EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl methanaminium hydroxide inner salt

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CAS Number: 107-43-7Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):11042-12-9
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-490-6
Beilstein Number:3537113
XlogP3-AA:0.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:117.14807000
Formula:C5 H11 N O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
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Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:2265 betaine
FEMA Number:4223 betaine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):107-43-7 ; BETAINE
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 293.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -3.228 (est)
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:refrigerate in tightly sealed containers.
Soluble in:
 water, 6.11E+05 mg/L @ 19 °C (exp)
 water, 160g/100 ml
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
viscosity controlling agents
TMG (Tri-Methyl Glycine) 99.0-101.0%
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Betaine 98%
American International Chemical, LLC.
American International Chemical, LLC.
Beijing Lys Chemicals
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Betaine >98%
Changsha Organic Herb
Changsha Organic Herb
Brocoli Extract Betaine Beets broccoli spinach
Charkit Chemical
Covalent Chemical
Foodchem International
Glentham Life Sciences
Betaine anhydrous
Indenta Group
Maypro Industries
Betaine Anhydrous
Pangaea Sciences
Amino Acid, Lycine
Penta International
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Betaine ≥98% (perchloric acid titration)
For experimental / research use only.
Betaine Anhydrous >97.0%(T)
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Odor: characteristic
Use: Betaine, also called betaine anhydrous or trimethylglycine (TMG), is a substance that-s made in the body, where it-s involved in liver function, cellular reproduction, and helping make carnitine. It also helps the body metabolize homocysteine, an amino acid. Betaine is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat a genetic condition where too much homocysteine builds up in the body.
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intravenous-mouse LD50 830 mg/kg
Medicina et Pharmacologia Experimentalis. Vol. 16, Pg. 529, 1967.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 10800 mg/kg
Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica. Vol. 3, Pg. 28, 1959.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for betaine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 22
Click here to view publication 22
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 1000.000005000.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 1000.000005000.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 1000.000005000.00000
breakfast cereal: 1000.000005000.00000
cheese: 1000.000005000.00000
chewing gum: 1000.000005000.00000
condiments / relishes: 1000.000005000.00000
confectionery froastings: 1000.000005000.00000
egg products: 1000.000005000.00000
fats / oils: 1000.000005000.00000
fish products: 1000.000005000.00000
frozen dairy: 1000.000005000.00000
fruit ices: 1000.000005000.00000
gelatins / puddings: 1000.000005000.00000
granulated sugar: 1000.000005000.00000
gravies: 1000.000005000.00000
hard candy: 1000.000005000.00000
imitation dairy: 1000.000005000.00000
instant coffee / tea: 1000.000005000.00000
jams / jellies: 1000.000005000.00000
meat products: 1000.000005000.00000
milk products: 1000.000005000.00000
nut products: 1000.000005000.00000
other grains: 1000.000005000.00000
poultry: 1000.000005000.00000
processed fruits: 1000.000005000.00000
processed vegetables: 1000.000005000.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 1000.000005000.00000
seasonings / flavors: 1000.000005000.00000
snack foods: 1000.000005000.00000
soft candy: 1000.000005000.00000
soups: 1000.000005000.00000
sugar substitutes: 1000.000005000.00000
sweet sauces: 1000.000005000.00000
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Danisco Animal Nutrition
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine (betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Trouw Nutritional International B.V.
View page or View pdf

Safety of betaine as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous for food-producing animal species based on a dossier submitted by AB Vista
View page or View pdf

Safety of betaine as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):107-43-7
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :247
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
RTECS:DS5900000 for cas# 107-43-7
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:107-43-7
Pubchem (cid):247
Pubchem (sid):134972424
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00719
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00043
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01516
Export Tariff Code:2923.90.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
•oral: for solution: 1 glevel scoopful cystadane, (orphan medical) •oral: 1 gram per 1.7 ml of powder (one scoopful) (rx) (cystadane). •cystadane (betaine anhydrous for oral solution) •betaine, in the form of a white, granular, hygroscopic powder referred to as anhydrous betaine ...
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
 hair conditioning
 skin conditioning
 viscosity controlling agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 artichoke jerusalem artichoke tuber
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 barley leaf
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 barley root
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 barley shoot
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 beet root
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 carrot root
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 cayenne fruit
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 chicory root
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 corn root
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 corn shoot
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 corn silk
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 cotton seed
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 goosefoot leaf
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 grape fruit juice
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 oat root
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 oat shoot
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 orange fruit
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 pea root
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 pea shoot
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 peppermint leaf
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 soybean seed
Search Trop Picture
 spinach water spinach leaf
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 tomato root
Search Trop Picture
 tomato shoot
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 wheat root
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 wheat shoot
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 aciventral forte
 amino acid, lycine
 betaine anhydrous
 betaine, anhydrous
1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl methanaminium hydroxide inner salt
(carboxymethyl)trimethyl ammonium hydroxide inner salt
 glycine betaine
 glycine trimethylbetaine
 glycocoll betaine
 glycyl betaine
 loramine AMB 13
 loramine AMB-13
 methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, hydroxide, inner salt
 rubrine C
 TMG (tri-methyl glycine)
 trimethyl aminoacetic acid
2-(trimethyl ammonio)ethanoic acid hydroxide inner salt
 trimethyl glycine
 trimethyl glycocoll


PubMed:Determination of trimethylamine in spinach, cabbage, and lettuce at alkaline pH by headspace solid-phase microextraction.
