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deoxycholic acid
3,12-dihydroxycholanic acid

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CAS Number: 83-44-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:201-478-5
Beilstein Number:3219882
XlogP3-AA:4.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:392.57960000
Formula:C24 H40 O4
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
1975 Desoxycholic acid View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Desoxycholic Acid
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms
Sec. 178.1010 Sanitizing solutions.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 172.00 to 177.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
logP (o/w): 3.500
Soluble in:
 water, 43.6 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Deoxycholic acid 98%
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Deoxycholic acid 0.98
For experimental / research use only.
Deoxycholic Acid
Glentham Life Sciences
Deoxycholic acid
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Deoxycholic Acid ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Deoxycholic Acid ≥99% (TLC and titration)
Chemical Sources Association
Need This Item for Flavor/Food?: You can contact the Chemical Sources Association
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 1000 mg/kg
Nara Igaku Zasshi. Journal of the Nara Medical Association. Vol. 33, Pg. 71, 1982.

oral-mouse LD50 1000 mg/kg
Nara Igaku Zasshi. Journal of the Nara Medical Association. Vol. 33, Pg. 71, 1982.

intravenous-mouse LD50 130 mg/kg
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 20, Pg. 323, 1970.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo 2000 mg/kg
Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Experimentelle Medizin. Vol. 52, Pg. 779, 1926.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
Recommendation for deoxycholic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for deoxycholic acid flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):83-44-3
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6742
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
4-[(3R,5R,8R,9S,10S,12S,13R,14S,17R)-3,12-dihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]pentanoic acid
RTECS:FZ2100000 for cas# 83-44-3
 4-[(3R,5R,8R,9S,10S,12S,13R,14S,17R)-3,12-dihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]pentanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:83-44-3
Pubchem (cid):6742
Pubchem (sid):134971423
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C04483
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00626
Export Tariff Code:2937.99.8050
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
grades: technical; fcc (as desoxycholic acid)
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
5-beta-cholan-24-oic acid, 3-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-
 cholan-24-oic acid, 3,12-dihydroxy-, (3-alpha,5-beta,12-alpha)-
 cholan-24-oic acid, 3,12-dihydroxy-, (3alpha,5beta,12alpha)-
5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, 3alpha,12alpha-dihydroxy-
 cholan-24-oic, 3,12-dihydroxy-(3alpha,5beta,12alpha)-
 choleic acid
 cholic acid, deoxy-
 deoxy cholic acid
 desoxycholic acid
4-[(3R,5R,8R,9S,10S,12S,13R,14S,17R)-3,12-dihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]pentanoic acid
3-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-5-beta-cholan-24-oic acid
3-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-5-beta-cholanoic acid
3alpha,12alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid
3,12-dihydroxycholan-24-oic acid, (3alpha,5beta,12alpha)-
3,12-dihydroxycholanic acid
 dihydroxycholanoic acid


PubMed:Obesity and the gut microbiome: pathophysiological aspects.
PubMed:Self-aggregated nanoparticles of carboxylic curdlan-deoxycholic acid conjugates as a carrier of doxorubicin.
PubMed:Bile salts act as effective protein-unfolding agents and instigators of disulfide stress in vivo.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of medicinal plant-derived carboxylic acids on the human transporters hOAT1, hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP2B1.
PubMed:Use of sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (sarkosyl) in viable real-time PCR for enumeration of Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Metabonomic analysis of quercetin against the toxicity of chronic exposure to low-level dichlorvos in rats via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Modification of intestinal microbiota and its consequences for innate immune response in the pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis.
PubMed:Determination of bile acids by hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography.
PubMed:Injection of phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholic acid regulates gene expression of lipolysis-related factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and hormones on mouse fat tissue.
PubMed:Effects of microwave (2.45 GHz) irradiation on some biological characters of Salmonella typhimurium.
PubMed:Improvement of modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar by addition of potassium clavulanate for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinse.
PubMed:The role of the gallbladder in humans.
PubMed:Consumption of vitamin B(6) reduces fecal ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid, a risk factor for colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet.
PubMed:Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.
PubMed:Resistance to bile salts and sodium deoxycholate in macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-susceptible and resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains.
PubMed:Effects of efflux-pump inducers and genetic variation of the multidrug transporter cmeB in biocide resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.
