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3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid
homogentisic acid

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 102-32-9Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-024-1
Nikkaji Web:J804D
Beilstein Number:2211017
XlogP3:0.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:168.14856000
Formula:C8 H8 O4
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:natural substances and extractives
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 128.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 418.40 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 430.00 °F. TCC ( 221.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 0.980
Soluble in:
 water, 8.623e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid 98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid is a phenol isolated from Arbutus unedo. It has antioxidant activity and exhibits both superoxid
For experimental / research use only.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid 98%
For experimental / research use only.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid >97.0%(T)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
natural substances and extractives
Recommendation for 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :547
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid
RTECS:AH0590000 for cas# 102-32-9
 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):547
Pubchem (sid):134971483
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C01161
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01336
Export Tariff Code:2918.29.7500
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 beet root
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 bilberry leaf
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 eucalyptus globulus
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 lupine white lupine sprout
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 raspberry red raspberry plant
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 tamarind seed
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 acetic acid, (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-
 benzeneacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy- (9CI)
homoprotocatechuic acid
3,4-dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid
 dopacetic acid
homogentisic acid


PubMed:Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults.
PubMed:In vitro catabolism of quercetin by human fecal bacteria and the antioxidant capacity of its catabolites.
PubMed:Microbial phenolic metabolites improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protect pancreatic beta cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced toxicity via ERKs and PKC pathways.
PubMed:Oral administration of melatonin counteracts several of the effects of chronic stress in rainbow trout.
PubMed:Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy.
PubMed:Peripheral chemerin administration modulates hypothalamic control of feeding.
PubMed:Dietary manipulation of serotonergic and dopaminergic function in C57BL/6J mice with amino acid depletion mixtures.
PubMed:Ginsenoside rb1 modulates level of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice frontal cortex and cerebellum in response to immobilization stress.
PubMed:Epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylase: therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease?
PubMed:Phenolic acid concentrations in plasma and urine from men consuming green or black tea and potential chemopreventive properties for colon cancer.
PubMed:Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract affects immobilization stress-induced changes in murine cerebral monoamine metabolism.
PubMed:In vitro fermentation of a red wine extract by human gut microbiota: changes in microbial groups and formation of phenolic metabolites.
PubMed:Prooxidant properties of ascorbic acid in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of C57BL/6 mice.
PubMed:Digestive stability of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosyl acetate and alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers.
PubMed:Effect of the edible mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii on transient global ischemia-induced monoamine metabolism changes in rat cerebral cortex.
PubMed:Enhanced neurodegeneration after a high dose of methamphetamine in adenosine A3 receptor null mutant mice.
PubMed:High tryptophan diet reduces extracellular dopamine release via kynurenic acid production in rat striatum.
PubMed:Nasal instillation of nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust particles slightly affects emotional behavior and learning capability in rats.
PubMed:Effects of 18-methoxycoronaridine on ghrelin-induced increases in sucrose intake and accumbal dopamine overflow in female rats.
PubMed:β-cyclodextrin and caffeine complexes with natural polyphenols from olive and olive oils: NMR, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies.
PubMed:Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection from carnosine in the striatum of MPTP-treated mice.
PubMed:The novel pyrrolidine nor-lobelane analog UKCP-110 [cis-2,5-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride] inhibits VMAT2 function, methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release, and methamphetamine self-administration in rats.
PubMed:Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers alter striatal dopamine neurochemistry in synaptosomes from developing rats in an additive manner.
PubMed:The phenolic acids from bacterial degradation of the mangiferin aglycone are quantified in the feces of pigs after oral ingestion of an extract of Cyclopia genistoides (honeybush tea).
PubMed:The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid catabolon, a catabolic unit for degradation of biogenic amines tyramine and dopamine in Pseudomonas putida U.
PubMed:Restricting dopaminergic signaling to either dorsolateral or medial striatum facilitates cognition.
PubMed:Proanthocyanidin metabolites associated with dietary fibre from in vitro colonic fermentation and proanthocyanidin metabolites in human plasma.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry.
PubMed:Anodic oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid on carbon electrodes in acetic acid solutions.
PubMed:Opioids in the hypothalamus control dopamine and acetylcholine levels in the nucleus accumbens.
PubMed:Expression changes of dopaminergic system-related genes in PC12 cells induced by manganese, silver, or copper nanoparticles.
