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cholic acid
3,7,12-trihydroxycholanic acid

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Name:4-[(3R,5S,7R,8R,9S,10S,12S,13R,14S,17R)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]pentanoic acid
CAS Number: 81-25-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:201-337-8
Beilstein Number:2822009
XlogP3-AA:3.60 (est)
Molecular Weight:408.57880000
Formula:C24 H40 O5
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
1975 Cholic acid View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Cholic Acid
FDA Mainterm (SATF):81-25-4 ; CHOLIC ACID
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 198.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 583.00 to 584.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 610.00 °F. TCC ( 321.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 2.020
Soluble in:
 water, 175 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Cholic acid 98%
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Cholic acid >98%
Glentham Life Sciences
Cholic acid
Pangaea Sciences
Cholic Acid
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Cholic Acid
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Cholic Acid from ox or sheep bile, ≥98%
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50 4950 mg/kg
Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku. Bulletin of the Institute of Hygienic Sciences. Vol. (103), Pg. 29, 1985.

intravenous-mouse LD50 330 mg/kg
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 20, Pg. 323, 1970.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
Recommendation for cholic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for cholic acid flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):81-25-4
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6676
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
4-[(3R,5S,7R,8R,9S,10S,12S,13R,14S,17R)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]pentanoic acid
RTECS:FZ9350000 for cas# 81-25-4
 4-[(3R,5S,7R,8R,9S,10S,12S,13R,14S,17R)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]pentanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:81-25-4
Pubchem (cid):6676
Pubchem (sid):134972659
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00695
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00619
Export Tariff Code:2918.19.9000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
grade: fcc
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
 cholalic acid
 cholic acid:cholan-24-oicacid, 3,7,12-trihydroxy-, (3,5,7,12)-,
4-[(3R,5S,7R,8R,9S,10S,12S,13R,14S,17R)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]pentanoic acid
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholanic acid
3,7,12-trihydroxycholanic acid


PubMed:Bile acids induce uncoupling protein 1-dependent thermogenesis and stimulate energy expenditure at thermoneutrality in mice.
PubMed:Glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina added to pork significantly block dietary cholesterol effects on lipoproteinemia, arylesterase activity, and CYP7A1 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats.
PubMed:Dioxin-Produced Alteration in the Profiles of Fecal and Urinary Metabolomes: A Change in Bile Acids and Its Relevance to Toxicity.
PubMed:Experience With the Priority Review Voucher Program for Drug Development.
PubMed:Effects of Surface-Deacetylated Chitin Nanofibers in an Experimental Model of Hypercholesterolemia.
PubMed:Silicon-Enriched Restructured Pork Affects the Lipoprotein Profile, VLDL Oxidation, and LDL Receptor Gene Expression in Aged Rats Fed an Atherogenic Diet.
PubMed:Simultaneous quantification of the major bile acids in artificial Calculus bovis by high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization and its application in quality control.
PubMed:Inhibition of differentiation of monocyte to macrophages in atherosclerosis by oligomeric proanthocyanidins -In-vivo and in-vitro study.
PubMed:Multiplatform metabolomic fingerprinting as a tool for understanding hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats.
PubMed:Staphylococcus aureus MnhF mediates cholate efflux and facilitates survival under human colonic conditions.
PubMed:Binding of bile acids by pastry products containing bioactive substances during in vitro digestion.
PubMed:Sorghum extract exerts cholesterol-lowering effects through the regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism in hypercholesterolemic mice.
PubMed:Diet supplementation with cholic acid promotes intestinal epithelial proliferation in rats exposed to γ-radiation.
PubMed:Hydrophilic modification of PVDF microfiltration membranes by adsorption of facial amphiphile cholic acid.
PubMed:Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.
PubMed:The Unexpected Uses of Urso- and Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid in the Treatment of Non-liver Diseases.
PubMed:Bile acids are nutrient signaling hormones.
PubMed:L-arginine conjugates of bile acids-a possible treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed:Protective effects of sea spaghetti-enriched restructured pork against dietary cholesterol: effects on arylesterase and lipoprotein profile and composition of growing rats.
PubMed:Metabonomic analysis of quercetin against the toxicity of chronic exposure to low-level dichlorvos in rats via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Enhancement of brown fat thermogenesis using chenodeoxycholic acid in mice.
PubMed:Determination of bile acids by hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography.
PubMed:Quercetin-3-rhamnoglucoside (rutin) stimulates transport of organic anion compounds mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1.
PubMed:Biological evaluation of a siliconized analog of clofibrate (silafibrate) in rodents.
PubMed:Nori- and sea spaghetti- but not wakame-restructured pork decrease the hypercholesterolemic and liver proapototic short-term effects of high-dietary cholesterol consumption.