J-Stage:Amelioration of D-Galactosamine-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats by Dietary Supplementation with Betaine Derived from Sugar Beet Molasses
PubMed:Characterization of Chinese liquor starter, "Daqu", by flavor type with 1H NMR-based nontargeted analysis.
PubMed:Badh2, encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, inhibits the biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, a major component in rice fragrance.
PubMed:Phospholipids from herring roe improve plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in healthy, young adults.
PubMed:E. coli under Salt Stress: Metabolic Shift in the Presence of Glycine Betaine.
PubMed:Impacts of plant-based foods in ancestral hominin diets on the metabolism and function of gut microbiota in vitro.
PubMed:Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire assessment of methyl-group donors using estimated diet records and plasma biomarkers: the method of triads.
PubMed:Plasma Methionine, Choline, Betaine, and Dimethylglycine, in relation to Colorectal Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
PubMed:Plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, and choline and risk of peripheral artery disease.
PubMed:Body composition in patients with classical homocystinuria: body mass relates to homocysteine and choline metabolism.
PubMed:Development and application of a quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detecting genetically modified maize MON863.
PubMed:Effects of betaine on performance and body composition: a review of recent findings and potential mechanisms.
PubMed:Transcriptomic and Functional Analysis of NaCl-Induced Stress in Enterococcus faecalis.
PubMed:Metabolomics in nutritional epidemiology: identifying metabolites associated with diet and quantifying their potential to uncover diet-disease relations in populations.
PubMed:New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.
PubMed:Nitritating-anammox biomass tolerant to high dissolved oxygen concentration and C/N ratio in treatment of yeast factory wastewater.
PubMed:Strategy of metabolic phenotype modulation in Portunus trituberculatus exposed to low salinity.
PubMed:Dietary intake of choline and neural tube defects in Mexican Americans.
PubMed:Discovery of human urinary biomarkers of aronia-citrus juice intake by HPLC-q-TOF-based metabolomic approach.
PubMed:Responses of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to a mixture of PAHs and PCBs in experimental conditions.
PubMed:Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study.
PubMed:Racial/ethnic and sociodemographic factors associated with micronutrient intakes and inadequacies among pregnant women in an urban US population.
PubMed:Betalain and betaine composition of greenhouse- or field-produced beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) and inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation.
PubMed:Dietary intake and plasma levels of choline and betaine in children with autism spectrum disorders.
PubMed:Combating photooxidative stress in green hairy roots of Daucus carota cultivated under light irradiation.
PubMed:Thermodynamic analysis of osmolyte effect on thermal stability of ribonuclease A in terms of water activity.
PubMed:Insights into genomics of salt stress response in rice.
PubMed:Betaine Alleviates Hypertriglycemia and Tau Hyperphosphorylation in db/db Mice.
PubMed:Choline and betaine intakes are associated with reduced risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in adults: a case-control study.
PubMed:In vivo screening of four phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against an Eimeria acervulina infection in broilers.
PubMed:A label-free silicon quantum dots-based photoluminescence sensor for ultrasensitive detection of pesticides.
PubMed:Pregnancy alters choline dynamics: results of a randomized trial using stable isotope methodology in pregnant and nonpregnant women.
PubMed:Cereal foods are the major source of betaine in the Western diet--analysis of betaine and free choline in cereal foods and updated assessments of betaine intake.
PubMed:Transcriptomic and epigenetic changes in early liver steatosis associated to obesity: effect of dietary methyl donor supplementation.
PubMed:Comparative quantitative analysis of headspace volatiles and their association with BADH2 marker in non-basmati scented, basmati and non-scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars of India.
PubMed:Alleviation of alcoholic liver injury by betaine involves an enhancement of antioxidant defense via regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism.
PubMed:ProAlgaZyme subfraction improves the lipoprotein profile of hypercholesterolemic hamsters, while inhibiting production of betaine, carnitine, and choline metabolites.
PubMed:Differences in betaine lipids and fatty acids between Pseudoisochrysis paradoxa VLP and Diacronema vlkianum VLP isolates (Haptophyta).
PubMed:Optimization of pullulanase production in Escherichia coli by regulation of process conditions and supplement with natural osmolytes.
PubMed:Metabolic phenotypes associated with high-temperature tolerance of Porphyra haitanensis strains.
PubMed:Betaine supplementation causes increase in carnitine metabolites in the muscle and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet as studied by nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach.
