benzalkonium chloride compounds
benzenemethanaminium, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-, chloride (1:1) compounds
 
Notes:
a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. it is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
  • American International Chemical, LLC.
    • American International Chemical, Inc.
      Consistent sources
      North American supplier for globally sourced ingredients.
      AIC is a Framingham, MA based ISO Certified sales and marketing company serving the food, pharmaceutical, nutritional, personal care, biotech, and industrial markets of North America since 1972. Our success is a result of a company culture built on customer needs, along with partnerships with global manufacturers committed to the rigors and demands of the North American market. Our team of 30 Sales Representatives, along with our 19 strategically located warehouses are ready to supply product when and where you need it.
      Email: Info
      Voice: (800) 238-0001
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      Product(s):
      122169 Benzalkonium Chloride USP
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      02-10200 BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE NF 50% SOLUTION
      02-10210 BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE NF 17% SOLUTION
       
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CAS Number: 8001-54-5 
Other: 12741-06-9
FDA UNII: F5UM2KM3W7
Molecular Weight: 339.99286000
Formula: C21 H38 Cl N
Also Contains: C8-18-benzalkonium chloride
 C12-18-benzalkonium chloride
 C12-16-benzalkonium chloride
 C12-14-benzalkonium chloride
Category: antimicrobial agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
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PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 723 Benzalkonium chloride View-notice PDF
FDA Mainterm: QUATERNARY AMMONIUM CHLORIDE COMBINATION
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart B--Food Preservatives
Sec. 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.


FDA PART 173 -- SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Specific Usage Additives
Sec. 173.320 Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white to yellowish gray crystalline solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 1.692 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 22.47 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antimicrobial agents
antistatic agents
deodorants
preservatives
surfactants
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Suppliers:
American International Chemical, LLC.
Benzalkonium Chloride USP
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Benzalkonium chloride 50%
Covalent Chemical
Benzalkonium Chloride
Kao Corporation
SANISOL B-50
Odor: characteristic
Use: Industrial and general disinfectant, Algicide, Hair conditioner base.
Kao Corporation
TETRANYL BC-50
Odor: characteristic
Use: Disinfecting agent.
Kao Corporation
TETRANYL BC-80
Kraft Chemical
Benzalkonium Chloride
Penta International
BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE NF 17% SOLUTION
Penta International
BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE NF 50% SOLUTION
Stepan Company
BTC® 2125M-80%
Stepan Company
BTC® 2125M
Stepan Company
BTC® 50 E
Stepan Company
BTC® 50
Stepan Company
BTC® 65
Stepan Company
BTC® 675
Stepan Company
BTC® 776
Stepan Company
BTC® 80 E
Stepan Company
BTC® 824
Stepan Company
BTC® 8248
Stepan Company
BTC® 835
Stepan Company
BTC® 8358
Stepan Company
STEPANQUAT® 65 NF
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE 17% NF
Odor: characteristic
Use: Is used in nearly all classes of ophthalmic solutions, from antiglaucoma medicines to over-the-counter artificial tear solutions.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE 50% IND
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE 50% NF
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE 50% NF
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  240 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Kiso to Rinsho. Clinical Report. Vol. 4, Pg. 219, 1970.

intravenous-rat LD50  13.90 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Kiso to Rinsho. Clinical Report. Vol. 4, Pg. 219, 1970.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50  14.50 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM SMALL INTESTINE LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Kiso to Rinsho. Clinical Report. Vol. 4, Pg. 219, 1970.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50  14500 ug/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM SMALL INTESTINE LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Kiso to Rinsho. Clinical Report. Vol. 4, Pg. 219, 1970.

