EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes


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CAS Number: 65-46-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):4395-95-3
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-610-9
Nikkaji Web:J4.837B
Beilstein Number:089173
XlogP3:-2.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:243.21961000
Formula:C9 H13 N3 O5
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:cosmetic agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 230.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 545.68 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 543.00 °F. TCC ( 283.80 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -1.808 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1.757e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin conditioning
skin protecting agents
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Cytidine 98%
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Cytidine 98% by HPLC
Changzhou Longo Chemical
Dow Chemical
George Uhe Company
Glentham Life Sciences
Maypro Industries
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Cytidine 99%
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 2700 mg/kg
Russian Pharmacology and Toxicology Vol. 40, Pg. 66, 1977.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
cosmetic agents
Recommendation for cytidine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for cytidine flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):65-46-3
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6175
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:UW7370000 for cas# 65-46-3
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:65-46-3
Pubchem (cid):6175
Pubchem (sid):134972626
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00475
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00089
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00051
Export Tariff Code:2934.90.5000
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food:Read Report
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
 cytosine riboside


PubMed:Dietary l-methionine supplementation mitigates gamma-radiation induced global DNA hypomethylation: Enhanced metabolic flux towards S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) biosynthesis increases genomic methylation potential.
PubMed:Subchronic oral toxicity study of decitabine in combination with tetrahydrouridine in CD-1 mice.
PubMed:Characterization of a novel resistance-related deoxycytidine deaminase from Brassica oleracea var. capitata.
PubMed:Crucial role of heme oxygenase-1 in the sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia cell line Kasumi-1 to ursolic acid.
PubMed:Immunomodulating activity of exopolysaccharide-producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain NTM048 from green peas.
PubMed:RNA polyadenylation sites on the genomes of microorganisms, animals, and plants.
PubMed:Pregnancy alters choline dynamics: results of a randomized trial using stable isotope methodology in pregnant and nonpregnant women.
PubMed:Reprogramming of pig dermal fibroblast into insulin secreting cells by a brief exposure to 5-aza-cytidine.
PubMed:The viral polymerase inhibitor 2'-C-methylcytidine inhibits Norwalk virus replication and protects against norovirus-induced diarrhea and mortality in a mouse model.
PubMed:Identification and analysis of the constituents in an aqueous extract of Tricholoma matsutake by HPLC coupled with diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Functional aspects of fish lymphocytes.
PubMed:Some mechanisms of FLIP expression in inhibition of HIV-1 replication in Jurkat cells, CD4+ T cells and PBMCs.
PubMed:Determination of common genetic variants in cytidine deaminase (CDA) gene in Indian ethnic population.
PubMed:Folic acid acts through DNA methyltransferases to induce the differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons.
PubMed:Base damage within single-strand DNA underlies in vivo hypermutability induced by a ubiquitous environmental agent.
PubMed:AID activity in B cells strongly correlates with polyclonal antibody affinity maturation in-vivo following pandemic 2009-H1N1 vaccination in humans.
PubMed:Construction of supramolecular helical nanofibers using renewable biomaterials: self-assembly of a cytidylic acid-appended bolaamphiphile in lemon juice.
PubMed:Genotype frequencies of drug-metabolizing enzymes responsible for purine and pyrimidine antagonists in a healthy Asian-Indian population.
PubMed:Improvements in quantitative EEG following consumption of a natural citicoline-enhanced beverage.
PubMed:Silencing of Wnt5a during colon cancer metastasis involves histone modifications.
PubMed:Specific interactions between nucleolipid doped liposomes and DNA allow a more efficient polynucleotide condensation.
PubMed:Comparison of the quantitative performances and measurement uncertainty estimates obtained during method validation versus routine applications of a novel hydrophilic interaction chromatography method for the determination of cidofovir in human plasma.
PubMed:Phenylaminopropyl-functionalized stationary phase for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography of alkaloids and aromatic acids.
PubMed:Investigational therapies for ischemic stroke: neuroprotection and neurorecovery.
PubMed:Decrease in antibody somatic hypermutation frequency under extreme, extended spaceflight conditions.
PubMed:Genistein attenuates WNT signaling by up-regulating sFRP2 in a human colon cancer cell line.
PubMed:Glycine-N methyltransferase expression in HepG2 cells is involved in methyl group homeostasis by regulating transmethylation kinetics and DNA methylation.
PubMed:Efficacy of a Lactococcus lactis ΔpyrG vaccine delivery platform expressing chromosomally integrated hly from Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Highly sensitive electrochemiluminescent biosensor for adenosine based on structure-switching of aptamer.
PubMed:Oleanolic acid reduces markers of differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
PubMed:Development and application of an HILIC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of nucleotides in infant formula.
PubMed:Nucleotides in canine colostrum and milk at different stages of lactation.
PubMed:Sulfoalkylbetaine-based monolithic column with mixed-mode of hydrophilic interaction and strong anion-exchange stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography.