PubMed:Olfactory transduction pathways in the Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.
PubMed:The role of the gallbladder in humans.
PubMed:Protective effect of grape by-product-fortified breads against cholesterol/cholic acid diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia in rats.
PubMed:Application of ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic techniques to analyze the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of organophosphate pesticides on rat urine profile.
PubMed:Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.
PubMed:Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats.
PubMed:Variations in target gene expression and pathway profiles in the mouse hippocampus following treatment with different effective compounds for ischemia-reperfusion injury.
PubMed:Effect of tween series on growth and Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid production of Lactobacillus acidophilus F0221 in the presence of bile salts.
PubMed:Antibody-mediated inhibition of fibroblast growth factor 19 results in increased bile acids synthesis and ileal malabsorption of bile acids in cynomolgus monkeys.
PubMed:Growth, bioconversion of isoflavones and probiotic properties of parent and subsequent passages of Lactobacillus upon ultraviolet radiation.
PubMed:Water-insoluble condensed tannins content of young persimmon fruits-derived crude fibre relates to its bile acid-binding ability.
PubMed:Soybean glycinin improves HDL-C and suppresses the effects of rosuvastatin on hypercholesterolemic rats.
PubMed:Fingerprint-efficacy study of artificial Calculus bovis in quality control of Chinese materia medica.
PubMed:[Effects of magnesium supplementation on calcium and magnesium levels, and redox homeostasis in normolipidemic and food-induced hyperlipidemic rats].
PubMed:[Experimental food-induced fatty liver and its adjuvant therapy with natural bioactive substances].
PubMed:[Functional condition of the stomach, pancreas, liver and gallbladder in celiac disease].
PubMed:A sensitive method for qualitative screening of bile salt hydrolase-active lactobacilli based on thin-layer chromatography.
PubMed:Characterisation of Lactobacillus fermentum SM-7 isolated from koumiss, a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects.
PubMed:Soy β-conglycinin (7S globulin) reduces plasma and liver cholesterol in rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet.
PubMed:Bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin from young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.
PubMed:Effects of oat bran, processed to different molecular weights of beta-glucan, on plasma lipids and caecal formation of SCFA in mice.
PubMed:Sub-lethal stress effects on virulence gene expression in Enterococcus faecalis.
PubMed:Protection against hypercholesterolemia by Corni fructus extract and its related protective mechanism.
PubMed:The mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of water-insoluble fish protein in ovariectomised rats.
PubMed:Antioxidant and bile acid binding activity of buckwheat protein in vitro digests.
PubMed:Enterostatin reduces serum cholesterol levels by way of a CCK(1) receptor-dependent mechanism.
PubMed:[Taurine and its potential therapeutic application].
PubMed:Dietary chitosan enhances hepatic CYP7A1 activity and reduces plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.
PubMed:Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of Persea americana leaf extracts.
PubMed:Hypolipidemic effect of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.
PubMed:Physicochemical and biological characteristics of DEAE-derivatized PS7 biopolymer of Beijerinckia indica.
PubMed:Effect of lupeol and lupeol linoleate on lipemic--hepatocellular aberrations in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.
PubMed:Retrograded tapioca starch prevents ovarian hormone deficiency-induced hypercholesterolemia.
PubMed:Cholic acid, a bile acid elicitor of hypersensitive cell death, pathogenesis-related protein synthesis, and phytoalexin accumulation in rice.
PubMed:The consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa dried calyx ethanolic extract reduced lipid profile in rats.
PubMed:In vivo antihepatotoxic effects of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis and the identification of the active component, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid.
PubMed:Antioxidant effect of squeezed juice from black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var niger) in alimentary hyperlipidaemia in rats.
PubMed:Physicochemical properties and biological activities of DEAE-derivatized Sphingomonas gellan.
PubMed:Comparative regulation of major enzymes in the bile acid biosynthesis pathway by cholesterol, cholate and taurine in mice and rats.
PubMed:Effects of a combination of niacin and chromium(III)-chloride on the skin and lungs of hyperlipemic rats.
PubMed:Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tocotrienol rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats.
PubMed:Effects of selective oxidation of chitosan on physical and biological properties.
PubMed:Possible mechanisms behind the differential effects of soy protein and casein feedings on colon cancer biomarkers in the rat.
PubMed:Functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, and health aspects of Lupinus albus protein isolates.
PubMed:Bile-mediated aminoglycoside sensitivity in Lactobacillus species likely results from increased membrane permeability attributable to cholic acid.
PubMed:Beta-lactotensin and neurotensin rapidly reduce serum cholesterol via NT2 receptor.
PubMed:Efficacy of animal anti-fertility compounds against sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spermatozoa.