intravenous-rat LD50  13900 ug/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Kiso to Rinsho. Clinical Report. Vol. 4, Pg. 219, 1970.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-rat LD50 400 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Kiso to Rinsho. Clinical Report. Vol. 4, Pg. 219, 1970.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 64 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Kiso to Rinsho. Clinical Report. Vol. 4, Pg. 219, 1970.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: antimicrobial agents
Recommendation for benzalkonium chloride compounds usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for benzalkonium chloride compounds flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Reasoned opinion on the dietary risk assessment for proposed temporary maximum residue levels (MRLs) of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC)
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 8001-54-5
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
Chemidplus: 0008001545
RTECS: BO3150000 for cas# 8001-54-5
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References:
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 8001-54-5
Pubchem (sid): 135268909
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): Search
Export Tariff Code: 2923.90.0000
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
MedlinePlusSupp: View
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
 preservatives 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
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Synonyms:
 alkyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride compounds
 alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride compounds
 alkyldimethyl(phenylmethyl)quaternary ammonium chlorides
 ammonium compounds, quaternary, benzyldimethyldodecyl-, chloride compounds
 ammonium, benzyldimethyldodecyl-, chloride compounds
 ammonium, benzyldodecyldimethyl-, chloride compounds
 benzenemethanaminium, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-, chloride compounds
 benzenemethanaminium, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-, chloride (1:1) compounds
 benzenemethanaminium, N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-, chloride compounds
N-benzyl-N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride compounds
N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecan-1-aminium chloride compounds
 benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride compounds
 benzyldimethyllaurylammonium chloride compounds
 benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride compounds
 benzyllauryldimethylammonium chloride compounds
 dimethylbenzyldodecylammonium chloride compounds
 dimethylbenzyllaurylammonium chloride compounds
 dimethyldodecylbenzylammonium chloride compounds
 dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride compounds
 dodecyl-dimethyl-benzylammonium chloride compounds
N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-benzylammonium chloride compounds
N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylbenzenemethanaminium chloride compounds
 dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride compounds
 dodecyldimethylbenzylamine, chloride compounds
 dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride compounds
N-dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride compounds
 dodecyldimethylbenzylammoniumchloride compounds
 lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride compounds
 laurylbenzalkonium chloride compounds
 laurylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride compounds
 lauryldimethylbenzylammonium chloride compounds
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Articles:
PubMed: Efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from retail food.
PubMed: Evaluation of antibiofilm effect of benzalkonium chloride, iodophore and sodium hypochlorite against biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin.
PubMed: Resistant mechanism study of benzalkonium chloride selected Salmonella Typhimurium mutants.
PubMed: Benzalkonium chloride and heavy-metal tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes from retail foods.
PubMed: Combined effect of benzalkonium chloride and ultrasound against Listeria monocytogenes biofilm on plastic surface.
PubMed: The influence of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of benzalkonium chloride on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Control of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in an Iberian pork processing plant and selection of benzalkonium chloride-resistant strains.
PubMed: Effect of the hand antiseptic agents benzalkonium chloride, povidone-iodine, ethanol, and chlorhexidine gluconate on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.
PubMed: Antibiotic susceptibility in benzalkonium chloride-resistant and -susceptible Listeria monocytogenes strains.
PubMed: Survival and susceptibility of Burkholderia cepacia complex in chlorhexidine gluconate and benzalkonium chloride.
PubMed: Biofilm formation and resistance to benzalkonium chloride in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a fish processing plant.
PubMed: Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.
PubMed: Conservation and distribution of the benzalkonium chloride resistance cassette bcrABC in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Safety studies conducted on a sanitizing agent containing benzalkonium chloride.
PubMed: Tn6188 - a novel transposon in Listeria monocytogenes responsible for tolerance to benzalkonium chloride.
PubMed: Toxic effect in the lungs of rats after inhalation exposure to benzalkonium chloride.
PubMed: Adaptational changes in cellular phospholipids and fatty acid composition of the food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes as a stress response to disinfectant sanitizer benzalkonium chloride.
PubMed: Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.
PubMed: Adaptation to benzalkonium chloride and ciprofloxacin affects biofilm formation potential, efflux pump and haemolysin activity of Escherichia coli of dairy origin.
PubMed: Coselection of cadmium and benzalkonium chloride resistance in conjugative transfers from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other Listeriae.
PubMed: Characterization of a transferable bcrABC and cadAC genes-harboring plasmid in Listeria monocytogenes strain isolated from food products of animal origin.
PubMed: Subminimal inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride select for a tolerant subpopulation of Escherichia coli with inheritable characteristics.
PubMed: Co-culture with Listeria monocytogenes within a dual-species biofilm community strongly increases resistance of Pseudomonas putida to benzalkonium chloride.
