquid chromatography-thermal energy analysis.
PubMed:Comparison of the effects of ascorbyl palmitate and L-ascorbic acid on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in the mouse.
PubMed:Influence of ascorbic acid esters on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
PubMed:The suppression of granulocyte functions by lipophilic antioxidants.
PubMed:Inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity, DNA synthesis, and tumor promotion in mouse skin by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate.
PubMed:Effect of ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate on lipid oxidation in semi-dry saugages manufactured from pork materials differing in stability towards oxidation.
PubMed:Lipid oxidation and metmyoglobin formation in sausages containing chickpea flour.
PubMed:Volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers. Analysis, occurrence and migration.
PubMed:Formation of nitrosamines in non-ionic and anionic emulsions in the presence and absence of inhibitors.
PubMed:Bicyclic ring formation is not necessary for the (auto)oxidation of ascorbic acid.
PubMed:Extent of polymerization of dental resins by differential scanning calorimetry.
PubMed:Fat and vitamin A stability in the presence of Ronoxan A and other antioxidants.
PubMed:Hepatic bromobenzene epoxidation and binding: prevention by ascorbyl palmitate.
PubMed:[Antimicrobial action of "nipagin-nipazol" in an ascorbyl palmitate emulsion prepared on a base of the microbial polysaccharide aubasidan].
PubMed:Systematic identification of antioxidants in lards, shortenings, and vegetable oils by thin layer chromatography.
PubMed:Effects of vitamin E and ascorbyl palmitate on cultured myocardial cells exposed to oxidized fats.
PubMed:[Storage stability of Guelders smoked sausage (Gelderse rookworst) containing 20 per cent mechanically processed pork (author's transl)].
PubMed:Model system studies on N-nitrosamine formation in relation to cured meat: the non-polar phase and S-nitroso peptides.
PubMed:Inhibitory agents and chemical and mechanisms in the dihalomethane-mediated nitrosation of amines with solid nitrite.
PubMed:Organic solvent soluble lipofuscin pigment in brain tissues of mice fed large amounts of polyunsaturated fats in presence and absence of various antioxidants.
PubMed:The effect of antioxidants on the production of volatile nitrosamines during the frying of bacon.
PubMed:Inhibition of nitrosamine formation in fried bacon by propyl gallate and L-ascorbyl palmitate.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, ascorbyl palmitate, and ascorbic acid and their mode of action.
PubMed:[Enzymatic hydrolysis of vitamin C palmitate].
PubMed:The biological availability of l-ascorbyl palmitate.
Antioxidant Ascorbyl palmitate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and palmitic acid creating a fat-soluble form of vitamin C. In addition to its use as a source of vitamin C, it is also used as an antioxidant food additive (E number E304). Oral supplements of ascorbyl palmitate are less effective, due to the substance breaking down again into its components before being digested. Ascorbyl palmitate is also marketed as "vitamin C ester.
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