PubMed:Variation of intragenic tandem repeat tract of tolA modulates Escherichia coli stress tolerance.
PubMed:Screening for cholesterol-lowering probiotic based on deoxycholic acid removal pathway and studying its functional mechanisms in vitro.
PubMed:Role of anionic charges of periplasmic glucans of Shigella flexneri in overcoming detergent stress.
PubMed:Role of anionic charges of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in mice virulence.
PubMed:Effect of tween series on growth and Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid production of Lactobacillus acidophilus F0221 in the presence of bile salts.
PubMed:Antibody-mediated inhibition of fibroblast growth factor 19 results in increased bile acids synthesis and ileal malabsorption of bile acids in cynomolgus monkeys.
PubMed:Adverse events associated with 2010 CSL and other inactivated influenza vaccines.
PubMed:Chemical composition and bile acid binding activity of products obtained from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) seeds.
PubMed:Effects of synbiotic fermentation products on primary chemoprevention in human colon cells.
PubMed:Injectable therapies for localized fat loss: state of the art.
PubMed:Bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin from young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Comparison of chromogenic Biolog Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of Shigella spp. from foods.
PubMed:Selective removal of monoterpenes from bergamot oil by inclusion in deoxycholic acid.
PubMed:Separation of dipeptides with two chiral centers using 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-CD-modified MEKC.
PubMed:Evaluation of Mycoplasma inactivation during production of biologics: egg-based viral vaccines as a model.
PubMed:Discrimination of viable and dead Vibrio vulnificus after refrigerated and frozen storage using EMA, sodium deoxycholate and real-time PCR.
PubMed:Fermented wheat aleurone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.
PubMed:Consumption of some polyphenols reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the secondary bile acids of risk factors of colon cancer.
PubMed:Bile acids as possible human carcinogens: new tricks from an old dog.
PubMed:Fratricide in Streptococcus pneumoniae: contributions and role of the cell wall hydrolases CbpD, LytA and LytC.
PubMed:An accelerated method for isolation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from artificially contaminated foods, using a short preenrichment, immunomagnetic separation, and xylose-lysine-desoxycholate agar (6IX method).
PubMed:Faecal steroid excretion in humans is affected by calcium supplementation and shows gender-specific differences.
PubMed:Effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors and inducers on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.
PubMed:Culture of Campylobacter jejuni with sodium deoxycholate induces virulence gene expression.
PubMed:Simultaneous characterization of bile acid, sterols, and determination of acylglycerides in feces from soluble cellulose-fed hamsters using HPLC with evaporative light-scattering detection and APCI-MS.
PubMed:Virulence properties of Campylobacter jejuni isolates of poultry and human origin.
PubMed:High hydrostatic pressure treatment impairs AcrAB-TolC pump resulting in differential loss of deoxycholate tolerance in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Interactions of high amylose starch and deoxycholic acid on gut functions in rats.
PubMed:Effect of dried plums on colon cancer risk factors in rats.
PubMed:In situ and in vivo efficacy of peroral absorption enhancers in rats and correlation to in vitro mechanistic studies.
PubMed:Use of Fourier transform infrared spectra of crude bacterial lipopolysaccharides and chemometrics for differentiation of Salmonella enterica serotypes.
PubMed:Cost advantage of voriconazole over amphotericin B deoxycholate for primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis.
PubMed:Bile acid induced gene expression in LT97 colonic adenoma cells.
PubMed:Comparative evaluation of the Desoxycholate Agar Nissui Food Stamp and swab methods for estimating coliform organisms in poultry processing plants after cleaning in Japan.
PubMed:Evaluation of VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS) plus selective plate method (Hektoen enteric, bismuth sulfite, xylose lysine desoxycholate) for detection of Salmonella in selected foods (Method Modification 2001.08): collaborative study.
PubMed:Steroids in the intestinal tract of rats are affected by dietary-fibre-rich barley-based diets.
PubMed:A new micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method for separation of the components of the aminoglycoside antibiotics.
PubMed:Growth of autobioluminescent Campylobacter jejuni in response to various environmental conditions.
PubMed:Alkaline adaptation induces cross-protection against some environmental stresses and morphological change in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
PubMed:Plasma deoxycholic acid concentration is elevated in postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.