PubMed:Obesity-related metabolomic analysis of human subjects in black soybean peptide intervention study by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Excess of methyl donor in the perinatal period reduces postnatal leptin secretion in rat and interacts with the effect of protein content in diet.
PubMed:¹H NMR and multivariate data analysis of the relationship between the age and quality of duck meat.
PubMed:Higher homocysteine and lower betaine increase the risk of microangiopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus carrying the GG genotype of PEMT G774C.
PubMed:Exercise prevents hyperhomocysteinemia in a dietary folate-restricted mouse model.
PubMed:Metabolomic profiling of urine: response to a randomised, controlled feeding study of select fruits and vegetables, and application to an observational study.
PubMed:Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women.
PubMed:Plant-based foods as a source of lipotropes for human nutrition: a survey of in vivo studies.
PubMed:Dietary choline and betaine intakes vary in an adult multiethnic population.
PubMed:Olive oil by capillary electrophoresis: characterization and genuineness.
PubMed:DNA methylation potential: dietary intake and blood concentrations of one-carbon metabolites and cofactors in rural African women.
PubMed:Betaine supplement alleviates hepatic triglyceride accumulation of apolipoprotein E deficient mice via reducing methylation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha promoter.
PubMed:Hepatic methionine homeostasis is conserved in C57BL/6N mice on high-fat diet despite major changes in hepatic one-carbon metabolism.
PubMed:Chemical composition and flavour characteristics of a liquid extract occurring as waste in crab (Ovalipes punctatus) processing.
PubMed:Co-administration of methyl donors along with guanidinoacetic acid reduces the incidence of hyperhomocysteinaemia compared with guanidinoacetic acid administration alone.
PubMed:The effect of bioactive complex of quercetin, selenium, catechins and curcumin on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy population after a two month consumption.
PubMed:Ungeremine and Its hemisynthesized analogues as bactericides against Flavobacterium columnare.
PubMed:Effects of dietary supplementation with betaine on a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse model.
PubMed:Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.
PubMed:Data-driven strategy for the discovery of potential urinary biomarkers of habitual dietary exposure.
PubMed:Nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism and risk of renal cell cancer.
PubMed:Hepatic metabolism of sulfur amino acids in db/db mice.
PubMed:Reduced MTHFD1 activity in male mice perturbs folate- and choline-dependent one-carbon metabolism as well as transsulfuration.
PubMed:Choline and betaine intake is inversely associated with breast cancer risk: a two-stage case-control study in China.
PubMed:Low dietary folate and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency may lead to pregnancy complications through modulation of ApoAI and IFN-γ in spleen and placenta, and through reduction of methylation potential.
PubMed:Protective effect of Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats: a proteomics analysis.
PubMed:Overcoming sodium toxicity by utilizing grass leaves as co-substrate during the start-up of batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion.
PubMed:Choline and betaine food sources and intakes in Taiwanese.
PubMed:Persistence of Salmonella enterica during dehydration and subsequent cold storage.
PubMed:Determination of trimethylamine in spinach, cabbage, and lettuce at alkaline pH by headspace solid-phase microextraction.
PubMed:Blood biomarkers of methylation in Down syndrome and metabolic simulations using a mathematical model.
PubMed:Influence of media composition on the production of alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis CB-18.
PubMed:Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.
PubMed:Dietary supplementation with methyl donors reduces fatty liver and modifies the fatty acid synthase DNA methylation profile in rats fed an obesogenic diet.
PubMed:On the molecular mechanism of stabilization of proteins by cosolvents: role of Lifshitz electrodynamic forces.
PubMed:Dietary choline and betaine intakes and risk of cardiovascular diseases: review of epidemiological evidence.
PubMed:Global gene expression of Listeria monocytogenes to salt stress.
PubMed:Pretreatment of the yeast antagonist, Candida oleophila, with glycine betaine increases oxidative stress tolerance in the microenvironment of apple wounds.
PubMed:Effects of genotype and environment on the contents of betaine, choline, and trigonelline in cereal grains.
PubMed:Epigenetic mechanisms in anti-cancer actions of bioactive food components--the implications in cancer prevention.
PubMed:An introduction to the nutrition and metabolism of choline.
PubMed:The effect of betaine on in vitro fermentation of carbohydrate and protein combinations under osmotic stress in pigs.
PubMed:Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis of livers from aged rats.
PubMed:Mouse betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase deficiency reduces body fat via increasing energy expenditure and impairing lipid synthesis and enhancing glucose oxidation in white adipose tissue.
PubMed:In silico assessment of the potential allergenicity of transgenes used for the development of GM food crops.
PubMed:Folate gene polymorphisms MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, and BHMT G742A and risk for coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.
PubMed:Effect of long-term betaine supplementation on chemical and physical characteristics of three muscles from the Alentejano pig.
PubMed:Determination of nonprotein amino acids and betaines in vegetable oils by flow injection triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: a screening method for the detection of adulterations of olive oils.