PubMed:Ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to dual electrospray atmospheric pressure chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the determination of nucleotides in baby foods.
PubMed:Nucleotides and nucleosides in ovine and caprine milk during lactation.
PubMed:Diverse morphologies of self-assemblies from homoditopic 1,18-nucleotide-appended bolaamphiphiles: effects of nucleobases and complementary oligonucleotides.
PubMed:Anion exchange liquid chromatography for the determination of nucleotides in baby and/or functional foods.
PubMed:Local B cells and IgE production in the oesophageal mucosa in eosinophilic oesophagitis.
PubMed:Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foods.
PubMed:Bacteroides induce higher IgA production than Lactobacillus by increasing activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression in B cells in murine Peyer's patches.
PubMed:Effects of insulin and glucose on cellular metabolic fluxes in homocysteine transsulfuration, remethylation, S-adenosylmethionine synthesis, and global deoxyribonucleic acid methylation.
PubMed:Epigenetic changes in cancer as potential targets for prophylaxis and maintenance therapy.
PubMed:Single-strand DNA breaks in Ig class switch recombination that depend on UNG but not AID.
PubMed:Bacterial CMP-sialic acid synthetases: production, properties, and applications.
PubMed:Determination of nucleotides in infant formula by ion-exchange liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Characterization of the yeast DGK1-encoded CTP-dependent diacylglycerol kinase.
PubMed:An unconventional diacylglycerol kinase that regulates phospholipid synthesis and nuclear membrane growth.
PubMed:CTP synthetase and its role in phospholipid synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Genetic engineering of Escherichia coli for the economical production of sialylated oligosaccharides.
PubMed:Distribution of nucleosides and nucleobases in edible fungi.
PubMed:Determination of the impurity profile of adenosine by means of ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography.
PubMed:Delivery of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to cells using oligodeoxynucleotides.
PubMed:DNA methyltransferases as targets for cancer therapy.
PubMed:Differences in glutamic acid and 5'-ribonucleotide contents between flesh and pulp of tomatoes and the relationship with umami taste.
PubMed:Phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 by protein kinase A: identification of Thr455 as a major site of phosphorylation.
PubMed:1 -O-alkyl-2-(omega-oxo)acyl-sn-glycerols from shark oil and human milk fat are potential precursors of PAF mimics and GHB.
PubMed:Additional food folate derived exclusively from natural sources improves folate status in young women with the MTHFR 677 CC or TT genotype.
PubMed:Zebularine metabolism by aldehyde oxidase in hepatic cytosol from humans, monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice: influence of sex and inhibitors.
PubMed:Molecular basis for the antiviral and anticancer activities of unnatural L-beta-nucleosides.
PubMed:Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine excretion is increased in children with cystic fibrosis and is associated with plasma homocysteine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and S-adenosylmethionine.
PubMed:Sialic Acid metabolism and systemic pasteurellosis.
PubMed:Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc.
PubMed:Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in the yeast cki1Delta eki1Delta mutant defective in the Kennedy pathway. The Cho1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase is regulated by mRNA stability.
PubMed:Phosphorylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CTP synthetase at Ser424 by protein kinases A and C regulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the CDP-choline pathway.
PubMed:Phosphorylation of CTP synthetase on Ser36, Ser330, Ser354, and Ser454 regulates the levels of CTP and phosphatidylcholine synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Quantitation of choline and its metabolites in tissues and foods by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Phosphorylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae choline kinase on Ser30 and Ser85 by protein kinase A regulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the CDP-choline pathway.
PubMed:Influence of the length of the lipooligosaccharide alpha chain on its sialylation in Neisseria meningitidis.
PubMed:Superior role of apolipoprotein B48 over apolipoprotein B100 in chylomicron assembly and fat absorption: an investigation of apobec-1 knock-out and wild-type mice.
PubMed:Clinical pharmacokinetics of capecitabine.
PubMed:Cytidine (5') diphosphocholine-induced decrease in cerebral platelet activating factor is due to inactivation of its synthesizing enzyme cholinephosphotransferase in aged rats.
PubMed:Regulation of the DPP1-encoded diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) phosphatase by inositol and growth phase. Inhibition of DGPP phosphatase activity by CDP-diacylglyceron and activation of phosphatidylserine synthase activity by DGPP.
PubMed:Phospholipid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and interrelationship with other metabolic processes.
PubMed:Nucleotide and polyamine levels in colostrum and mature milk in relation to maternal atopy and atopic development in the children.
PubMed:Characterization of a novel dUTP-dependent activity of CTP synthetase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Identification of Ser424 as the protein kinase A phosphorylation site in CTP synthetase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:[Mechanism and possible biochemical modulation of capecitabine (Xeloda), a newly generated oral fluoropyrimidine].
PubMed:The effect of pyrimidine nucleosides on adenosine-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells.
PubMed:Effect of CTP synthetase regulation by CTP on phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Construction of a plasmid carrying both CTP synthetase and a fused gene formed from cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase and choline kinase genes and its application to industrial CDP-choline production: enzymatic production of CDP-choline from orotic acid (Part II).
