EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

ammonium hydroxide
ammonia aqueous

Supplier Sponsors

Name:azanium hydroxide
CAS Number: 1336-21-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:215-647-6
Beilstein Number:3587154
Molecular Weight:35.04605000
Formula:H5 N O
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:acidity regulators
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
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Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1139 Ammonium hydroxide View-review
EU SANCO Ammonium hydroxide View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Ammonia Solution
GSFA Codex: Ammonium hydroxide (527)
DG SANTE Food Additives:ammonium hydroxide
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:ammonium hydroxide
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products
Sec. 163.110 Cacao nibs.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products
Sec. 163.111 Chocolate liquor.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products
Sec. 163.112 Breakfast cocoa.

Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1139 Ammonium hydroxide.

Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.85 Caramel.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless clear liquid (est)
Assay: 10.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:0.90000 @ 25.00 °C.
Boiling Point: 165.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:5990.000000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Description:ammoniacal
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
American Elements
Ammonium Hydroxide Solution 99%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Ammonium Hydroxide Solution is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. Hydroxide, the OH- anion composed of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, is commonly present in nature and is one of the most widely studied molecules in physical chemistry. Hydroxide compounds have diverse properties and uses, from base catalysis to detection of carbon dioxide. In a watershed 2013 experiment, scientists at JILA (the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics) achieved evaporative cooling of compounds for the first time using hydroxide molecules, a discovery that may lead to new methods of controlling chemical reactions and could impact a range of disciplines, including atmospheric science and energy production technologies. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards.
ECSA Chemicals
Ammonium Hydroxide
Company Profile
Penta International
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Ammonium hydroxide solution Approximately 28-30% NH3
For experimental / research use only.
Ammonium hydroxide solution 28% NH3 in H2O, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Odor: characteristic
Use: Used in hair dyes and colors, Ammonia helps prepare the hair so that the dye can diffuse into the hair shaft.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Wedor Corporation
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 350 mg/kg
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.

intravenous-mouse LD50 91 mg/kg
Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 37, Pg. 497, 1958.

oral-cat LDLo 750 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

parenteral-frog LDLo 2500 mg/kg
"Structure et Activite Pharmacodyanmique des Medicaments du Systeme Nerveux Vegetatif," Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948Vol. -, Pg. 688, 1948.

oral-human LDLo 43 mg/kg
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 95, 1969.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo 10 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 200 mg/kg
Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948Vol. -, Pg. 688, 1948.

subcutaneous-mouse LDLo 160 mg/kg
"Structure et Activite Pharmacodyanmique des Medicaments du Systeme Nerveux Vegetatif," Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948Vol. -, Pg. 688, 1948.

subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 200 mg/kg
"Structure et Activite Pharmacodyanmique des Medicaments du Systeme Nerveux Vegetatif," Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948Vol. -, Pg. 688, 1948.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-human LC50 408 ppm
Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society. Vol. 61, Pg. 271, 1971.

inhalation-human LCLo 5000 ppm
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 95, 1969.

inhalation-human TCLo 408 ppm
Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society. Vol. 61, Pg. 271, 1971.

Safety in Use Information:
Category: acidity regulators
Recommendation for ammonium hydroxide usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for ammonium hydroxide flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):1336-21-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :14923
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
azanium hydroxide
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
 azanium hydroxide
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:1336-21-6
Pubchem (cid):14923
Pubchem (sid):134979482
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C01358
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB34832
Export Tariff Code:2814.20.0000
Household Products:Search
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
•ammonia is commonly encountered as aqueous solutions of 28 percent (aquammonia), called ammonium hydroxide and 10 percent, called household ammonia. •strong ammonia soln (usp) is 27 to 30% (wtvol) nh3. •grades: technical; chemically pure; 16%; 20%; 26%; nf (strong); food chemical codex •aqueous soln of ammonia is often referred to & labeled as a soln of ammonium hydroxide although there is little ammonium hydroxide present. in commerce, ammonia is avail in form of aqueous soln of varying concn, or as anhydrous ammonia furnished in liquefied form ammonia in household use contains 10% ammonia & is known as 16 deg ammonia (referring to density in degrees baume, a concn term). ammonia
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 buffering agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 ammonia aqueous
 ammonia aqueous solution
 ammonia, monohydrate
 aqueous ammonia
 azanium hydroxide


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PubMed:Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 1: Fluid loss, oxidation, color, and microbial plate counts.
PubMed:Effects of salt and ammonium hydroxide on the quality of ground buffalo meat.
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PubMed:Enhancement of beef chuck and loin muscles with ammonium hydroxide and salt.
PubMed:Effects of aging on beef chuck and loin muscles enhanced with ammonium hydroxide and salt.
PubMed:Effects of dark storage and retail display on beef chuck and round muscles enhanced with ammonium hydroxide, salt, and carbon monoxide.
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Used in food processing as a leavening agent, pH control agent, surface-finishing agent, and boiler water additive
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