PubMed:Impact of high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets on liver metabolism studied in a rat model with a systems biology approach.
PubMed:Occurrence of pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) in Citrus genus plants.
PubMed:Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: a randomised, controlled trial in postmenopausal women.
PubMed:Folate and vitamin B12-related genes and risk for omphalocele.
PubMed:S-Adenosylhomocysteine enhances DNA damage through increased β-amyloid formation and inhibition of the DNA-repair enzyme OGG1b in microglial BV-2 cells.
PubMed:Nerve and behavioral responses of mice to various umami substances.
PubMed:Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease.
PubMed:Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics enable detection of the effects of a whole grain rye and rye bran diet on the metabolic profile of plasma in prostate cancer patients.
PubMed:Variation of polyphenols and betaines in aerial parts of young, field-grown Amaranthus genotypes.
PubMed:Stability and robustness of human metabolic phenotypes in response to sequential food challenges.
PubMed:Larval feeding stimulants for a rutaceae-feeding swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus L. in Citrus unshiu leaves.
PubMed:Nutrition delivery for obese ICU patients: delivery issues, lack of guidelines, and missed opportunities.
PubMed:Gene polymorphisms and low dietary intake of micronutrients in coronary artery disease.
PubMed:Rapid NMR method for the quantification of organic compounds in thin stillage.
PubMed:Thermal and refining processes, not fermentation, tend to reduce lipotropic capacity of plant-based foods.
PubMed:Inhibition of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase in rats causes hyperhomocysteinemia and reduces liver cystathionine β-synthase activity and methylation capacity.
PubMed:Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.
PubMed:Increased thermal and osmotic stress resistance in Listeria monocytogenes 568 grown in the presence of trehalose due to inactivation of the phosphotrehalase-encoding gene treA.
PubMed:Tissue-specific alterations of methyl group metabolism with DNA hypermethylation in the Zucker (type 2) diabetic fatty rat.
PubMed:Monitoring of microbial metabolites and bacterial diversity in beef stored under different packaging conditions.
PubMed:Amelioration of D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury in rats by dietary supplementation with betaine derived from sugar beet molasses.
PubMed:Measurement of phospholipids by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry: the determination of choline containing compounds in foods.
PubMed:Folate intake, MTHFR genotype, and sex modulate choline metabolism in mice.
PubMed:[Experimental food-induced fatty liver and its adjuvant therapy with natural bioactive substances].
PubMed:Metabolomes of the psychrotolerant bacterium Listeria monocytogenes 10403S grown at 37 °C and 8 °C.
PubMed:Glycine betaine improves oxidative stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of the antagonistic yeast Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum.
PubMed:Protective effect of quercetin, EGCG, catechin and betaine against oxidative stress induced by ethanol in vitro.
PubMed:A role for proline synthesis and transport in Listeria monocytogenes barotolerance.
PubMed:High intake of folate from food sources is associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer in an Australian population.
PubMed:Ethanol lowers glutathione in rat liver and brain and inhibits methionine synthase in a cobalamin-dependent manner.
PubMed:Metabolomic analysis of livers and serum from high-fat diet induced obese mice.
PubMed:Consumption of wheat aleurone-rich foods increases fasting plasma betaine and modestly decreases fasting homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol in adults.
PubMed:Dietary intake of S-(alpha-carboxybutyl)-DL-homocysteine induces hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.
PubMed:Physiological optimality, allocation trade-offs and antioxidant protection linked to better leaf yield performance in drought exposed mulberry.
PubMed:Sulfoalkylbetaine-based monolithic column with mixed-mode of hydrophilic interaction and strong anion-exchange stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography.
PubMed:Chemoattraction to dimethylsulfoniopropionate throughout the marine microbial food web.
PubMed:Metabolic profiling strategy for discovery of nutritional biomarkers: proline betaine as a marker of citrus consumption.
PubMed:New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre?
PubMed:Determination of trigonelline in seeds and vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.
PubMed:Choline intake and genetic polymorphisms influence choline metabolite concentrations in human breast milk and plasma.
PubMed:Nutritional, biochemical, and pharmaceutical potential of proteins and peptides from jatropha: review.
PubMed:Choline and betaine in health and disease.
PubMed:Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?
PubMed:Choline and betaine intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in men.
PubMed:Inhibitory kinetics of betaine on beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase from prawn (Litopenaeus vannamei).
PubMed:Quantitative measurement of betaine and free choline in plasma, cereals and cereal products by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS.
PubMed:Choline and betaine intake and risk of breast cancer among post-menopausal women.
PubMed:Characterization of Chinese liquor starter, "Daqu", by flavor type with 1H NMR-based nontargeted analysis.
PubMed:Rapid in vivo screening system for anti-oxidant activity using bacterial redox sensor strains.