PubMed: Listeria monocytogenes strains selected on ciprofloxacin or the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride exhibit reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, benzalkonium chloride, and other toxic compounds.
PubMed: Comparison between the resistance of benzalkonium chloride-adapted and -nonadapted biofilms of Listeria monocyogenes to modified atmosphere packaging and nisin once transferred to mussels.
PubMed: Inactivation of human norovirus surrogates by benzalkonium chloride, potassium peroxymonosulfate, tannic acid, and gallic acid.
PubMed: Effects of benzalkonium chloride and potassium sorbate on airway ciliary activity.
PubMed: Comparative biocidal activity of peracetic acid, benzalkonium chloride and ortho-phthalaldehyde on 77 bacterial strains.
PubMed: Commonly used disinfectants fail to eradicate Salmonella enterica biofilms from food contact surface materials.
PubMed: Antimicrobial resistance and co-selection phenomenon in Listeria spp. recovered from food and food production environments.
PubMed: Efflux mediated adaptive and cross resistance to ciprofloxacin and benzalkonium chloride in Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin.
PubMed: Resistance to benzalkonium chloride, peracetic acid and nisin during formation of mature biofilms by Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Genetic characterization of plasmid-associated benzalkonium chloride resistance determinants in a Listeria monocytogenes strain from the 1998-1999 outbreak.
PubMed: Mixed species biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show enhanced resistance to benzalkonium chloride and peracetic acid.
PubMed: Efficacy of biocides used in the modern food industry to control salmonella enterica, and links between biocide tolerance and resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial compounds.
PubMed: Inhibition effect of belzalkonium chloride treatment on growth of common food contaminating fungal species.
PubMed: Heavy metal and disinfectant resistance of Listeria monocytogenes from foods and food processing plants.
PubMed: Putative Cross-Contamination Routes of Listeria monocytogenes in a Meat Processing Facility in Romania.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.
PubMed: Combination treatment against scuticociliatosis by reducing the inhibitor effect of mucus in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.
PubMed: Determination of individual homologues and total content of benzalkonium chloride by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a short butyl column.
PubMed: [Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].
PubMed: Selective removal and inactivation of bacteria by nanoparticle composites prepared by surface modification of montmorillonite with quaternary ammonium compounds.
PubMed: The Listeria monocytogenes transposon Tn6188 provides increased tolerance to various quaternary ammonium compounds and ethidium bromide.
PubMed: Performance of stress resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes in mixed species biofilms with Lactobacillus plantarum.
PubMed: Assessment of susceptibility of mould isolates towards biocides.
PubMed: Plasmid-borne cadmium resistant determinants are associated with the susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes to bacteriophage.
PubMed: Comparison of Asian Aquaculture Products by Use of Statistically Supported Life Cycle Assessment.
PubMed: Use of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for minimizing post-harvest physio-chemical and microbial changes responsible for sucrose losses in sugar cane.
PubMed: Evaluation of agar dilution and broth microdilution methods to determine the disinfectant susceptibility.
PubMed: The connection between persistent, disinfectant-resistant Listeria monocytogenes strains from two geographically separate Iberian pork processing plants: evidence from comparative genome analysis.
PubMed: Heavy-metal and benzalkonium chloride resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from the environment of turkey-processing plants.
PubMed: Disinfectant choices in veterinary practices, shelters and households: ABCD guidelines on safe and effective disinfection for feline environments.
PubMed: The effect of a neurotoxin (benzalkonium chloride) on the lower esophagus.
PubMed: Inactivation kinetics of various chemical disinfectants on Aeromonas hydrophila planktonic cells and biofilms.
PubMed: Topical application of benzalkonium chloride to the stomach serosa increases gastric emptying time, acid secretion, serum gastrin and size of the mucosa.
PubMed: Biocide and copper tolerance in enterococci from different sources.
PubMed: Long-term use of preservatives on rat nasal respiratory mucosa: effects of benzalkonium chloride and potassium sorbate.
PubMed: Screening of benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated during cold smoked fish production.
PubMed: Disinfectant and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from cattle carcasses, feces, and hides and ground beef from the United States.
PubMed: Comparative analysis of the susceptibility to triclosan and three other biocides of avian Salmonella enterica isolates collected 1979 through 1994 and 2004 through 2010.