PubMed:Steroids in the intestinal tract of rats are affected by dietary-fibre-rich barley-based diets.
PubMed:Bile acid composition in snake bile juice and toxicity of snake bile acids to rats.
PubMed:Increased binding of LDL and VLDL to apo B,E receptors of hepatic plasma membrane of rats treated with Fibernat.
PubMed:Enterostatin (VPDPR) and its peptide fragment DPR reduce serum cholesterol levels after oral administration in mice.
PubMed:Reuterin production by lactobacilli isolated from pig faeces and evaluation of probiotic traits.
PubMed:Identification of the bile acid-binding region in the soy glycinin A1aB1b subunit.
PubMed:Acid adaptation induces cross-protection against some environmental stresses in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
PubMed:Binding of free bile acids by cells of yogurt starter culture bacteria.
PubMed:Defatted avocado pulp reduces body weight and total hepatic fat but increases plasma cholesterol in male rats fed diets with cholesterol.
PubMed:A prospective study of serum bile acid concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in post-menopausal women on the island of Guernsey.
PubMed:Postprandial changes in serum unconjugated bile acid concentrations in healthy beagles.
PubMed:Metabolic and functional properties of lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal ecosystem: a comparative in vitro study between bacteria of intestinal and fermented food origin.
PubMed:[3-oxo-delta 4-steroid 5 beta-reductase deficiency].
PubMed:[3 beta-Hydroxysteroid-delta 5-oxidoreductase/isomerase deficiency].
PubMed:A cooperative interaction between soy protein and its isoflavone-enriched fraction lowers hepatic lipids in male obese Zucker rats and reduces blood platelet sensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:Suppression of atherogenesis in female low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice following magnesium fortification of drinking water: the importance of diet.
PubMed:Dietary phytosterol inhibits the growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells grown in SCID mice.
PubMed:Cholecystectomy in patients with normal gallbladder function did not alter characteristics in duodenal motility which was not correlated to size of bile acid pool.
PubMed:Fecal steroid excretion is increased in rats by oral administration of gymnemic acids contained in Gymnema sylvestre leaves.
PubMed:Plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels in rats fed a diet enriched in cholesterol and cholic acid.
PubMed:Modulation of colonic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes by feeding bile acids: comparative effects of cholic, deoxycholic, lithocholic and ursodeoxycholic acids.
PubMed:Colon tumor promotion: is it a selective process? Effects of cholate, phytate, and food restriction in rats on proliferation and apoptosis in normal and aberrant crypts.
PubMed:Comparative effects on blood lipids and faecal steroids of five legume species incorporated into a semi-purified, hypercholesterolaemic rat diet.
PubMed:Analysis of macrolide antibiotics by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed:Dietary antibiotics decrease taurine loss in cats fed a canned heat-processed diet.
PubMed:[Cholic acid sorption by food fibers].
PubMed:Effect of sesame oil on serum and liver lipid profiles in the rat.
PubMed:Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the O-5 antigen of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide.
PubMed:Simultaneous dietary supplementation of sodium cholate and beta-carotene markedly enhances accumulation of beta-carotene in mice.
PubMed:Effects of high levels of selenite and Escherichia coli on enrichment of Salmonella and detection of Salmonella by polymyxin-cloth enzyme immunoassay.
PubMed:Feeding Australian Acacia gums and gum arabic leads to non-starch polysaccharide accumulation in the cecum of rats.
PubMed:[Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on external secretory function of the liver].
PubMed:A food-grade silicon dioxide is hypocholesterolemic in the diet of cholesterol-fed rats.
PubMed:Effects of bile acids and lectins on immunoglobulin production in rat mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes.
PubMed:In vivo regulation of hepatic lipase activity and mRNA levels by diets which modify cholesterol influx to the liver.
PubMed:Prune fiber or pectin compared with cellulose lowers plasma and liver lipids in rats with diet-induced hyperlipidemia.
PubMed:Effects of different formula feeds on the developmental pattern of urinary bile acid excretion in infants.
PubMed:Effects of oat-bran concentrate on rat serum lipids and liver fat infiltration.
PubMed:Baked rye products modify cholesterol metabolism and crypt cell proliferation rates in rats.
PubMed:Preweaning diet affects bile lipid composition and bile acid kinetics in infant baboons.
PubMed:[Antioxidant effect of vitamin E in experimental hyperlipidemia].
PubMed:Dose-dependent effects of dietary phytosterol on epithelial cell proliferation of the murine colon.
PubMed:The bile acids binding of the fibre-rich fractions of three starchy legumes.
PubMed:Dietary effects of barley fibre, wheat bran and rye bran on bile composition and gallstone formation in hamsters.