PubMed:Specific osmolyte transporters mediate bile tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:S-Adenosylhomocysteine increases beta-amyloid formation in BV-2 microglial cells by increased expressions of beta-amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 and by hypomethylation of these gene promoters.
PubMed:Carnitine enhances the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula at 7 degrees C.
PubMed:NMR-based metabonomics reveals that plasma betaine increases upon intake of high-fiber rye buns in hypercholesterolemic pigs.
PubMed:Choline and risk of neural tube defects in a folate-fortified population.
PubMed:Metabolomic insight into soy sauce through (1)H NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:NMR metabolic profiling of transgenic maize with the Cry1Ab gene.
PubMed:Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries.
PubMed:Maternal nutrient intake and risks for transverse and longitudinal limb deficiencies: data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2003.
PubMed:Repeatability and measurement error in the assessment of choline and betaine dietary intake: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
PubMed:Analysis of betaine and choline contents of aleurone, bran, and flour fractions of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
PubMed:Role of proP and proU in betaine uptake by Yersinia enterocolitica under cold and osmotic stress conditions.
PubMed:Evaluations of the trans-sulfuration pathway in multiple liver toxicity studies.
PubMed:Dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients as predictors of plasma choline and betaine in middle-aged and elderly men and women.
PubMed:Advances in protein-amino acid nutrition of poultry.
PubMed:Type I diabetes leads to tissue-specific DNA hypomethylation in male rats.
PubMed:Ethnicity and folate influence choline status in young women consuming controlled nutrient intakes.
PubMed:Dietary factors associated with plasma high molecular weight and total adiponectin levels in apparently healthy women.
PubMed:Manipulation of sinapine, choline and betaine accumulation in Arabidopsis seed: towards improving the nutritional value of the meal and enhancing the seedling performance under environmental stresses in oilseed crops.
PubMed:Choline status is not a reliable indicator of moderate changes in dietary choline consumption in premenopausal women.
PubMed:Characterization of the low-salinity stress in Vibrio vulnificus.
PubMed:Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study.
PubMed:Homocysteine concentration, related B vitamins, and betaine in pregnant women recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Study.
PubMed:Is there a new component of the Mediterranean diet that reduces inflammation?
PubMed:Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase-2 is an S-methylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase.
PubMed:Amiloride restores renal medullary osmolytes in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
PubMed:Nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.
PubMed:Glycine betaine improves Listeria monocytogenes tolerance to desiccation on parsley leaves independent of the osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu and OpuC.
PubMed:Dietary choline and betaine and the risk of distal colorectal adenoma in women.
PubMed:Physiological and metabolic effects of prophylactic treatment with the osmolytes glycerol and betaine on Bos indicus steers during long duration transportation.
PubMed:Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
PubMed:Metabolite analyses of grain from maize hybrids grown in the United States under drought and watered conditions during the 2002 field season.
PubMed:Folate intake and the MTHFR C677T genotype influence choline status in young Mexican American women.
PubMed:DNA induces folding in alpha-synuclein: understanding the mechanism using chaperone property of osmolytes.
PubMed:Increasing survival and efficacy of a bacterial biocontrol agent of fire blight of rosaceous plants by means of osmoadaptation.
PubMed:Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women.
PubMed:The accumulation and synthesis of betaine in winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata).
PubMed:Tolerance to high osmolality of the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni and identification of potential osmoprotectants.
PubMed:New insights into the regulation of methyl group and homocysteine metabolism.
PubMed:Modified culture protocol for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from raw milk.
PubMed:Purification of soluble and active RaxH, a transmembrane histidine protein kinase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae required for AvrXa21 activity.
PubMed:Standard infrared absorption spectrum of betaine and optimal conditions for its measurement.
PubMed:Choline: are our university students eating enough?
PubMed:Dimethylsulfoniopropionate uptake by marine phytoplankton.
PubMed:The sigma factor RpoN (sigma54) is involved in osmotolerance in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by methionine or choline intake in growing rats.
PubMed:Effect of folic acid and betaine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation: a randomized, controlled study in healthy volunteers.
PubMed:Acute effect of folic acid, betaine, and serine supplements on flow-mediated dilation after methionine loading: a randomized trial.
PubMed:Epicatechin gallate, a component of green tea, reduces halotolerance in Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:Folate status modulates the induction of hepatic glycine N-methyltransferase and homocysteine metabolism in diabetic rats.
PubMed:Sparing of methionine requirements: evaluation of human data takes sulfur amino acids beyond protein.
PubMed:Inhibition of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase causes hyperhomocysteinemia in mice.
PubMed:Analysis of ingested material and urine by GC-MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy: poisoning of an adult with adulterated soda.
PubMed:NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread.
PubMed:Dietary choline and betaine assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Framingham Offspring Study.
PubMed:Selection of surfactants for stable paraffin-in-water dispersions, undergoing solid-liquid transition of the dispersed particles.