PubMed: Effect of benzalkonium chloride on viability and energy metabolism in exponential- and stationary-growth-phase cells of Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Assessment of the susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria to biocides.
PubMed: Population structure of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates from sporadic human listeriosis cases in the United States from 2003 to 2008.
PubMed: Adapted tolerance to benzalkonium chloride in Escherichia coli K-12 studied by transcriptome and proteome analyses.
PubMed: Adaptive resistance and differential protein expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis biofilms exposed to benzalkonium chloride.
PubMed: Role of efflux pumps in adaptation and resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to benzalkonium chloride.
PubMed: Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts.
PubMed: Biodegradation of benzalkonium chlorides singly and in mixtures by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from returned activated sludge.
PubMed: Differential adaptive response and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis planktonic and biofilm cells exposed to benzalkonium chloride.
PubMed: Rapid methods to assess sanitizing efficacy of benzalkonium chloride to Listeria monocytogenes biofilms.
PubMed: Cross-resistance to antibiotics of Escherichia coli adapted to benzalkonium chloride or exposed to stress-inducers.
PubMed: Postadaptational resistance to benzalkonium chloride and subsequent physicochemical modifications of Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Qualitative and quantitative measures of various compounded formulations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate.
PubMed: Short communication: Reactivity of diacetyl with cleaning and sanitizing agents.
PubMed: Combined treatments of enterocin AS-48 with biocides to improve the inactivation of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus planktonic and sessile cells.
PubMed: Correlation between antibiotic and biocide resistance in mesophilic and psychrotrophic Pseudomonas spp. isolated from slaughterhouse surfaces throughout meat chain production.
PubMed: Biocide Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus CC398 and CC30 Isolates from Pigs and Identification of the Biocide Resistance Genes, qacG and qacC.
PubMed: Antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes from food products.
PubMed: Effects of preincubation application of low and high frequency ultrasound on eggshell microbial activity, hatchability, supply organ weights at hatch, and chick performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs.
PubMed: Presence of antiseptic resistance genes in porcine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed: High-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium related to humans and pigs found in dust from pig breeding facilities.
PubMed: Disinfectant and antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the food industry.
PubMed: Tafluprost: the first preservative-free prostaglandin to treat open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
PubMed: HrcA and DnaK are important for static and continuous-flow biofilm formation and disinfectant resistance in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the food industry and nucleotide sequence of the resistance plasmid pST827.
PubMed: Characterizing the immunological effects of oral healthcare ingredients using an in vitro reconstructed human epithelial model.
PubMed: Effects of efflux-pump inducers and genetic variation of the multidrug transporter cmeB in biocide resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.
PubMed: Genetic linkage between resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and beta-lactam antibiotics in food-related Staphylococcus spp.
PubMed: Genetic characterization of plasmid-associated triphenylmethane reductase in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Surfactant-disinfectant resistance of Salmonella and Staphylococcus adhered and dried on surfaces with egg compounds.
PubMed: Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in food-related bacteria.
PubMed: Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in commercial food-processing equipment cleaning solutions and subsequent sensitivity to sanitizers and heat.
PubMed: Importance of SigB for Listeria monocytogenes static and continuous-flow biofilm formation and disinfectant resistance.
PubMed: Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica enteritidis biofilms susceptibility to different disinfectants and stress-response and virulence gene expression of surviving cells.
PubMed: Comparative transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of the responses of Bacillus cereus to various disinfectant treatments.
PubMed: Resistance to phenicol compounds following adaptation to quaternary ammonium compounds in Escherichia coli.
PubMed: Intrinsic and acquired resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in food-related Pseudomonas spp.
PubMed: Efficacy of detergents and fresh produce disinfectants against microorganisms associated with mixed raw vegetables.
PubMed: Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection.
PubMed: The qacG gene on plasmid pST94 confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in staphylococci isolated from the food industry.
PubMed: Development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli adapted to biocides.
PubMed: Chemical decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat.
PubMed: The most important contact sensitizers in Polish children and adolescents with atopy and chronic recurrent eczema as detected with the extended European Baseline Series.
PubMed: Characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates from turkeys in commercial processing plants for resistance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and a growth promoter.
PubMed: Involvement of efflux mechanisms in biocide resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.