PubMed:Mithramycin protects against dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the mouse brain after administration of methamphetamine.
PubMed:Catechol type polyphenol is a potential modifier of protein sulfhydryls: development and application of a new probe for understanding the dietary polyphenol actions.
PubMed:Acrylamide decreased dopamine levels and increased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels in PC 12 cells.
PubMed:Chronic treatment with monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors decreases cocaine reward in mice.
PubMed:Conversion of dehydrodiferulic acids by human intestinal microbiota.
PubMed:Hormones that increase maternal responsiveness affect accumbal dopaminergic responses to pup- and food-stimuli in the female rat.
PubMed:Procyanidin dimers are metabolized by human microbiota with 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid and 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone as the major metabolites.
PubMed:Dopamine and serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens during starvation-induced hyperactivity.
PubMed:Bioavailability of [2-(14)C]quercetin-4'-glucoside in rats.
PubMed:The effects of in utero exposure to a migrant, 4,4'-butylidenebis(6-t-butyl-m-cresol), from nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves on monoamine neurotransmitter in rats.
PubMed:Asymmetry in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and motor preference in rats.
PubMed:Detoxification of phytotoxic compounds by TiO2 photocatalysis in a recycling hydroponic cultivation system of asparagus.
PubMed:The vermicelli handling test: a simple quantitative measure of dexterous forepaw function in rats.
PubMed:The antidepressant effect of Gastrodia elata Bl. on the forced-swimming test in rats.
PubMed:Deconjugation and degradation of flavonol glycosides by pig cecal microbiota characterized by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
PubMed:Bioconversion of tyrosol into hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid under hypersaline conditions by the new Halomonas sp. strain HTB24.
PubMed:Evaluation of the influence of thermal oxidation on the phenolic composition and on the antioxidant activity of extra-virgin olive oils.
PubMed:The cannabinoid antagonist SR 141716A (Rimonabant) reduces the increase of extra-cellular dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens induced by a novel high palatable food.
PubMed:Ferric-reducing ability power of selected plant polyphenols and their metabolites: implications for clinical studies on the antioxidant effects of fruits and vegetable consumption.
PubMed:Weakening of salmonella with selected microbial metabolites of berry-derived phenolic compounds and organic acids.
PubMed:Structure-DPPH* scavenging activity relationships: parallel study of catechol and guaiacol acid derivatives.
PubMed:Subacute administration of tributyltin chloride modulates neurotransmitters and their metabolites in discrete brain regions of maternal mice and their F1 offspring.
PubMed:Further validation of the corridor task for assessing deficit and recovery in the hemi-Parkinsonian rat: restoration of bilateral food retrieval by dopamine receptor agonism.
PubMed:Physiological and behavioral responses to interleukin-1beta and LPS in vagotomized mice.
PubMed:Four weeks of oral isotretinoin treatment causes few signs of general toxicity in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:MPTP treatment in mice does not transmit and cause Parkinsonian neurotoxicity in non-treated cagemates through close contact.
PubMed:Behavioural and neurochemical effects induced by chronic mild stress applied to two different rat strains.
PubMed:Characterization of a tomato polyphenol oxidase and its role in browning and lycopene content.
PubMed:Transepithelial transport of microbial metabolites of quercetin in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.
PubMed:Selective alterations of gene expression in mice induced by MPTP.
PubMed:The pig caecum model: a suitable tool to study the intestinal metabolism of flavonoids.
PubMed:Effects of short-term early gestational exposure to endophyte-infected tall fescue diets on plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid and fetal development in mares.
PubMed:Peripherally administered growth hormone increases brain dopaminergic activity and swimming in rainbow trout.
PubMed:Maternal exposure to diphenhydramine during the fetal period in rats: effects on physical and neurobehavioral development and on neurochemical parameters.
PubMed:Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of starter pigs and broiler chickens.
PubMed:An animal model of antipsychotic-induced weight gain.
PubMed:Effect of U and 137Cs chronic contamination on dopamine and serotonin metabolism in the central nervous system of the rat.
PubMed:Pivotal roles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and the melanocortin 4 receptor in leptin stimulation of prolactin secretion in rats.
PubMed:Fixed ratio discrimination training increases in vivo striatal dopamine in neonatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.
PubMed:Aroclor 1254-induced cytotoxicity in catecholaminergic CATH.a cells related to the inhibition of NO production.