PubMed:Improvements in the measurement of stool decay-accelerating factor in the detection of colorectal cancer.
PubMed:A prospective study of serum bile acid concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in post-menopausal women on the island of Guernsey.
PubMed:Postprandial changes in serum unconjugated bile acid concentrations in healthy beagles.
PubMed:Biosynthetic requirements for the repair of membrane damage in pressure-treated Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Combined use of Lactobacillus reuteri and soygerm powder as food supplement.
PubMed:Effect of environmental and chemotactic stimuli on the activity of the Campylobacter jejuni flaA sigma(28) promoter.
PubMed:Dietary fibre, physicochemical properties and their relationship to health.
PubMed:Rat colon ornithine and arginine metabolism: coordinated effects after proliferative stimuli.
PubMed:Antitumorigenic effects of several food proteins in a rat model with colon cancer and their reverse correlation with plasma bile acid concentration.
PubMed:Change in the positional specificity of lipoxygenase 1 due to insertion of fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine deoxycholate mixed micelles.
PubMed:Feeding soybean resistant protein to rats raises fecal bile acid excretion but counteracts a deoxycholate-caused decrease in colonic aberrant crypt foci.
PubMed:Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on large-bowel functions, blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in young healthy male subjects.
PubMed:Faecal pH, bile acid and sterol concentrations in premenopausal Indian and white vegetarians compared with white omnivores.
PubMed:Modulation of colonic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes by feeding bile acids: comparative effects of cholic, deoxycholic, lithocholic and ursodeoxycholic acids.
PubMed:Is the pig a good animal model for studying the human ileal brake?
PubMed:Comparison of the productivity of cefoperazone amphotericin teicoplanin (CAT) agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCD) agar for various strains of Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter pullorum.
PubMed:Dietary diosgenin attenuates subacute intestinal inflammation associated with indomethacin in rats.
PubMed:Dietary stearic acid reduces plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion in cholesterol-fed hamsters.
PubMed:Effects of different types of dietary fiber preparations isolated from bamboo shoots, edible burdock, apple and corn on fecal steroid profiles of rats.
PubMed:Calcium supplementation modifies the relative amounts of bile acids in bile and affects key aspects of human colon physiology.
PubMed:A new dietary model to study colorectal carcinogenesis: experimental design, food preparation, and experimental findings.
PubMed:Evaluation of cell death in EBV-transformed lymphocytes using agarose gel electrophoresis, light microscopy and electron microscopy. I. Induction of classic apoptosis by the bile salt, sodium deoxycholate.
PubMed:[Evaluation of selective culture media for the isolation of Salmonella from poultry].
PubMed:Effects of rat bile-pancreatic juice on Fe2+ induced peroxidation of phospholipids.
PubMed:Effects of bile acids and lectins on immunoglobulin production in rat mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes.
PubMed:Influence of diet on experimental toxicity of amphotericin B deoxycholate.
PubMed:Influence of dietary fat and feeding period on phosphoinositide metabolism in rat colonocytes.
PubMed:Bile acids and pH values in total feces and in fecal water from habitually omnivorous and vegetarian subjects.
PubMed:Use of inexpensive O antisera as the detecting antibodies for Salmonella antigens in the polymyxin-cloth enzyme immunoassay.
PubMed:Deoxycholate is an important releaser of peptide YY and enteroglucagon from the human colon.
PubMed:Effect of enteral feeding on intestinal epithelial proliferation and fecal bile acid profiles in the rat.
PubMed:Sex differences in colonic function: a randomised trial.
PubMed:Simplified methods for the synthesis of 2-hexadecanoylthio-1-ethylphosphorylcholine and for the determination of phospholipase A2 activity.
PubMed:Soluble fecal acidic lipids and colorectal epithelial cell proliferation in normal subjects and in patients with colon cancer.
PubMed:Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori to different bile salts.
PubMed:Feeding diets containing 2% cheno- or urso-deoxycholic acid or cholestyramine to rats for two weeks alters intestinal morphology and bile acid absorption.
PubMed:Diarrhetic shellfish toxins: improvement of sample clean-up for HPLC determination.
PubMed:Use of detergents in the preparation of Salmonella samples for enzyme immunoassay on polymyxin-coated polyester cloth.
PubMed:Medical management of gallstones: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
PubMed:Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on pancreatic enzyme secretion and gallbladder emptying.
