EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes


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CAS Number: 59-23-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):147-76-2
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-416-4
Nikkaji Web:J330.863D
Beilstein Number:1724619
XlogP3-AA:-2.60 (est)
Molecular Weight:180.15684000
Formula:C6 H12 O6
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:cosmetic agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 170.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 410.80 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 396.00 °F. TCC ( 202.20 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -2.490 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin conditioning
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
dextro-Galactose 98%
Beijing Lys Chemicals
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Changzhou Longo Chemical
Charkit Chemical
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
For experimental / research use only.
Glentham Life Sciences
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Penta International
Penta International
Pfanstiehl, Inc
D-Galactose, Plant-Derived, High Purity Low Endotoxin
Odor: characteristic
Use: Galactose is a monosaccharide sugar of the hexose class that is a constituent of lactose and many polysaccharides. Galactose is found in milk, sugar beets, gums, and mucilages. It is also synthesized in humans, and is a constituent of glycolipids and glycoproteins. Galactose is finding an ever-increasing use as a cell metabolism modulator in the optimization of protein therapeutics bioproduction.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
D-Galactose ≥98%
For experimental / research use only.
D-(+)-Galactose ≥99%
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
cosmetic agents
Recommendation for dextro-galactose usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for dextro-galactose flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):59-23-4
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6036
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
RTECS:LW5490000 for cas# 59-23-4
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:59-23-4
Pubchem (cid):6036
Pubchem (sid):134972289
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00124
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00143
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00072
Export Tariff Code:2940.00.6000
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 almond gum
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 bean mung bean seed
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 beet plant
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 chive plant
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 coconut seed
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 corn plant
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 date palm fruit
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 fig leaf
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 garlic bulb
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 ginkgo biloba wood
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 grape fruit
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 guava fruit
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 leek wild leek plant
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 marango sap
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 okra fruit
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 olive fruit
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 orange fruit
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 papaya bark
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 papaya fruit
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 peach gum
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 plum fruit
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 potato plant
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 purslane plant
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 quince seed
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 roselle flower
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 sesame seed
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 solanum lycopersicum
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 soybean seed
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 sunflower flower
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 tamarind fruit
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 tamarind seed
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 taro root
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 wuince seed
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PubMed:Isolation, Purification, and Anti-Aging Activity of Melanin from Lachnum singerianum.
PubMed:Two β-Galactosidases from the Human Isolate Bifidobacterium breve DSM 20213: Molecular Cloning and Expression, Biochemical Characterization and Synthesis of Galacto-Oligosaccharides.
PubMed:Identification of Bitter Modulating Maillard-Catechin Reaction Products.
PubMed:Asn-Trp dipeptides improve the oxidative stress and learning dysfunctions in d-galactose-induced BALB/c mice.
PubMed:A Novel Agarolytic β-Galactosidase Acts on Agarooligosaccharides for Complete Hydrolysis of Agarose into Monomers.
PubMed:Sulforaphane Ameliorates Neurobehavioral Deficits and Protects the Brain From Amyloid β Deposits and Peroxidation in Mice With Alzheimer-Like Lesions.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of a novel lectin with mitogenic activity from Pleurotus ferulae.
PubMed:Protective effect of Artemisia annua L. extract against galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice.
PubMed:Efficient Production of d-Tagatose Using a Food-Grade Surface Display System.
PubMed:Galactose oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum--expression in E. coli and P. pastoris and biochemical characterization.
PubMed:Silybum marianum oil attenuates oxidative stress and ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in mice treated with D-galactose.
PubMed:Preventive effects of jujube polysaccharides on fructose-induced insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in mice.
PubMed:Intracellular β-Glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b Are Essential for Cellulase Induction on Lactose in Trichoderma reesei.
PubMed:Ergothioneine and melatonin attenuate oxidative stress and protect against learning and memory deficits in C57BL/6J mice treated with D-galactose.
PubMed:Effects of curcumin (Curcuma longa) on learning and spatial memory as well as cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in adult and aged mice by upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and CREB signaling.