PubMed:Preparation and evaluation of oral dosage form using acylglycerols. II. Effect of food ingestion on dissolution and absorption of aspirin from the granules prepared by acylglycerols in human subjects.
PubMed:Bile acid conjugation pattern in the isolated perfused rat liver during infusion of an amino acid formulation.
PubMed:Feeding diets containing 2% cheno- or urso-deoxycholic acid or cholestyramine to rats for two weeks alters intestinal morphology and bile acid absorption.
PubMed:The effect of food and bile acid administration on the relative bioavailability of cyclosporin.
PubMed:Serum unconjugated primary and secondary bile acids in patients with cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
PubMed:The solubilization of a glucuronyltransferase involved in pea (Pisum sativum var. Alaska) glucuronoxylan synthesis.
PubMed:Effect of aging and dietary restriction on bile acid metabolism in rats.
PubMed:Transient control of serum cholesterol homeostasis in adult ExHC (exogenous hypercholesterolemic) rats by dietary cholesterol during weanling period.
PubMed:Cholelithiasis in hamsters: effects of cholic acid and calcium on gallstone formation.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of phosphatidate phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:A comparison of the lipid-lowering and intestinal morphological effects of cholestyramine, chitosan, and oat gum in rats.
PubMed:Processed oat hulls as potential dietary fiber sources in rats.
PubMed:Oat fiber: composition versus physiological function in rats.
PubMed:Regulation of bile acid pool size and plasma lipid levels in the SHR/N-corpulent rat: influence of the level of caloric intake.
PubMed:Age and diet effects on fecal bile acids in infants.
PubMed:Different susceptibilities to the formation of cholesterol gallstones in mice.
PubMed:A catecholic 9,10-seco steroid as a product of aerobic catabolism of cholic acid by a Pseudomonas sp.
PubMed:Influence of the intake and composition of elemental diets on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat.
PubMed:A mechanism for the hypocholesterolaemic activity of saponins.
PubMed:Early nutrition and intestinal transport function: effect of low-cholesterol diet.
PubMed:Effect of dietary components on the pathobiology of colonic epithelium: possible relationship with colon tumorigenesis.
PubMed:Acute effects of dietary cholic acid and methylazoxymethanol acetate on colon epithelial cell proliferation; metabolism of bile salts and neutral sterols in conventional and germfree SD rats.
PubMed:Prevention of TCDD toxicity in laboratory rodents by addition of charcoal or cholic acids to chow.
PubMed:Comparative effects of cimetidine on biliary lipid secretion in fasted and fed rats.
PubMed:Is normal pregnancy cholestatic?
PubMed:Effect of a standard test meal on serum bile acid levels in healthy nonpregnant and pregnant women and in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
PubMed:Hepatic uptake of bile acids in man. Fasting and postprandial concentrations of individual bile acids in portal venous and systemic blood serum.
PubMed:Diagnostic value of serum primary bile acids in detecting bile acid malabsorption.
PubMed:Postprandial serum concentration of individual bile acids in man. Influence of ileal resection.
PubMed:Dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by bile acids in hamsters.
PubMed:Age dependent differences in human bile acid metabolism and 7 alpha-dehydroxylation.
PubMed:Plasma bile acid levels and liver disease.
PubMed:Differential timing of maximal postprandial concentrations of plasma chenodeoxycholate and cholate: its variability and implications.
PubMed:Effect of cecum and appendix on 7 alpha-dehydroxylation and 7 beta-epimerization of chenodeoxycholic acid in the rabbit.
PubMed:Diurnal serum levels of primary conjugated bile acids. Assessment by specific radioimmunoassays for conjugates of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid.
PubMed:Cholic acid biosynthesis: conversion of 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol into 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha, 12alpha,24beta,25-pentol by human and rat liver microsomes.
PubMed:Effect of dietary lactose at levels comparable to human consumption on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism of conventional and germfree rats.
PubMed:[The effect of wheat bran on serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum calcium, and serum total 3 alpha-hydroxy-cholic acid and the duration of food transit time].
a major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. it facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion. Emulsifying agent in foods A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion. ; Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. ; Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. ; Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g., membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues. (PMID: 11316487, 16037564, 12576301, 11907135); Cholic acid is a bile acid, a white crystalline substance insoluble in water (soluble in alcohol and acetic acid), with a melting point of 200-201 C. Salts of cholic acid are called cholates. Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of two major bile acids produced by the liver where it is synthesized from cholesterol. Of the two major bile acids, cholate derivatives represent approximately eighty percent of all bile acids. These derivatives are made from cholyl-CoA which forms a conjugate with either glycine, or taurine, yielding glycocholic and taurocholic acid respectively.
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