PubMed: Effect of enterocin AS-48 in combination with biocides on planktonic and sessile Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Differential biofilm formation and chemical disinfection resistance of sessile cells of listeria monocytogenes strains under monospecies and dual-species (with Salmonella enterica) conditions.
PubMed: Development and validation of an HPLC/UV/MS method for simultaneous determination of 18 preservatives in grapefruit seed extract.
PubMed: Diverse cadmium resistance determinants in Listeria monocytogenes isolates from the turkey processing plant environment.
PubMed: Characterization of Serratia marcescens surviving in disinfecting footbaths.
PubMed: [Effect of disinfectants on surface hydrophobicity and mobility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104].
PubMed: Anaphylactic shock following povidone.
PubMed: [Epidemiology of drug use during the first three months of life in a urban area of southern Brazil].
PubMed: Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from dairy products and frozen vegetables to antibiotics inhibiting murein synthesis and to disinfectants.
PubMed: Commercially available ocular hypotensive products: preservative concentration, stability, storage, and in-life utilization.
PubMed: An evaluation of preservative adsorption onto nylon membrane filters.
PubMed: Antimicrobial resistance and heat sensitivity of oxacillin-resistant, mecA-positive Staphylococcus spp. from unpasteurized milk.
PubMed: Sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to commercially available alkaline cleaners and subsequent resistance to heat and sanitizers.
PubMed: Investigation into the effect of detergents on disinfectant susceptibility of attached Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Chemically induced bowel denervation improves survival in short bowel syndrome.
PubMed: Low sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to quaternary ammonium compounds.
PubMed: Serum glucose and insulin responses to an insulin-containing ophthalmic solution administered topically in clinically normal cats.
PubMed: Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis in meat products.
PubMed: Identification of the antimicrobial substances produced by Solanum palinacanthum (Solanaceae).
PubMed: In vivo efficacy of an alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectant containing a synergistic combination of ethylhexylglycerin and preservatives.
PubMed: Substance P antagonist inhibits immediate and delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions.
PubMed: Effect of denervation of the myenteric plexus on gastroduodenal motility in turkeys.
PubMed: The aetiology of eyelid dermatitis: a 10-year retrospective analysis.
PubMed: Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.
PubMed: Plasmid-mediated resistance to antimicrobial agents among listeriae.
PubMed: Factors contributing to the survival of poultry associated Pseudomonas spp. exposed to a quaternary ammonium compound.
PubMed: [Efficacy of extramucosal myotomy in an experimental model of intramural colonic obstruction. An experimental study in rats].
PubMed: Is preserving the entire aganglionic colon reasonable in the surgical treatment of total colonic aganglionosis?
PubMed: Prediction of the keeping quality of pasteurized milk by the detection of cytochrome c oxidase.
PubMed: Use of the Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique for predicting the keeping quality of pasteurized milk within 24 hours.
PubMed: Release of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites in skin organ cultures as characteristics of in vitro skin irritancy.
PubMed: Surface disinfection tests with Salmonella and a putative indicator bacterium, mimicking worst-case scenarios in poultry houses.
PubMed: Selection of fluorescent probes for flow cytometric viability assessment of Listeria monocytogenes exposed to membrane-active and oxidizing disinfectants.
PubMed: The effect of the growth phase of Staphylococcus aureus on resistance to disinfectants in a suspension test.
PubMed: Efficacy of animal anti-fertility compounds against sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spermatozoa.
PubMed: Frequency of disinfectant resistance genes and genetic linkage with beta-lactamase transposon Tn552 among clinical staphylococci.
PubMed: Factors influencing a suspension test method for antimicrobial activity of disinfectants.
PubMed: Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic determination of atropine in nerve gas antidotes and other dosage forms.
PubMed: Possible associations between Salmonella persistence in poultry houses and resistance to commonly used disinfectants and a putative role of mar.
PubMed: Ethidium monoazide for DNA-based differentiation of viable and dead bacteria by 5'-nuclease PCR.
PubMed: Development of a standard test to assess the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells to disinfectants.
PubMed: Occurrence of and a possible mechanism for resistance to a quaternary ammonium compound in Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Assessment of recovery from ocular irritancy using a human tissue equivalent model.
PubMed: Flow cytometry for rapid assessment of viability after exposure to a quaternary ammonium compound.
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