PubMed:Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 ameliorates memory impairment and inflammaging in a D-galactose-induced accelerated aging mouse model.
PubMed:Purification, identification, and characterization of d-galactose-6-sulfurylase from marine algae (Betaphycus gelatinus).
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of an agaro-oligosaccharide (AO)-hydrolyzing bacterium from the gut microflora of Chinese individuals.
PubMed:Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides obtained by degradation with κ-carrageenase from Pedobacter hainanensis.
PubMed:Coexpression of β-D-galactosidase and L-arabinose isomerase in the production of D-tagatose: a functional sweetener.
PubMed:D-galactose induces a mitochondrial complex I deficiency in mouse skeletal muscle: potential benefits of nutrient combination in ameliorating muscle impairment.
PubMed:Structural basis for binding of fluorinated glucose and galactose to Trametes multicolor pyranose 2-oxidase variants with improved galactose conversion.
PubMed:[Effects of resveratrol on morphology and oxidative stress of brain tissues in aging mice].
PubMed:Free radical mediated grafting of chitosan with caffeic and ferulic acids: structures and antioxidant activity.
PubMed:L-Arabinose isomerase and D-xylose isomerase from Lactobacillus reuteri: characterization, coexpression in the food grade host Lactobacillus plantarum, and application in the conversion of D-galactose and D-glucose.
PubMed:Effects of yam tuber protein, dioscorin, on attenuating oxidative status and learning dysfunction in d-galactose-induced BALB/c mice.
PubMed:Synthesis of thymol glycosides under SCCO2 conditions using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold.
PubMed:Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of L-arabinose isomerase from thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus.
PubMed:SGP-2, an acidic polysaccharide from Sarcandra glabra, inhibits proliferation and migration of human osteosarcoma cells.
PubMed:Astaxanthin alleviates brain aging in rats by attenuating oxidative stress and increasing BDNF levels.
PubMed:Function of aspartic acid residues in optimum pH control of L-arabinose isomerase from Lactobacillus fermentum.
PubMed:Structural investigation of a novel heteropolysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Boletus edulis.
PubMed:Isolation and molecular characterization of two lectins from dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) blossoms related to the Sam n1 allergen.
PubMed:Crystal structure and substrate specificity of D-galactose-6-phosphate isomerase complexed with substrates.
PubMed:Characterization and bioactivity of polysaccharides obtained from pine cones of Pinus koraiensis by graded ethanol precipitation.
PubMed:Enzymatic conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose: cloning, overexpression and characterization of L-arabinose isomerase from Pediococcus pentosaceus PC-5.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of phosphorylated exopolysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.
PubMed:Antioxidant and anti-aging activities of mycelial polysaccharides from Lepista sordida.
PubMed:Mussel oligopeptides ameliorate cognition deficit and attenuate brain senescence in D-galactose-induced aging mice.
PubMed:Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens.
PubMed:Catalpol improves cholinergic function and reduces inflammatory cytokines in the senescent mice induced by D-galactose.
PubMed:Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracellular polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta.
PubMed:Non-enzymatic glycation of melamine with sugars and sugar like compounds.
PubMed:Functional characterization of the galactan utilization system of Geobacillus stearothermophilus.
PubMed:Cordyceps militaris extract attenuates D-galactose-induced memory impairment in mice.
PubMed:Metabolism of milk fat globule membrane components by nonstarter lactic acid bacteria isolated from cheese.
PubMed:Differential sensitivity of D-galactose-binding lectins from fruits of dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) to a simulated gastric fluid.
PubMed:In vivo investigation on the potential of galangin, kaempferol and myricetin for protection of D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods.
PubMed:A method for the production of D-tagatose using a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain secreting β-D-galactosidase from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus and a recombinant L-arabinose isomerase from Arthrobacter sp. 22c.
PubMed:[Screening of food-grade microorganisms for biotransformation of D-tagatose and cloning and expression of L-arabinose isomerase].
PubMed:In vivo antioxidant activity of total flavonoids from indocalamus leaves in aging mice caused by D-galactose.
