ammonium hydroxide
ammonia aqueous
Used in food processing as a leavening agent, pH control agent, surface-finishing agent, and boiler water additive
  • ECSA Chemicals
    • ECSA Chemicals
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      ECSA Group offers its customers in these business segments a complete 'one-stop shopping' solution.
      A hundred years on from its establishment, the Emanuele Centonze Holding SA has developed a solid presence in Switzerland and in Europe. The Group currently includes: ECSA Chemicals AG/ECSA Italia SRL Societ con Unico Socio – ECSA Maintenance AG – ECSA Energy SA – Porta Ticino Easy Stop SA. The Group operates in the distribution of chemical and petroleum products, in the international trading of commodities, and in the distribution of maintenance systems. With 285 employees, a consolidated turnover of 335 million Swiss Francs in 2015, and more than 15,000 active customers, the Group ranks among the top 500 companies in Switzerland. ECSA operates in Switzerland and the EU, and in particular has consolidated its geographical position on the main axis linking northern and southern Europe, thus creating a competitive and privileged logistical hub.
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      Ammonium Hydroxide
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
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      01-28040 AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE FCC, Kosher
      01-28050 AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE FCC, Kosher
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azanium hydroxide (Click)
CAS Number: 1336-21-6Picture of molecule
Other: 125888-87-1
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 215-647-6
Beilstein Number: 3587154
MDL: MFCD00066650
Molecular Weight: 35.04605000
Formula: H5 N O
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: acidity regulators
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1139 Ammonium hydroxide View-review
EU SANCO Ammonium hydroxide View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Ammonia Solution
GSFA Codex: Ammonium hydroxide (527)
DG SANTE Food Additives: ammonium hydroxide
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials: ammonium hydroxide
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products
Sec. 163.110 Cacao nibs.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products
Sec. 163.111 Chocolate liquor.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products
Sec. 163.112 Breakfast cocoa.

Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1139 Ammonium hydroxide.

Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.85 Caramel.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless clear liquid (est)
Assay: 10.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.90000 @  25.00 °C.
Boiling Point: 165.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure: 5990.000000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
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American Elements
Ammonium Hydroxide Solution 99%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Ammonium Hydroxide Solution is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. Hydroxide, the OH- anion composed of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, is commonly present in nature and is one of the most widely studied molecules in physical chemistry. Hydroxide compounds have diverse properties and uses, from base catalysis to detection of carbon dioxide. In a watershed 2013 experiment, scientists at JILA (the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics) achieved evaporative cooling of compounds for the first time using hydroxide molecules, a discovery that may lead to new methods of controlling chemical reactions and could impact a range of disciplines, including atmospheric science and energy production technologies. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards.
ECSA Chemicals
Ammonium Hydroxide
Company Profile
Penta International
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Ammonium hydroxide solution Approximately 28-30% NH3
For experimental / research use only.
Ammonium hydroxide solution 28% NH3 in H2O, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Odor: characteristic
Use: Used in hair dyes and colors, Ammonia helps prepare the hair so that the dye can diffuse into the hair shaft.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  350 mg/kg
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.

intravenous-mouse LD50  91 mg/kg
Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 37, Pg. 497, 1958.

oral-cat LDLo  750 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

parenteral-frog LDLo  2500 mg/kg
"Structure et Activite Pharmacodyanmique des Medicaments du Systeme Nerveux Vegetatif," Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948Vol. -, Pg. 688, 1948.

oral-human LDLo  43 mg/kg
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 95, 1969.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo  10 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 200 mg/kg
Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948Vol. -, Pg. 688, 1948.

subcutaneous-mouse LDLo 160 mg/kg
"Structure et Activite Pharmacodyanmique des Medicaments du Systeme Nerveux Vegetatif," Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948Vol. -, Pg. 688, 1948.

subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 200 mg/kg
"Structure et Activite Pharmacodyanmique des Medicaments du Systeme Nerveux Vegetatif," Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948Vol. -, Pg. 688, 1948.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-human LC50 408 ppm
Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society. Vol. 61, Pg. 271, 1971.

inhalation-human LCLo 5000 ppm
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 95, 1969.

inhalation-human TCLo 408 ppm
Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society. Vol. 61, Pg. 271, 1971.