PubMed:Enzymatic production of pyrimidine nucleotides using Corynebacterium ammoniagenes cells and recombinant Escherichia coli cells: enzymatic production of CDP-choline from orotic acid and choline chloride (Part I).
PubMed:The influence of dietary nucleotides on erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and plasma lipids in preterm infants.
PubMed:Nucleotides in human milk: sources and metabolism by the newborn infant.
PubMed:Regulation of yeast CTP synthetase activity by protein kinase C.
PubMed:Comparative effects of dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and its components on endotoxin induced bacterial translocation and small intestinal injury in protein deficient mice.
PubMed:Regulation of phosphatidate phosphatase activity from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by phospholipids.
PubMed:Analysis of nucleotide methylation in DNA from Corynebacterium glutamicum and related species.
PubMed:Pyrimidine synthesis in Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 25416.
PubMed:Differential biochemical regulation of the URA7- and URA8-encoded CTP synthetases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by CTP.
PubMed:Regulation of phosphatidate phosphatase activity from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by nucleotides.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of CTP synthetase, the product of the URA7 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Glucagon administration in vivo stimulates hepatic RNA and protein breakdown in fed and fasted rats.
PubMed:Regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by CDP-diacylglycerol.
PubMed:Regulation of the 45- and 55-kDa forms of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by nucleotides.
PubMed:Increase of survival time in experimental hypoxia by cytidine diphosphate choline.
PubMed:Therapeutic effect of orally applied cytidine diphosphate choline in mild and severe degrees of normobaric and normocapnic degrees of hypoxia of rats.
PubMed:[Purine and pyrimidine metabolites for the estimation of rumen metabolism: HPLC analysis in milk and blood plasma].
PubMed:Study of the effects of oral administration of CDP-choline on open-field behaviour under conditions of chronic hypoxia.
PubMed:Rates of rat liver RNA degradation in vivo as determined from cytidine release during brief cyclic perfusion in situ.
PubMed:The genotoxicity of N4-aminocytidine in the Drosophila wing spot test.
PubMed:Purification, properties, and genetic location of Escherichia coli cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase.
PubMed:Effect of dietary nucleotides on the plasma fatty acids in at-term neonates.
PubMed:[Nutritive value of dietary ribonucleic acid and its nucleosides in growing rats on a diet deficient in nonessential amino acid nitrogen. 4. Effect of the pyrimidine nucleosides cytidine and uridine on the composition of the body mass and on nitrogen metabolism].
PubMed:Nucleoside and oxypurine homeostasis in adult rabbit cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.
PubMed:Effect of fasting on the metabolism of cytidine nucleotides in the liver of intact and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane-treated rats.
PubMed:[Effects of 6-methyl-uracil upon the phagocytic activity in mice following whole-body X-irradiation OR 2,4,6-triethyleneimino-s-triazine treatment (author's transl)].
PubMed:Phospholipid metabolism during renal regeneration after acute tubular necrosis.
PubMed:The uptake of pyrimidine nucleosides in Tetrahymena. I. Uridine.
PubMed:Bacteriocin typing of Pseudomonas putrefaciens from food, human clinical specimens, and other sources.
PubMed:Aggregate formation in frozen aqueous solutions of nucleic acid derivatives and aromatic amino acids. Energy transfer and complex formation.
PubMed:Identification of adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate as the bacterial attractant for myxamoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum.
a pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base cytosine linked to the five-carbon sugar d-ribose. Cytidine is a nucleoside that is composed of the base cytosine linked to the five-carbon sugar D-ribose. Cytidine is a pyrimidine that besides being incorporated into nucleic acids, can serve as substrate for the salvage pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis; as precursor of the cytidine triphosphate (CTP) needed in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) biosynthetic pathway. These variations probably reflect the species differences in cytidine deaminase, the enzyme that converts cytidine to uridine in the body. The transports of cytidine into the brain's extracellular fluid, and then into neurons and glia, are essential prerequisites for cytidine to be utilized in brain. An efficient mechanism mediating the brain uptake of circulating cytidine has not yet been demonstrated. The biosynthesis of PC, the most abundant phosphatide in the brain, via the Kennedy pathway requires phosphocholine and cytidine triphosphate (CTP), a cytidine nucleotide, which is involved in the rate-limiting step. The enzyme that converts CTP to endogenous CDP-choline (CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase) is unsaturated at physiological brain CTP levels. APOBEC is a family of enzymes has been discovered with the ability to deaminate cytidines on RNA or DNA. The human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, or hA3G) protein, provides cells with an intracellular antiretroviral activity that is associated with the hypermutation of viral DNA through cytidine deamination. Indeed, hA3G belongs to a family of vertebrate proteins that contain one or two copies of a signature sequence motif unique to cytidine deaminases (CTDAs). (PMID: 16769123, 15780864, 16720547) [HMDB]
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