PubMed:Effects of Ionic and Osmotic Strength on the Glucosyltransferase of Rhizobium meliloti Responsible for Cyclic beta-(1,2)-Glucan Biosynthesis.
PubMed:Influence of fermentation time, cryoprotectant and neutralization of cell concentrate on freeze-drying survival, storage stability, and acid and bile exposure of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis cells produced without milk-based ingredients.
PubMed:Comparison of different methods for the solubilisation of Neospora caninum (Phylum Apicomplexa) antigen.
PubMed:Application of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/comparative taste dilution analysis for identification of a bitter inhibitor by a combinatorial approach based on Maillard reaction chemistry.
PubMed:Effect of individual amino acids and glucose on activation and germination of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores in tempe starter.
PubMed:Bioactive compounds in cod (Gadus morhua) products and suitability of 1H NMR metabolite profiling for classification of the products using multivariate data analyses.
PubMed:Dietary determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations.
PubMed:Conformation-dependent inactivation of human betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase by hydrogen peroxide in vitro.
PubMed:Taste-active maillard reaction products: the "tasty" world of nonvolatile maillard reaction products.
PubMed:Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men.
PubMed:Osmotically induced trehalose and glycine betaine accumulation improves tolerance to desiccation, survival and efficacy of the postharvest biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans EPS125.
PubMed:The importance of (early) folate status to primary and secondary coronary artery disease prevention.
PubMed:Betaine concentration as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine concentrations and the effect of folic acid supplementation on betaine concentrations.
PubMed:Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.
PubMed:Rates of cuticular penetration of chelated Fe(III): role of humidity, concentration, adjuvants, temperature, and type of chelate.
PubMed:Ad libitum choline intake in healthy individuals meets or exceeds the proposed adequate intake level.
PubMed:Discovery of the ergothioneine transporter.
PubMed:Effect of betaine supplementation on changes in hepatic metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and experimental cholestasis induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate.
PubMed:Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health.
PubMed:Role for compatible solutes glycine betaine and L-carnitine in listerial barotolerance.
PubMed:Choline- and betaine-defined diets for use in clinical research and for the management of trimethylaminuria.
PubMed:Triiodothyronine treatment attenuates the induction of hepatic glycine N-methyltransferase by retinoic acid and elevates plasma homocysteine concentrations in rats.
PubMed:Modulation of methyl group metabolism by streptozotocin-induced diabetes and all-trans-retinoic acid.
PubMed:High sodium chloride intake decreases betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression in guinea pig liver and kidney.
PubMed:Betaine in human nutrition.
PubMed:Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring.
PubMed:Glucose and electrolyte supplementation of drinking water improve the immune responses of poults with inanition.
PubMed:Oligomerization is required for betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase function.
PubMed:Molecular and physiological analysis of the role of osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC in growth of Listeria monocytogenes at low temperatures.
PubMed:Dissecting the catalytic mechanism of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase by use of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and site-directed mutagenesis.
PubMed:Technologies for the control of fat and lean deposition in livestock.
PubMed:Transgenic tobacco plants accumulating osmolytes show reduced oxidative damage under freezing stress.
PubMed:Regulation of transcription of compatible solute transporters by the general stress sigma factor, sigmaB, in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Evaluation of two recovery methods for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by PCR: direct-dilution--centrifugation and C(18)-carboxypropylbetaine processing.
PubMed:Role of the glycine betaine and carnitine transporters in adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to chill stress in defined medium.
PubMed:Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women.
PubMed:Betaine in sub-acute and sub-chronic rat studies.
PubMed:Betaine and carnitine uptake systems in Listeria monocytogenes affect growth and survival in foods and during infection.
PubMed:Studies on the mechanism of the osmoresistance of spores of Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:Potential osmoprotectants for the lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceus and Tetragenococcus halophila.
PubMed:The role of the sigB gene in the general stress response of Listeria monocytogenes varies between a strain of serotype 1/2a and a strain of serotype 4c.
PubMed:Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods.
PubMed:Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women.
PubMed:Gene array-based identification of changes that contribute to ethanol tolerance in ethanologenic Escherichia coli: comparison of KO11 (parent) to LY01 (resistant mutant).
PubMed:Lipid class composition of the microalga Pavlova lutheri: eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids.
PubMed:Three transporters mediate uptake of glycine betaine and carnitine by Listeria monocytogenes in response to hyperosmotic stress.
PubMed:Differential chemosensory feeding behaviour by three co-occurring mysids (Crustacea, Mysidacea) from southeastern Tasmania.
PubMed:Role of ctc from Listeria monocytogenes in osmotolerance.
PubMed:Influence of interactions between temperature, ferric ammonium citrate and glycine betaine on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a defined medium.
PubMed:Comparative mammalian choline metabolism with emphasis on the high-yielding dairy cow.
PubMed:Gbu glycine betaine porter and carnitine uptake in osmotically stressed Listeria monocytogenes cells.