PubMed:Quercetin derivatives are deconjugated and converted to hydroxyphenylacetic acids but not methylated by human fecal flora in vitro.
PubMed:Tyrosine improves appetite, cognition, and exercise tolerance in activity anorexia.
PubMed:Bioactive aromatic compounds from leaves and stems of Vanilla fragrans.
PubMed:Evaluation of plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) as tumor markers in children with neuroblastoma.
PubMed:Development of obesity and neurochemical backing in aurothioglucose-treated mice.
PubMed:Food restriction-like effects of dietary dehydroepiandrosterone. Hypothalamic neurotransmitters and metabolites in male C57BL/6 and (C57BL/6 x DBA/2)F1 mice.
PubMed:Effects of long-term infusion of anorexic concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in rat brain.
PubMed:Effects of chronic administration of sibutramine on body weight, food intake and motor activity in neonatally monosodium glutamate-treated obese female rats: relationship of antiobesity effect with monoamines.
PubMed:Prevention of dopaminergic neurotoxicity by targeting nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: implications for the prevention of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxic damage.
PubMed:DOPA, dopamine, and DOPAC concentrations in the rat gastrointestinal tract decrease during fasting.
PubMed:Diverse, region-specific effects of addition of arachidonic and docosahexanoic acids to formula with low or adequate linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids on piglet brain monoaminergic neurotransmitters.
PubMed:A novel neurotensin peptide analog given extracranially decreases food intake and weight in rodents.
PubMed:Influence of food restriction on dopamine receptor densities, catecholamine concentrations and dopamine turnover in chicken brain.
PubMed:A highly convenient synthesis of hydroxytyrosol and its recovery from agricultural waste waters.
PubMed:Polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury act synergistically to reduce rat brain dopamine content in vitro.
PubMed:Infusion of nicotine into the LHA enhances dopamine and 5-HT release and suppresses food intake.
PubMed:Essential amino acids affect interstitial dopamine metabolites in the anterior piriform cortex of rats.
PubMed:Methamphetamine generates peroxynitrite and produces dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice: protective effects of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst.
PubMed:Functional relationship between age-related immunodeficiency and learning deterioration.
PubMed:Combined effect of obesity and aging on feeding-induced monoamine release in the rostromedial hypothalamus of the Zucker rat.
PubMed:Neurotoxic effects of +/-fenfluramine and phenteramine, alone and in combination, on monoamine neurons in the mouse brain.
PubMed:Effects of the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 toxin on neurotransmitters and metabolites in discrete areas of the rat brain.
PubMed:In vivo effects of the kavapyrones (+)-dihydromethysticin and (+/-)-kavain on dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in striatal and cortical brain regions.
PubMed:Neurochemical effects of consumption of Great Lakes salmon by rats.
PubMed:Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus is related to the development of cancer-induced anorexia: in vivo microdialysis study.
PubMed:Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats.
PubMed:Determination of serotonin, catecholamines and their metabolites by direct injection of supernatants from chicken brain tissue homogenate using liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.
PubMed:Voluntary alcohol drinking selectively accelerates dopamine release in the ventral striatum as reflected by 3-methoxytyramine levels.
PubMed:Effect of restraint stress on food intake and body weight is determined by time of day.
PubMed:Bromocriptine enhances feeding behavior without changing dopamine metabolism.
PubMed:Feeding-related dopamine in the amygdala of freely moving rats.
PubMed:Effects of ordinary meals on plasma concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine sulphate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid.
PubMed:Single low dose of MPTP decreases extracellular levels of noradrenaline and monoamine metabolites in the ventrobasal thalamus of the rats.
PubMed:A murine model of prenatal cocaine exposure: effects on the mother and the fetus.
PubMed:Alterations in electroencephalographic signals and monoamine concentrations in the rat brain following cocaine and methamphetamine treatment.
PubMed:Influence of the amount of food ingested on mesolimbic dopaminergic system activity: a microdialysis study.
PubMed:Role of dopamine in the secretory function of corpus luteum in cattle.
PubMed:Effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and [D-Trp32]NPY on monoamine and metabolite levels in dialysates from rat hypothalamus during feeding behavior.
PubMed:Lesioning of midbrain raphe nuclei with 5,7-DHT fails to alter ethanol intake in the low alcohol drinking (LAD) rat.
PubMed:Mesolimbic dopaminergic system activity as a function of food reward: a microdialysis study.
