kojic acid
4H-pyran-4-one, 5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-
 
Notes:
Synthetic intermed. for prodn. of food additives
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
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    • TCI AMERICA
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      Product(s):
      K0010 Kojic Acid >98.0%(T)
       
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5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyran-4-one (Click)
CAS Number: 501-30-4Picture of molecule
Other: 123712-78-7
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 207-922-4
FDA UNII: 6K23F1TT52
Nikkaji Web: J1.564D
Beilstein Number: 0120895
MDL: MFCD00006580
XlogP3-AA: -0.90 (est)
Molecular Weight: 142.11062000
Formula: C6 H6 O4
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: antioxidants
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 153.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 401.67 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 356.00 °F. TCC ( 179.90 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -0.640
Soluble in:
 water, 9.346e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antioxidants
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Suppliers:
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Kojic acid 99%
Odor: characteristic
Use: A naturally occurring chelation agent.
Charkit Chemical
KOJIC ACID
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
Kojic Acid
Foodchem International
Kojic Acid
Jarchem Industries
Jarchem® KJ Acid
Odor: characteristic
Use: Skin whitening agent.
M.C.Biotec
Kojic Acid
Odor: characteristic
Use: Kojic acid is a natural, effective lightener (derived from rice) that helps fade spots by retarding excessive melanin production. Skin color is determined by the quantity of melanin in the skin. Melanin is biosynthesized in the melanosome of the melanocyte - a process involving the presence of the enzyme tyrosinase. Kojic acid is known to inhibit tyrosinase thereby reducing the production of melanin. Kojic acid is primarily used in cosmetics for it’s skin lightening effect. It acts as an inhibitor of tyrosinase, which is responsible for the formation of melanin - the skin coloring agent in skin. Kojic acid also reduces existing melanin in the skin thereby assisting in the depigmentation of the skin. Kojic acid successfully reduces age spots and pigmentation on face and body, typically caused by sun damage. Kojic acid is also known to have an anti-microbial effect.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Kojic Acid ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Kojic Acid
Sinofi Ingredients
Kojic Acid
Odor: characteristic
Use: Antioxidants, Preservative, Soap, Whitening Cream, Bacon, Sauage, Meats, Soft Drink, Fruit Juice, Ice Cream, Fruit Sauces, Flavoring Agent, Cosmetics, Feed, Pharmaceutical.
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Kojic Acid >98.0%(T)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intravenous-dog LDLo  1000 mg/kg
"Antibiotics: Origin, Nature, and Properties," Korzyoski, T., et al., eds., Washington, DC, American Soc. for Microbiology, 1978Vol. 3, Pg. 1755, 1978.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  250 mg/kg
"CRC Handbook of Antibiotic Compounds," Vols.1- , Berdy, J., Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1980Vol. 5, Pg. 393, 1981.

intravenous-mouse LDLo  1500 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
Nature. Vol. 155, Pg. 302, 1945.

oral-mouse LDLo  4000 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Nature. Vol. 155, Pg. 302, 1945.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo  1000 mg/kg
"Antibiotics: Origin, Nature, and Properties," Korzyoski, T., et al., eds., Washington, DC, American Soc. for Microbiology, 1978Vol. 3, Pg. 1755, 1978.