PubMed:Serum unconjugated primary and secondary bile acids in patients with cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
PubMed:Effect of aging and dietary restriction on bile acid metabolism in rats.
PubMed:Biochemical epidemiology of colon cancer: effect of types of dietary fiber on fecal mutagens, acid, and neutral sterols in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Steroid catechol degradation: disecoandrostane intermediates accumulated by Pseudomonas transposon mutant strains.
PubMed:Cholelithiasis in hamsters: effects of cholic acid and calcium on gallstone formation.
PubMed:Ursodiol: a cholesterol gallstone solubilizing agent.
PubMed:In vitro transformation of cheno- and ursodeoxycholic acids and their 7-oleyl esters by human intestinal microflora.
PubMed:Age and diet effects on fecal bile acids in infants.
PubMed:The action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Intestinal permeability changes in rodents: a possible mechanism for degraded carrageenan-induced colitis.
PubMed:Feeding rats diets containing cheno- or ursodeoxycholic acid or cholestyramine modifies intestinal uptake of glucose and lipids.
PubMed:Influence of the intake and composition of elemental diets on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat.
PubMed:Acute effects of dietary cholic acid and methylazoxymethanol acetate on colon epithelial cell proliferation; metabolism of bile salts and neutral sterols in conventional and germfree SD rats.
PubMed:Comparative effects of cimetidine on biliary lipid secretion in fasted and fed rats.
PubMed:Ornithine decarboxylase induction in rat colon: synergistic effects of intrarectal instillation of sodium deoxycholate and starvation-refeeding.
PubMed:Faecal weight, constituents, colonic motility, and lactose tolerance in the irritable bowel syndrome.
PubMed:A treatment of non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia.
PubMed:Effect of a standard test meal on serum bile acid levels in healthy nonpregnant and pregnant women and in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
PubMed:Hepatic uptake of bile acids in man. Fasting and postprandial concentrations of individual bile acids in portal venous and systemic blood serum.
PubMed:Postprandial serum concentration of individual bile acids in man. Influence of ileal resection.
PubMed:Age dependent differences in human bile acid metabolism and 7 alpha-dehydroxylation.
PubMed:Plasma bile acid levels and liver disease.
PubMed:Effect of cecum and appendix on 7 alpha-dehydroxylation and 7 beta-epimerization of chenodeoxycholic acid in the rabbit.
PubMed:Cholesterol gallstone formation and prevention by chenodeoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acids. A new hamster model.
PubMed:Brilliant green deoxycholate agar as an improved selective medium for the isolation of Salmonella.
PubMed:Effect of fasting and lleal resection on the concentration of deoxycholic acid in rat portal blood.
PubMed:In vitro effects of amphotericin B on growth and ultrastructure of the amoeboflagellates Naegleria gruberi and Naegleria fowleri.
PubMed:Environmental degradation of the insect growth regulator methoprene. VII. Bovine metabolism to cholesterol and related natural products.
PubMed:In virto adsorption of bile salts to food residues, salicylazosulfapyridine, and hemicellulose.
PubMed:Duodenal bile acids after a test meal.
PubMed:Protein synthesis in pancreas of fasted pigeons.
PubMed:Evaluation of Bacto-strip technique for the detection of coliforms in pasteurized milk.
a bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. it is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent. Emulsifying agent used in foods Deoxycholic acid is a bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. ; Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. ; Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g., membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues. (PMID: 11316487, 16037564, 12576301, 11907135); Deoxycholic acid, also known as deoxycholate, cholanoic acid, and 3?,12?-dihydroxy-5?-cholanate, is a bile acid. Deoxycholic acid is one of the secondary bile acids, which are metabolic byproducts of intestinal bacteria. The two primary bile acids secreted by the liver are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Bacteria metabolize chenodeoxycholic acid into the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, and they metabolize cholic acid into deoxycholic acid. There are additional secondary bile acids, such as ursodeoxycholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is soluble in alcohol and acetic acid. When pure, it comes in a white to off-white crystalline powder form.; In China, the traditional medicine "Niuhuang", which in Chinese means "Oxen Yellow" and is actually bilestone of oxen, has been in use for two millennia for the treatment of inflammation as well as to enhance the immune system. One of its main components is DCA.
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