PubMed:Hypothalamic monoamines and insulin in relation to feeding in the genetically obese Zucker rat as revealed by microdialysis.
PubMed:Behavioral and neurochemical changes in folate-deficient mice.
PubMed:Selective destruction of midbrain raphe nuclei by 5,7-DHT: is brain 5-HT involved in alcohol drinking in Sprague-Dawley rats?
PubMed:Determination of the role of the 5-ht6 receptor in the rat brain: a study using antisense oligonucleotides.
PubMed:Toxicity of PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and PCB 118 (2,3',4,4'5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in the rat following subchronic dietary exposure.
PubMed:Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on haloperidol-induced increases in prolactin release and dopamine turnover in weanling, periadolescent, and adult offspring.
PubMed:Complex deficits on reaction time performance following bilateral intrastriatal 6-OHDA infusion in the rat.
PubMed:D2 receptors in the ventrolateral striatum are involved in feeding behavior in rats.
PubMed:Characteristics of BDNF-induced weight loss.
PubMed:Schedule-induced polydipsia increased both mesotelencephalic-dopaminergic and pontine-noradrenergic activities in the rat brain.
PubMed:Metoprine, an inhibitor of histamine N-methyltransferase but not catechol-O-methyltransferase, suppresses feeding in sated and in food deprived rats.
PubMed:Neurochemical effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY2-36.
PubMed:Improving effects of DX-9386, a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, on thymectomy-induced impairment of learning behaviors in mice.
PubMed:Nucleus accumbens dopamine release increases during instrumental lever pressing for food but not free food consumption.
PubMed:An appetitively conditioned taste elicits a preferential increase in mesolimbic dopamine release.
PubMed:Influence of glutamate on the content and metabolism of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system of rats distinguished by capacity for learning.
PubMed:Effects of d-fenfluramine on feeding and hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine in male and female rats.
PubMed:Increase in dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens in response to feeding: a model to study interactions between drugs and naturally activated dopaminergic neurons in the rat brain.
PubMed:Prenatal ethanol effects and dopamine systems of adult C57 male mice.
PubMed:Glucagon injected in the lateral hypothalamus stimulates sympathetic activity and suppresses monoamine metabolism.
PubMed:The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in responding on a continuous reinforcement operant schedule: a neurochemical and behavioral study.
PubMed:Increased extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the rat elicited by a conditional stimulus for food: an electrochemical study.
PubMed:Copulation increases dopamine activity in the medial preoptic area of male rats.
PubMed:Scheduled feeding caused activation of dopamine metabolism in the striatum of rats.
PubMed:Differential effects of mesocortical, mesolimbic, and mesostriatal dopamine depletion on spontaneous, conditioned, and drug-induced locomotor activity.
PubMed:Involvement of nucleus accumbens dopamine in the motor activity induced by periodic food presentation: a microdialysis and behavioral study.
PubMed:Striatal dopamine metabolism is differentially affected by insulin according to the genotype in Zucker rats: a microdialysis study.
PubMed:Dopaminergic regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release at the median eminence level: immunocytochemical and physiological evidence in hens.
PubMed:Influence of feeding paradigm in rats on temporal pattern of: II. Brain serotoninergic and catecholaminergic systems.
PubMed:The functional significance of biochemical alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
PubMed:Neurochemical changes correlated with behavior maintained under fixed-interval and fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement.
PubMed:Failure to detect increases in brain dopamine metabolism in rats sham feeding sucrose and corn oil.
PubMed:Reduction of enzymatic activity of tyrosine hydroxylase by a heterocyclic amine, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole (Trp-P-1), was due to reduced affinity to a cofactor biopterin.
PubMed:Regional effects of ceruletide, a cholecystokinin-8 analog, on the striatal monoaminergic systems in food-deprived mice.
PubMed:Sucrose feeding at weaning alters the preference for sucrose in adolescence.
PubMed:Effects of insulin on brain monoamine metabolism in the Zucker rat: influence of genotype and age.
PubMed:Feeding can enhance dopamine turnover in the prefrontal cortex.
PubMed:Medial basal hypothalamic monoamine activity associated with intracerebroventricular p-chlorophenylalanine-induced hyperphagia.
PubMed:Effects of insulin on hypothalamic monoamine metabolism.
PubMed:Opposite dopaminergic activity in lateral and median hypothalamic nuclei in relation to the feeding effect of D-Ser2-Leu-Enk-Thr6 (DSLET).