intravenous-rat LDLo  1000 mg/kg
"Antibiotics: Origin, Nature, and Properties," Korzyoski, T., et al., eds., Washington, DC, American Soc. for Microbiology, 1978Vol. 3, Pg. 1755, 1978.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LDLo 1500 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Nature. Vol. 155, Pg. 302, 1945.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: antioxidants
Recommendation for kojic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for kojic acid flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 3840
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
 5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyran-4-one
Chemidplus: 0000501304
RTECS: UQ0875000 for cas# 501-30-4
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References:
 5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyran-4-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid): 3840
Pubchem (sid): 134978371
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C14516
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB32923
FooDB: FDB010906
Export Tariff Code: 2932.99.9090
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 found in nature
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Synonyms:
 acido kojico
5'-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,4-pyranone
5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-pyrone
5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one
5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyran-4-one
5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one
5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4-pyrone
5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4H-4-pyranone
5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-pyran-4-one
2-hydroxymethyl-5-hydroxy-g-pyrone
2-(hydroxymethyl)-5-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one
 kojicacid
 pyran-4-one, 5-hydroxy-2- (hydroxymethyl)
4H-pyran-4-one, 5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-
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Articles:
PubMed: Quantitation of multiple mycotoxins and cyanogenic glucosides in cassava samples from Tanzania and Rwanda by an LC-MS/MS-based multi-toxin method.
J-Stage: Aspergillus oryzae laeA Regulates Kojic Acid Synthesis Genes
J-Stage: A Novel Synthesized Tyrosinase Inhibitor: (E)-2-((2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)diazenyl)phenyl 4-Methylbenzenesulfonate as an Azo-Resveratrol Analog
PubMed: A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.
PubMed: Vitis amurensis Ruprecht root inhibited α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis in B16F10 cells.
PubMed: Characterization of polyphenol oxidase activity in Ataulfo mango.
PubMed: Anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of novel 5-hydroxy-4-acetyl-2,3-dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furans.
PubMed: Purification and partial biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Manila).
PubMed: Identification of bioactive metabolites dihydrocanadensolide, Kojic acid, and vanillic acid in soy sauce using GC-MS, NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.
PubMed: Differentiation of manuka honey from kanuka honey and from jelly bush honey using HS-SPME-GC/MS and UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS.
PubMed: Aspergillus oryzae-based cell factory for direct kojic acid production from cellulose.
PubMed: Non-invasive detection of aflatoxin-contaminated figs using fluorescence and multispectral imaging.
PubMed: (5-Hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)methyl 6-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylate, a kojic acid derivative, inhibits inflammatory mediator production via the suppression of Syk/Src and NF-κB activation.
PubMed: Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed synthesis of a novel hydroxyl-fatty acid derivative of kojic acid.
PubMed: Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of kojic acid grafted chitosan oligosaccharide.
PubMed: Cooccurrence of mycotoxins in maize and poultry feeds from Brazil by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of flavonoids from Trifolium nigrescens Subsp. petrisavi.
PubMed: Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) bulbs.
PubMed: A chiral ligand exchange CE system for monitoring inhibitory effect of kojic acid on tyrosinase.
PubMed: The antibrowning agent sulfite inactivates Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase through covalent modification of the copper-B site.
PubMed: A survey of mycotoxins in domestic rice in Iran by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Immobilized capillary tyrosinase microreactor for inhibitor screening in natural extracts by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed: Design and synthesis of hydroxypyridinone-L-phenylalanine conjugates as potential tyrosinase inhibitors.
PubMed: Development and validation of a fast chromatographic method for screening and quantification of legal and illegal skin whitening agents.
PubMed: Purification and characterisation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant (Solanum melongena).
PubMed: Inhibitory effects of geranic acid derivatives on melanin biosynthesis.
PubMed: Enhancement of commercial antifungal agents by Kojic Acid.
PubMed: [Determination of kojic acid in foods using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
PubMed: Tyrosinase inhibition constituents from the roots of Morus australis.
PubMed: Classification and characterization of manuka honeys based on phenolic compounds and methylglyoxal.
PubMed: Effects of koji fermented phenolic compounds on the oxidative stability of fish miso.
PubMed: Kojic acid-amino acid amide metal complexes and their melanogenesis inhibitory activities.