PubMed:Purification of chicken breast protein hydrolysate and analysis of its antioxidant activity.
PubMed:A polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme protects against immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.
PubMed:Anti-glycative and anti-inflammatory effects of protocatechuic acid in brain of mice treated by D-galactose.
PubMed:Long-term resveratrol consumption protects ovariectomized rats chronically treated with D-galactose from developing memory decline without effects on the uterus.
PubMed:The D-galactose specific lectin of field bean (Dolichos lablab) seed binds sugars with extreme negative cooperativity and half-of-the-sites binding.
PubMed:Structural, physical, and chemical modifications induced by microwave heating on native agar-like galactans.
PubMed:Structural characterization of the exopolysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus 05-34 and its in situ application in yogurt.
PubMed:Ovotoxic effects of galactose involve attenuation of follicle-stimulating hormone bioactivity and up-regulation of granulosa cell p53 expression.
PubMed:Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide improves age-related oxidative stress and immune impairment in mice.
PubMed:Production of D-tagatose, a functional sweetener, utilizing alginate immobilized Lactobacillus fermentum CGMCC2921 cells.
PubMed:The acid-tolerant L-arabinose isomerase from the mesophilic Shewanella sp. ANA-3 is highly active at low temperatures.
PubMed:Characterization of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of Cronobacter turicensis HPB3287 as a polysaccharide containing a 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid (legionaminic acid) residue.
PubMed:One-pot enzymatic production of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose (GalNAc) from 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (GlcNAc).
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide fractions from Bifidobacterium animalis RH.
PubMed:Discovery of nigerose phosphorylase from Clostridium phytofermentans.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of a procyanidin-rich extract from sorghum bran and its effect on oxidative stress and tumor inhibition in vivo.
PubMed:s-Allyl cysteine, s-ethyl cysteine, and s-propyl cysteine alleviate β-amyloid, glycative, and oxidative injury in brain of mice treated by D-galactose.
PubMed:In utero and lactational β-carotene supplementation attenuates D-galactose-induced hearing loss in newborn rats.
PubMed:High molecular weight persimmon tannin ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative damage in senescent mice induced by D-galactose.
PubMed:Identification and characterization of a novel L-arabinose isomerase from Anoxybacillus flavithermus useful in D-tagatose production.
PubMed:A lectin from Musca domestica pupae stimulates B cell proliferation and enhances IL-12 production via ERK1/2-NF-κB signaling pathways.
PubMed:Characterization of a heterodimeric GH2 β-galactosidase from Lactobacillus sakei Lb790 and formation of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides.
PubMed:Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide attenuates oxidative stress induced by d-galactose in mouse brain.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of the avenanthramide-rich extract from oat and its effect on D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice.
PubMed:Extrusion decreases the negative effects of kidney bean on enzyme and transport activities of the rat small intestine.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis of cholecalciferol glycosides using β-glucosidase from sweet almond.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria strains with ornithine producing capacity from natural sea salt.
PubMed:[Effect of lutein on relieving oxidative stress in mice induced by D-galatose].
PubMed:The acid tolerant L-arabinose isomerase from the food grade Lactobacillus sakei 23K is an attractive D-tagatose producer.
PubMed:Chronic administration of troxerutin protects mouse kidney against D-galactose-induced oxidative DNA damage.
PubMed:Thermal decomposition of beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-hexopyranoses under neutral conditions.
PubMed:Purple sweet potato color protects mouse liver against d-galactose-induced apoptosis via inhibiting caspase-3 activation and enhancing PI3K/Akt pathway.
PubMed:Thermostable L-arabinose isomerase from Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM 11001 for D-tagatose production: gene cloning, purification and characterisation.
PubMed:Flavan-3-ol C-glycosides--preparation and model experiments mimicking their human intestinal transit.
PubMed:Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).
PubMed:[Study on the structure and constituents of polysaccharide from ganoderma lucidum].
PubMed:Thermostable variants of pyranose 2-oxidase showing altered substrate selectivity for glucose and galactose.