PubMed:Quantitation of choline and its metabolites in tissues and foods by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Multiple deletions of the osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC of Listeria monocytogenes affect virulence and growth at high osmolarity.
PubMed:Betaine and homocysteine concentrations in foods.
PubMed:Humectant permeability influences growth and compatible solute uptake by Staphylococcus aureus subjected to osmotic stress.
PubMed:Identification of opuC as a chill-activated and osmotically activated carnitine transporter in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Detection of genetically modified coho salmon using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification.
PubMed:Elevated carnitine accumulation by Listeria monocytogenes impaired in glycine betaine transport is insufficient to restore wild-type cryotolerance in milk whey.
PubMed:Attenuation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatotoxicity by betaine or taurine in rats.
PubMed:Random mutagenesis of the zinc-binding motif of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reveals that Gly 214 is essential.
PubMed:Effect of dietary betaine on nutrient utilization and partitioning in the young growing feed-restricted pig.
PubMed:High performance liquid chromatography of phenolic choline ester fragments derived by chemical and enzymatic fragmentation processes: analysis of sinapine in rape seed.
PubMed:Betaine and homocysteine concentrations in infant formulae and breast milk.
PubMed:Methylamine in human urine.
PubMed:Comparative evaluation of four decontamination protocols for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk.
PubMed:Analysis of the role of OpuC, an osmolyte transport system, in salt tolerance and virulence potential of Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Influence of heavy metals on the accumulation of trimethylglycine, putrescine and spermine in food plants.
PubMed:Uptake of choline from salmon flesh and its conversion to glycine betaine in response to salt stress in Shewanella putrefaciens.
PubMed:The role of L-carnitine and glycine betaine in the survival and sub-lethal injury of non-growing Listeria monocytogenes cells during chilled storage.
PubMed:A novel method to analyze betaine in chicken liver: effect of dietary betaine and choline supplementation on the hepatic betaine concentration in broiler chicks.
PubMed:Can betaine partially replace or enhance the effect of methionine by improving broiler growth and carcase characteristics?
PubMed:Role of sigma(B) in adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to growth at low temperature.
PubMed:Analysis of the role of betL in contributing to the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes LO28.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of a mouse betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase gene and pseudogene.
PubMed:Growth of Lactococcus lactis strains at low water activity: correlation with the ability to accumulate glycine betaine.
PubMed:Fatty acid membrane composition and activation of glycine-betaine transport in Lactococcus lactis subjected to osmotic stress.
PubMed:Effect of low water activity on staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B biosynthesis.
PubMed:Osmotic and chill activation of glycine betaine porter II in Listeria monocytogenes membrane vesicles.
PubMed:Osmoprotectants and cryoprotectants for Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:A single-step purification for glycine betaine determination in plant extracts by isocratic HPLC
PubMed:A single-step purification for glycine betaine determination in plant extracts by isocratic HPLC.
PubMed:Osmoprotection of Escherichia coli by peptone is mediated by the uptake and accumulation of free proline but not of proline-containing peptides.
PubMed:Tuning breadth and sex-specific sensitivity in chemosensory neurons of male and female Uca pugnax.
PubMed:Metabolic functions of L-carnitine and its effects as feed additive in horses. A review.
PubMed:Recombinant human liver betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase: identification of three cysteine residues critical for zinc binding.
PubMed:Survival of Lactobacillus helveticus entrapped in Ca-alginate in relation to water content, storage and rehydration.
PubMed:Identification of an ATP-driven, osmoregulated glycine betaine transport system in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Dietary precursors of trimethylamine in man: a pilot study.
PubMed:The storage life of packed shredded Iceberg lettuce dipped in glycine betaine solutions.
PubMed:Identification and disruption of BetL, a secondary glycine betaine transport system linked to the salt tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes LO28.
PubMed:Interaction between dietary methionine and methyl donor intake on rat liver betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase gene expression and organization of the human gene.
PubMed:A possible role of ProP, ProU and CaiT in osmoprotection of Escherichia coli by carnitine.
PubMed:Final optical density and growth rate; effects of temperature and NaCl differ from acidity.
PubMed:Effects of singly administered betaine on hepatotoxicity of chloroform in mice.
PubMed:Identification of the gene encoding the alternative sigma factor sigmaB from Listeria monocytogenes and its role in osmotolerance.
PubMed:Maternal epigenetics and methyl supplements affect agouti gene expression in Avy/a mice.
PubMed:Inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation (mercaptoacetate, R-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyric acid) stimulate feeding in mice.
PubMed:Skin irritation potential of mixed surfactant systems.
PubMed:Hepatic and renal betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase activity in pigs as affected by dietary intakes of sulfur amino acids, choline, and betaine.
PubMed:Betaine and L-carnitine transport by Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in response to osmotic signals.
PubMed:Critical role of anteiso-C15:0 fatty acid in the growth of Listeria monocytogenes at low temperatures.
PubMed:Visual and chemical release of feeding behavior in adult rainbow trout.