PubMed: Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi.
PubMed: Phenolic tyrosinase inhibitors from the stems of Cudrania cochinchinensis.
PubMed: Rapid screening of enzyme inhibitors using profiling of enzyme-metabolite assay by HPLC (PREMA-HPLC).
PubMed: Final report of the safety assessment of Kojic acid as used in cosmetics.
PubMed: Non-genotoxic mode of action and possible threshold for hepatocarcinogenicity of Kojic acid in F344 rats.
PubMed: First structures of an active bacterial tyrosinase reveal copper plasticity.
PubMed: Isolation and identification of radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition of polyphenols from Tibouchina semidecandra L.
PubMed: Tyrosinase inhibitory constituents from the roots of Morus nigra: a structure-activity relationship study.
PubMed: Chemical components and tyrosinase inhibitors from the twigs of Artocarpus heterophyllus.
PubMed: A 55-week chronic toxicity study of dietary administered kojic acid (KA) in male F344 rats.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava on mushroom tyrosinase activity and melanin formation in mouse B16F10 melanoma cells.
PubMed: Determination of kojic acid based on the interface enhancement effects of carbon nanotube/alizarin red S modified electrode.
PubMed: Isolation of tyrosinase inhibitors from Artocarpus heterophyllus and use of its extract as antibrowning agent.
PubMed: Inhibitory effects of cinnamic acid on melanin biosynthesis in skin.
PubMed: Mycotoxins in botanicals and dried fruits: a review.
PubMed: Inhibitory effects of kurarinol, kuraridinol, and trifolirhizin from Sophora flavescens on tyrosinase and melanin synthesis.
PubMed: Comparison of bipyridyl, maltol and kojic acid action as organic vanadium ligands on activity of galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.38), some physiological parameters and ultrastructure of Golgi complexes in rat hepatocytes.
PubMed: A review of studies and measures to improve the mycotoxicological safety of traditional Japanese mold-fermented foods.
PubMed: Toxicogenomics of kojic acid on gene expression profiling of a375 human malignant melanoma cells.
PubMed: Hen egg white lysozyme as an inhibitor of mushroom tyrosinase.
PubMed: Examination of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose and the enolone ascopyrone P, metabolites of the anhydrofructose pathway of glycogen and starch degradation, for their possible application in fruits, vegetables, and beverages as antibrowning agents.
PubMed: Procyanidin trimers to pentamers fractionated from apple inhibit melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells.
PubMed: Fungal populations and mycotoxins in silage in Assiut and Sohag governorates in Egypt, with a special reference to characteristic Aspergilli toxins.
PubMed: Tyrosinase inhibitors isolated from the edible brown alga Ecklonia stolonifera.
PubMed: Morphology and biochemical activity of rat liver golgi complexes after pretreatment with bis(kojato)oxovanadium(IV) or kojic acid alone.
PubMed: Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1.
PubMed: Enhancement of hepatocarcinogenesis by kojic acid in rat two-stage models after initiation with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine or N-diethylnitrosamine.
PubMed: Production of toxic metabolites in Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, and Trichoderma reesei: justification of mycotoxin testing in food grade enzyme preparations derived from the three fungi.
PubMed: Tetrapetalone A, a novel lipoxygenase inhibitor from Streptomyces sp.
PubMed: An assessment of the genotoxicity and human health risk of topical use of kojic acid [5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one].
PubMed: Hepatocellular tumor induction in heterozygous p53-deficient CBA mice by a 26-week dietary administration of kojic acid.
PubMed: Time course study of substrate utilization by Aspergillus flavus in medium simulating corn (Zea mays) kernels.
PubMed: Evaluation of health aspects of kojic acid in food.
PubMed: Studies on thyroid function in rats subjected to repeated oral administration with kojic acid.
PubMed: Kinetic study of oxalic acid inhibition on enzymatic browning.
PubMed: Characterization of tyrosinase from the cap flesh of portabella mushrooms.
PubMed: Changes in thyroid function during development of thyroid hyperplasia induced by kojic acid in F344 rats.
PubMed: Promoting effects of kojic acid due to serum TSH elevation resulting from reduced serum thyroid hormone levels on development of thyroid proliferative lesions in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine.
PubMed: Induction of thyroid tumours in (C57BL/6N x C3H/N)F1 mice by oral administration of kojic acid.
PubMed: N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (NAT) as a substrate for mushroom tyrosinase.
PubMed: Effect of kojic acid on the oxidation of DL-DOPA, norepinephrine, and dopamine by mushroom tyrosinase.
PubMed: Photoinactivation of bacteriophage lambda by kojic acid and Fe(III): role of oxygen radical intermediates in the reaction.
PubMed: Photoinduction of strand scissions in DNA by kojic acid: role of transition metal ions and oxygen free radical intermediates in the reaction.
PubMed: Mutagenicity studies of kojic acid.
PubMed: The individual and combined toxicity of kojic acid and aflatoxin in broiler chickens.
PubMed: [Species of Aspergillus mich. molds producing kojic acid in mixed feeds and the role of this mycotoxin in animal pathology].
PubMed: [Mycotoxin formation during the storage of unprocessed freshly harvested corn].
PubMed: Toxigenic fungi isolated from Roquefort cheese.
PubMed: Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) larvae as a screening system for fungal toxins.
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