PubMed:Naringin alleviates cognitive impairment, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in mice.
PubMed:Characterization of the O-antigen in the lipopolysaccharide of Cronobacter (Enterobacter) malonaticus 3267.
PubMed:An L-arabinose isomerase from Acidothermus cellulolytics ATCC 43068: cloning, expression, purification, and characterization.
PubMed:One-pot enzymatic production of beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose (galacto-N-biose) from sucrose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose (N-acetylgalactosamine).
PubMed:A D-galactose-binding lectin with mitogenic activity from Musca domestica pupae.
PubMed:Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of 3 polysaccharides from green tea, oolong tea, and black tea.
PubMed:Troxerutin protects the mouse liver against oxidative stress-mediated injury induced by D-galactose.
PubMed:A beta-l-Arabinopyranosidase from Streptomyces avermitilis is a novel member of glycoside hydrolase family 27.
PubMed:Protective effect of selenoarginine against oxidative stress in D-galactose-induced aging mice.
PubMed:Characterization of three beta-galactoside phosphorylases from Clostridium phytofermentans: discovery of d-galactosyl-beta1->4-l-rhamnose phosphorylase.
PubMed:Marker constituents of the natural antioxidant Eucalyptus leaf extract for the evaluation of food additives.
PubMed:Probing active-site residues of pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes multicolor by semi-rational protein design.
PubMed:NMR studies on the interaction of sugars with the C-terminal domain of an R-type lectin from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.
PubMed:A thermostable triple mutant of pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes multicolor with improved properties for biotechnological applications.
PubMed:The structure of the O-antigen in the endotoxin of the emerging food pathogen Cronobacter (Enterobacter) muytjensii strain 3270.
PubMed:Xylose reductase activity in Debaryomyces hansenii UFV-170 cultivated in semi-synthetic medium and cotton husk hemicellulose hydrolyzate.
PubMed:Production of carbohydrate building blocks from red seaweed polysaccharides. Efficient conversion of galactans into C-glycosyl aldehydes.
PubMed:Soy isoflavones attenuate oxidative stress and improve parameters related to aging and Alzheimer's disease in C57BL/6J mice treated with D-galactose.
PubMed:Purple sweet potato color attenuates oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by d-galactose in mouse liver.
PubMed:Engineering of pyranose 2-oxidase: improvement for biofuel cell and food applications through semi-rational protein design.
PubMed:Syntheses of retinol glycosides using beta-glucosidase in SCCO(2) media.
PubMed:The unique enzymatic function of field bean (Dolichos lablab) D-galactose specific lectin: a polyphenol oxidase.
PubMed:[Effects of marine collagen peptide on delaying the skin aging].
PubMed:Identification of lacto-N-Biose I phosphorylase from Vibrio vulnificus CMCP6.
PubMed:Syntheses of dopa glycosides using glucosidases.
PubMed:d-galactose administration induces memory loss and energy metabolism disturbance in mice: protective effects of catalpol.
PubMed:An overview of mannan structure and mannan-degrading enzyme systems.
PubMed:Purple sweet potato color repairs d-galactose-induced spatial learning and memory impairment by regulating the expression of synaptic proteins.
PubMed:Kefiran antagonizes cytopathic effects of Bacillus cereus extracellular factors.
PubMed:Characterization of pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris and its application in the C-2 specific conversion of D-galactose.
PubMed:[Effect of seleno-arginine on cellular immunological function in D-gal aging mice].
PubMed:In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of an immunomodulatory acidic polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans.
PubMed:Structural characterization and serological specificities of lipopolysaccharides from Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum standard, intermediate and variant antigenic type strains.
PubMed:Colorimetric quantification of alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate.
PubMed:Lactobacillus ghanensis sp. nov., a motile lactic acid bacterium isolated from Ghanaian cocoa fermentations.
PubMed:Syntheses of N-vanillyl-nonanamide glycosides using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus and beta-glucosidase from sweet almond.