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Safety in Use Information:
Category: acidity regulators
Recommendation for ammonium hydroxide usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for ammonium hydroxide flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
EPI System: View
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 1336-21-6
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 14923
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 azanium hydroxide
Chemidplus: 0001336216
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 1336-21-6
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 azanium hydroxide
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 1336-21-6
Pubchem (cid): 14923
Pubchem (sid): 134979482
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C01358
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB34832
FooDB: FDB013396
Export Tariff Code: 2814.20.0000
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
•ammonia is commonly encountered as aqueous solutions of 28 percent (aquammonia), called ammonium hydroxide and 10 percent, called household ammonia. •strong ammonia soln (usp) is 27 to 30% (wtvol) nh3. •grades: technical; chemically pure; 16%; 20%; 26%; nf (strong); food chemical codex •aqueous soln of ammonia is often referred to & labeled as a soln of ammonium hydroxide although there is little ammonium hydroxide present. in commerce, ammonia is avail in form of aqueous soln of varying concn, or as anhydrous ammonia furnished in liquefied form ammonia in household use contains 10% ammonia & is known as 16 deg ammonia (referring to density in degrees baume, a concn term). ammonia
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
 buffering agents 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
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 ammonia aqueous
 ammonia aqueous solution
 ammonia, monohydrate
 aqueous ammonia
 azanium hydroxide
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Info: Ammonia
PubMed: Effect of ammonium hydroxide on ultrastructure and tenderness of buffalo meat.
PubMed: Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 2: Cook yield, tenderness, and sensory attributes.
PubMed: Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 1: Fluid loss, oxidation, color, and microbial plate counts.
PubMed: Effects of salt and ammonium hydroxide on the quality of ground buffalo meat.
PubMed: Antimicrobial effect of ammonium hydroxide when used as an alkaline agent in the formulation of injection brine solutions.
PubMed: Quality characteristics of chunked and formed hams from pale, average and dark muscles were improved using an ammonium hydroxide curing solution.
PubMed: Reduction of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in a caramel model system: influence of food additives.
PubMed: Selective removal of ATP degradation products from food matrices II: Rapid screening of hypoxanthine and inosine by molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion for evaluation of fish freshness.
PubMed: Fed-batch fermentation for enhanced lactic acid production from glucose/xylose mixture without carbon catabolite repression.
PubMed: Evaluation of 0.1% ammonium hydroxide to replace sodium tripolyphosphate in fresh meat injection brines.
PubMed: Effects of succinate and pH on cooked beef color.
PubMed: Quantitative determination of bromine and iodine in food samples using ICP-MS.
PubMed: Enhancement of beef chuck and loin muscles with ammonium hydroxide and salt.
PubMed: Effects of aging on beef chuck and loin muscles enhanced with ammonium hydroxide and salt.
PubMed: Effects of dark storage and retail display on beef chuck and round muscles enhanced with ammonium hydroxide, salt, and carbon monoxide.
PubMed: [Simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners in food by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection].
PubMed: Determination of perfluorinated chemicals in food and drinking water using high-flow solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Effective separation and simultaneous detection of cyromazine and melamine in food by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed: Determination of 15 sedative residues in mutton by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Nitrogen distribution and acid production in corn silage treated with ammonium hydroxide.
PubMed: Tools to discover anionic and nonionic polyfluorinated alkyl surfactants by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Rapid method for quantification of seven synthetic pigments in colored Chinese steamed buns using UFLC-MS/MS without SPE.
PubMed: Efficiency of pretreatments for optimal enzymatic saccharification of soybean fiber.
PubMed: Novel dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine morpholine residues in citrus and apples.
PubMed: Forced degradation and impurity profiling: recent trends in analytical perspectives.
PubMed: A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction using PCX as the sorbent for the determination of melamine and cyromazine in milk and milk powder by UHPLC-HRMS/MS.
PubMed: Use of ion-pairing reagent for improving iodine speciation analysis in seaweed by pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis and ultraviolet detection.
PubMed: Determination of Yohimbine in Yohimbe Bark and Related Dietary Supplements Using UHPLC-UV/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation.