PubMed:Elemental and configural learning and the perception of odorant mixtures by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus.
PubMed:Replacement value of betaine for DL-methionine in male broiler chicks.
PubMed:Mannitol, a novel bacterial compatible solute in Pseudomonas putida S12.
PubMed:Sodium-driven, osmotically activated glycine betaine transport in Listeria monocytogenes membrane vesicles.
PubMed:Effects of refeeding diets on emeriamine-induced fatty liver in fasting rats.
PubMed:Purification, kinetic properties, and cDNA cloning of mammalian betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase.
PubMed:Role of osmolytes in adaptation of osmotically stressed and chill-stressed Listeria monocytogenes grown in liquid media and on processed meat surfaces.
PubMed:Generalization among related complex odorant mixtures and their components: analysis of olfactory perception in the spiny lobster.
PubMed:Diversity of the polar lipids of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Role of Glycine Betaine and Related Osmolytes in Osmotic Stress Adaptation in Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610.
PubMed:Choline distribution and metabolism in pregnant rats and fetuses are influenced by the choline content of the maternal diet.
PubMed:An ATP-dependent L-carnitine transporter in Listeria monocytogenes Scott A is involved in osmoprotection.
PubMed:The ability of guinea pigs to synthesize carnitine at a normal rate from epsilon-N-trimethyllysine or gamma-butyrobetaine in vivo is not compromised by experimental vitamin C deficiency.
PubMed:Effects of particulate materials and osmoprotectants on very-high-gravity ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Effect of exogenous proline, betaine, and carnitine on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a minimal medium.
PubMed:Quantitative analysis of growth stimulation by glycine betaine in Salmonella typhimurium.
PubMed:Glycine betaine confers enhanced osmotolerance and cryotolerance on Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Transport of glycine-betaine by Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Identification of a high-affinity glycine betaine transport system in Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:Effect of sodium chloride on the intracellular solute pools of Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Identification of two proline transport systems in Staphylococcus aureus and their possible roles in osmoregulation.
PubMed:The regulatory effect of ascorbate on the carnitine synthesis in primary cultured guinea pig hepatocytes.
PubMed:2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increases reliance on fats as a fuel source independently of diet: evidence that diminished carbohydrate supply contributes to dioxin lethality.
PubMed:Effects of an aldose reductase inhibitor on organic osmotic effectors in rat renal medulla.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activity of betaine esters, quaternary ammonium amphiphiles which spontaneously hydrolyze into nontoxic components.
PubMed:Preferential osmolyte accumulation: a mechanism of osmotic stress adaptation in diazotrophic bacteria.
PubMed:[Effects of solute on growth and intracellular salt concentration of Pediococcus halophilus CCRC 12884 isolated from Inyu mash].
PubMed:Formation of aliphatic amine precursors of N-nitrosodimethylamine after oral administration of choline and choline analogues in the rat.
PubMed:Uptake of choline by rat mammary-gland epithelial cells.
PubMed:Physiology of chemoreceptor cells in the legs of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
PubMed:Responses of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to chemical attractants.
PubMed:The role of narrowly tuned taste cell populations in lobster (Homarus americanus) feeding behavior.
PubMed:Behavioral study of chemoreception in the sea star Marthasterias glacialis: structure-activity relationships of lactic acid, amino acids, and acetylcholine.
PubMed:Maternal-foetal distribution studies in late pregnancy. I. Distribution of [N-methyl-14C]betaine in tissues of beagle dogs and miniature pigs.
PubMed:Amino acid suppression of taurine-sensitive chemosensory neurons.
PubMed:Dependence of betaine stimulation of vitamin b(12) overproduction on protein synthesis.
PubMed:Regulation of hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase by dietary betaine.
PubMed:Distribution of 14C-labelled acrylamide and betaine in foetuses of rats, rabbits, beagle dogs and miniature pigs.
PubMed:The effects of sodium arsenate on the free amino acid levels in erythrocytes and plasma in rats.
PubMed:Factors affecting methionine toxicity and its alleviation in the chick.
PubMed:[Analytical evidences of sugar added to wine].
PubMed:Aversive behaviour of crown-of-thorns starfish to coral evoked by food-related chemicals.
PubMed:Possible substitutes for nitrite for pigment formation in cured meat products.
PubMed:Stachydrine: content in alfalfa and biological activity in chicks.
PubMed:Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine from naturally occurring quaternary ammonium compounds and tertiary amines.
PubMed:Chemical evaluation of orange juice in compounded soft drinks.
a naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. as a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (from martindale, the extra pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341) Betaine or trimethylglycine is a methylated derivative of glycine. It functions as a methyl donor in that it carries and donates methyl functional groups to facilitate necessary chemical processes. The donation of methyl groups is important to proper liver function, cellular replication, and detoxification reactions. Betaine also plays a role in the manufacture of carnitine and serves to protect the kidneys from damage. Betaine has also been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th Ed, p1341)
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