PubMed:The missing step of the L-galactose pathway of ascorbate biosynthesis in plants, an L-galactose guanyltransferase, increases leaf ascorbate content.
PubMed:Determination of the lactose content of fluid milk by spectrophotometric enzymatic analysis using weight additions and path length adjustment: collaborative study.
PubMed:Structural elucidation of a 3-O-methyl-D-galactose-containing neutral polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Phellinus igniarius.
PubMed:Seed mucilage from Ipomoea dasysperma.
PubMed:Properties of pyranose dehydrogenase purified from the litter-degrading fungus Agaricus xanthoderma.
PubMed:Galactose oxidase immobilized on silica in an analytical determination of galactose-containing carbohydrates.
PubMed:[Effect of resveratrol on the cognitive ability of Alzheimeros mice].
PubMed:[Isolation and identification of a bacterial strain JS018 capable of degrading several kinds of organophosphate pesticides].
PubMed:Immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.
PubMed:Production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose using beta-galactosidases from Lactobacillus reuteri.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of two novel beta-galactosidases from Lactobacillus reuteri.
PubMed:Characterization of a thermostable endo-beta-1,4-D-galactanase from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima.
PubMed:Pressure effect on the stability and the conformational dynamics of the D-Galactose/D-Glucose-binding protein from Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Histochemical analysis of glycoconjugate secretion in the alimentary canal of Anguilla anguilla L.
PubMed:The in vivo synthesis and accumulation of lectin in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).
PubMed:[Isolation and characterization of active compounds from Aloe vera with a possible role in skin protection].
PubMed:Altering glucose oxidase to oxidize D-galactose through crosslinking of imprinted protein.
PubMed:Analysis of reducing carbohydrates by reductive tryptamine derivatization prior to micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.
PubMed:The three-dimensional structures of two beta-agarases.
PubMed:Production of tagatose by a recombinant thermostable L-arabinose isomerase from Thermus sp. IM6501.
PubMed:[Anti-oxidative effects of proanthocyanidins in mice induced by D-galactose].
PubMed:The beta-1,4-endogalactanase A gene from Aspergillus niger is specifically induced on arabinose and galacturonic acid and plays an important role in the degradation of pectic hairy regions.
PubMed:Aspartame optical biosensor with bienzyme-immobilized eggshell membrane and oxygen-sensitive optode membrane.
PubMed:Galactosyl transfer catalyzed by thermostable beta-glycosidases from Sulfolobus solfataricus and Pyrococcus furiosus: kinetic studies of the reactions of galactosylated enzyme intermediates with a range of nucleophiles.
PubMed:Sensitive and rapid immunoassays for Salmonella enteritidis.
PubMed:Specificity of lectin activity of Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal inclusion proteins.
PubMed:Conversion of sugars to 1,2-propanediol by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum HG-8.
PubMed:Transgalactosylation by thermostable beta-glycosidases from Pyrococcus furiosus and Sulfolobus solfataricus. Binding interactions of nucleophiles with the galactosylated enzyme intermediate make major contributions to the formation of new beta-glycosides during lactose conversion.
PubMed:Role of Na+-glucose cotransport in jejunal meal-induced absorption.
PubMed:Bioconversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose by expression of L-arabinose isomerase.
PubMed:Determination of edible bird's nest and its products by gas chromatography.
PubMed:Development of an ultra-high-temperature process for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose. I. The properties of two thermostable beta-glycosidases.
PubMed:Transglycosylation reactions of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase with acarbose and various acceptors.
PubMed:NT-3 attenuates functional and structural disorders in sensory nerves of galactose-fed rats.
PubMed:Role of Streptococcus thermophilus MR-1C capsular exopolysaccharide in cheese moisture retention.
PubMed:Presence of leptin receptors in rat small intestine and leptin effect on sugar absorption.
PubMed:Purification and partial characterization of an antigen specific to Lactobacillus brevis strains with beer spoilage activity.
PubMed:Calcium channel blockers modify jejunal uptake of D-galactose in rabbits.