PubMed: Improvement of a sample preparation procedure for multi-elemental determination in Brazil nuts by ICP-OES.
PubMed: Optimisation and validation of a quantitative and confirmatory method for residues of macrolide antibiotics and lincomycin in kidney by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Ammonium hydroxide treatment of aflatoxin B-1. Some chemical characteristics and biological effects.
PubMed: Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective separation and determination of metronidazole in cosmetic samples.
PubMed: Determination of Triazine Herbicides in Drinking Water by Dispersive Micro Solid Phase Extraction with Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Detection.
PubMed: [Determination of deoxynivalenol in grain and its products by solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
PubMed: Additive impairment of the barrier function and irritation by biogenic amines and sodium lauryl sulphate: a controlled in vivo tandem irritation study.
PubMed: Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.
PubMed: A microflow chemiluminescence sensor for indirect determination of dibutyl phthalate by hydrolyzing based on biological recognition materials.
PubMed: Efficacy of a sanitizer and disinfectants to inactivate Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores.
PubMed: Selective determination of thiram residues in fruit and vegetables by hydrophilic interaction LC-MS.
PubMed: Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera L.) Seed Oil Poly(α-hydroxydibutylamine) Triglycerides: Synthesis and Characterization.
PubMed: Ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC²) method for the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented foods.
PubMed: Enhancement of the Enzymatic Digestibility and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by Moderate Temperature-Dilute Ammonia Treatment.
PubMed: A novel cation exchange polymer as a reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction sorbent for the rapid determination of rhodamine B residue in chili powder and chili oil.
PubMed: Polyhydroxybutyrate-coated magnetic nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery: cytotoxic effect against doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cell line.
PubMed: Synthesis and characterization of the core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe₃O₄@MIPs) adsorbents for effective extraction and determination of sulfonamides in the poultry feed.
PubMed: [Determination of 10 heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef jerky by high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed: [Extraction and quantification of polyphenols from coffee pulp].
PubMed: Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in a variety of aquacultured products by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection.
PubMed: Fast method of elements determination in slim coffees by ICP OES.
PubMed: Determination of total iodine in infant formula and nutritional products by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry: single-laboratory validation.
PubMed: Extraction and TLC separation of food, drug, and cosmetic dyes from tablet-coating formulations.
PubMed: Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS.
PubMed: Optimization of a reversed-phase-high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for the separation of isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin and pyrazinamide in fixed-dose combination antituberculosis tablets.
PubMed: Process for isolation of cardanol from technical cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid.
PubMed: The 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl group as a potential phosphate/thiophosphate protecting group in solid-phase oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthesis.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of thiamphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in eggs by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
PubMed: Structural and thermal characterization of wheat straw pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking.
PubMed: Identification and inhibitory properties of multifunctional peptides from pea protein hydrolysate.
PubMed: Digestibility of alkali-treated wheat straw measured in vitro or in vivo using Holstein heifers.
PubMed: Enhancement technology improves palatability of normal and callipyge lambs.
PubMed: Determination of phenylbutazone residues in bovine milk by liquid chromatography with UV detection.
PubMed: A novel method for the determination of synthetic colors in ice cream samples.
PubMed: Decontamination of fluid milk containing Bacillus spores using commercial household products.
PubMed: Simultaneous analysis of free and conjugated estrogens, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in runoff water and soils using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Separation of kafirins on surface porous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography columns.
PubMed: Screening method for the detection of artificial colours in saffron using derivative UV-Vis spectrometry after precipitation of crocetin.
PubMed: Synthesis of four carbon-13-labeled type a trichothecene mycotoxins and their application as internal standards in stable isotope dilution assays.
PubMed: A source of error in mutagen testing of foods.
PubMed: Effect of solvent type on the determination of total iodine in milk powder and human serum by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Field amplified sample injection-capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of acrylamide in foodstuffs.
PubMed: Effect of simulated spray chilling with chemical solutions on acid-habituated and non-acid-habituated Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells attached to beef carcass tissue.
PubMed: Advantages of using a modified orthogonal sampling configuration originally designed for LC-ESI-MS to couple CE and MS for the determination of antioxidant phenolic compounds found in virgin olive oil.
PubMed: The effect of nitrogen source on yield and glycosylation of a human cystatin C mutant expressed in Pichia pastoris.
PubMed: Determination of fluoroquinolones in aquaculture products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).
PubMed: Determination of florfenicol amine residues in animal edible tissues by an indirect competitive ELISA.
PubMed: Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of citrus limonoids.
PubMed: Sampling procedure and determination of lead in canned foods.
PubMed: Method modification for liquid chromatographic determination of thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine in medical foods.
PubMed: [Determination of mepiquat chloride in grape, wine and juice by liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry].
PubMed: Determination of iodine in seafood by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.
PubMed: [Microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in meat using mixed-mode, reverse-phase and cation-exchange cartridge].
PubMed: Structure of acid-stable carmine.
PubMed: [Silage of huizache (Acacia farnesiana, L. Willdt) as a potential resource in the feeding of goats].
PubMed: Determination of ochratoxin A in currants, raisins, sultanas, mixed dried fruit, and dried figs by immunoaffinity column cleanup with liquid chromatography: interlaboratory study.
PubMed: HPLC-UV method for nicotine, strychnine, and aconitine in dairy products.
PubMed: Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of visoltricin, acuminatopyrone and chlamydosporols in Fusarium cultures on maize.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic analysis of cinchona alkaloids in beverages.
PubMed: Biochemical studies of some non-conventional sources of proteins. Part 7. Effect of detoxification treatments on the nutritional quality of apricot kernels.
PubMed: Growth characteristics of a new methylomonad.
PubMed: [Determination of sodium iron (III) ethylenediaminetetraacetate in iron-fortified soy sauce by reversed-phase ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed: Preparation and characterization of films from pea protein.
PubMed: Isolation and purification of a hemorrhagic factor (wortmannin) from Fusarium oxysporum (N17B).
PubMed: [Photodensitometric determination of "PR-toxin", metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti (author's transl)].
PubMed: The fate of aflatoxin in naturally contaminated corn during the ethanol fermentation.
PubMed: Rapid fluorescence screening assay for tetracyclines in chicken muscle.
PubMed: Effects of high temperature and disinfectants on the viability of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts.
PubMed: Effect of source of supplemental nitrogen on the utilization of citrus pulp-based diets by sheep.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin K1 trans- and cis-isomers in infant formula.
PubMed: Concentrated cultures of Leuconostoc citrovorum.
PubMed: Novel method for isolation of major phenolic constituents from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid.
PubMed: Direct determination of urinary iodine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using isotope dilution with iodine-129.
PubMed: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of marine lipophilic toxins under alkaline conditions.
PubMed: Synthesis and antiviral activities of chiral thiourea derivatives containing an alpha-aminophosphonate moiety.
PubMed: Molecularly imprinted sol-gel nanoparticles for mass-sensitive engine oil degradation sensing.
PubMed: Rapid fluorescence screening assay for enrofloxacin and tetracyclines in chicken muscle.
PubMed: Determination of mesotrione residues and metabolites in crops, soil, and water by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
PubMed: Determination of gentamicin in bovine milk using liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection.
PubMed: Measurement of branched chain amino acids in blood plasma by high performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Preparation of concentrated lactic streptococcus starters.
PubMed: 3-(N-tert-butylcarboxamido)-1-propyl and 4-oxopentyl groups for phosphate/thiophosphate protection in oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthesis.
PubMed: Synthesis and antiviral activities of amide derivatives containing the alpha-aminophosphonate moiety.
PubMed: Pressurized liquid extraction-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for the analysis of polar antioxidants in rosemary extracts.
PubMed: Confirmation of azaperone and its metabolically reduced form, azaperol, in swine liver by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic determination of abamectin in fruits and vegetables.
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