PubMed:Release of ferulic acid from sugar-beet pulp by using arabinanase, arabinofuranosidase and an esterase from Aspergillus niger.
PubMed:Carrageenans and their use in meat products.
PubMed:Certain functional properties of gums derived from some lesser known tropical legumes (Afzelia africana, Detarium microcarpum and Mucuna flagellipes).
PubMed:Antitumor activities and immunochemical properties of the cell-wall polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans.
PubMed:Rhamnogalacturonan alpha-L-rhamnopyranohydrolase. A novel enzyme specific for the terminal nonreducing rhamnosyl unit in rhamnogalacturonan regions of pectin.
PubMed:Synthesis of alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-containing disaccharides and phenols as substrates for the alpha-L-mannosidase activity of commercial naringinase.
PubMed:[Effects of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides on productivity and longevity in Drosophila melanogaster].
PubMed:Effect of cadmium on enzymatic digestion and sugar transport in the small intestine of rabbit.
PubMed:Effect of cadmium on D-galactose transport across the small intestine of rabbits.
PubMed:Kinetic heterogeneity of Na-D-glucose cotransport in teleost gastrointestinal tract.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of oligosaccharides derived from plant xyloglucan on intestinal glucose absorption in rat.
PubMed:Isolation, characterization, and antitumor activities of the cell wall polysaccharides from Elsinoe leucospila.
PubMed:Effect of oat gum on the physical properties of the gastrointestinal contents and on the uptake of D-galactose and cholesterol by rat small intestine in vitro.
PubMed:In vivo binding of the winged bean basic lectin labeled with iodo[2-14C]acetic acid to the intestinal epithelial cells of the rat.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a galactose-binding lectin from the skin mucus of the conger eel Conger myriaster.
PubMed:Digestibility of pentose sugars and uronic acids and their effect on chick weight gain and caecal size.
PubMed:Role of the glucopyranose ring in the elicitation of feeding.
PubMed:D-glucose suppression of eating after intra-third ventricle infusion in rat.
PubMed:Ascorbic acid in cultured tissue of briar rose, Rosa rugosa Thunb.
PubMed:Identification and purification of an endogenous receptor for the lectin pallidin from Polysphondylium pallidum.
PubMed:Intestinal transport of hexoses in the rat following chronic heat exposure.
PubMed:Intestinal absorption of D-glucose and D-galactose in rats infected with Nematospiroides dubius.
PubMed:Developmentally regulated, carbohydrate-binding protein in Dictyostelium discoideum.
The free sugar has been detected in some fruits. Polysaccharides agar, gum arabic, mesquite gum, western larch gum and many plant mucilages and gums contain galactose D-Galactose is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. D-Galactose is an energy-providing nutrient and also a necessary basic substrate for the biosynthesis of many macromolecules in the body. Metabolic pathways for D-Galactose are important not only for the provision of these pathways but also for the prevention of D-Galactose and D-Galactose metabolite accumulation. The main source of D-Galactose is lactose in the milk of mammals, but it can also be found in some fruits and vegetables. Utilization of D-Galactose in all living cells is initiated by the phosphorylation of the hexose by the enzyme galactokinase (E.C. (GALK) to form D-Galactose-1-phosphate. In the presence of D-Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (E.C. (GALT) D-Galactose-1-phosphate is exchanged with glucose-1-phosphate in UDP-glucose to form UDP-galactose. Glucose-1-phosphate will then enter the glycolytic pathway for energy production. Deficiency of the enzyme GALT in galactosemic patients leads to the accumulation of D-Galactose-1-phosphate. Classic galactosemia-a term that denotes the presence of D-Galactose in the blood is the rare inborn error of D-Galactose metabolism, diagnosed by the deficiency of the second enzyme of the D-Galactose assimilation pathway, GALT, which, in turn, is caused by mutations at the GALT gene. (PMID: 15256214, 11020650, 10408771); In organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6. Hexoses are classified by functional group, with aldohexoses having an aldehyde at position 1, and ketohexoses having a ketone at position 2.
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