PubMed:Altered responses to environmental stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
PubMed:Hypothalamic monoamines and their metabolites in the deermouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, during daily torpor.
PubMed:Excitotoxic lesions of the lateral hypothalamus made by N-methyl-d-aspartate in the rat: behavioural, histological and biochemical analyses.
PubMed:Feeding-associated alterations in striatal neurotransmitter release.
PubMed:Effects of combined lead and cadmium exposure: changes in schedule-controlled responding and in dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites.
PubMed:Monoaminergic activity at the level of the hypothalamus and striatum: relationship to anticipated feeding and pancreatic insulin responses.
PubMed:Acute and chronic effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on schedule-controlled responding and neurochemistry of pigeons.
PubMed:Modulation by corticotropin-releasing factor of monoamine metabolism in the lateral hypothalamus.
PubMed:Analysis of serotonin, dopamine and their metabolites in the caudate putamen, the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the median raphe nucleus of euthermic and torpid deermice, Peromyscus maniculatus.
PubMed:Action of peripherally administered cholecystokinin on monoaminergic and GABAergic neurons in the rat brain.
PubMed:Influence of inherent directional biases on neurochemical consequences of conditioned circling.
PubMed:Effects of neuropeptide Y on norepinephrine and serotonin metabolism in rat hypothalamus in vivo.
PubMed:Behavioral activation in rats increases striatal dopamine metabolism measured by dialysis perfusion.
PubMed:Dopamine and preparatory behavior: II. A neurochemical analysis.
PubMed:Feeding or exposure to food odors increases extracellular DOPAC levels (as measured by in vivo voltammetry) in the prefrontal cortex of food-deprived rats.
PubMed:Microdialysis studies of psychostimulants.
PubMed:Effects of heterocyclic amines in food on dopamine metabolism in nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons.
PubMed:Clinical pharmacokinetics of ibopamine on different diseases and conditions.
PubMed:Behavioral studies with anxiolytic drugs. V. Behavioral and in vivo neurochemical analyses in pigeons of drugs that increase punished responding.
PubMed:Food deprivation alters dopamine utilization in the rat prefrontal cortex and asymmetrically alters amphetamine-induced rotational behavior.
PubMed:Scheduled eating increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of food-deprived rats as assessed with on-line brain dialysis.
PubMed:Effects of endophyte-infected fescue on concentrations of prolactin in blood sera and the anterior pituitary and concentrations of dopamine and dopamine metabolites in brains of steers.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of the major acidic metabolites of catecholamines and serotonin in urine by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection after a one-step sample clean-up on Sephadex G-10; influence of vanilla and banana ingestion.
PubMed:Radial-arm maze deficits produced by colchicine administered into the area of the nucleus basalis are ameliorated by cholinergic agents.
PubMed:Food reward and cocaine increase extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens as measured by microdialysis.
PubMed:Relationships between mesolimbic dopamine function and eating behavior.
PubMed:Monoamine metabolism and its responses to food deprivation in the brain of Zucker rats.
PubMed:The role of dopamine in intracranial self-stimulation of the ventral tegmental area.
PubMed:[Changes in CNS catecholamine levels in tolerance to morphine-induced central excitation in mice].
PubMed:Amphetamine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine affect the exercise-induced imbalance between the availability of tryptophan and synthesis of serotonin in the brain of the rat.
PubMed:Neurotransmitter alterations associated with feeding and satiety.
PubMed:Sham feeding of sucrose increases the ratio of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to dopamine in the hypothalamus.
PubMed:Effects of perinatal vitamin B6 deficiency on dopaminergic neurochemistry.
PubMed:Selective enhancement of dopamine utilization in the rat prefrontal cortex by food deprivation.
PubMed:Increased dopamine metabolism in the nucleus accumbens and striatum following consumption of a nutritive meal but not a palatable non-nutritive saccharin solution.
PubMed:Striatal dopamine activity and unilateral barpressing in rats.
PubMed:Selective involvement of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens in the feeding response elicited by muscimol injection in the nucleus raphe dorsalis of sated rats.
PubMed:Hypothalamic catecholamine metabolism in diabetic rats: the effect of insulin deficiency and meal ingestion.
PubMed:Food-related stimuli increase the ratio of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to dopamine in the hypothalamus.
PubMed:Studies on brain monoamine neurotransmitters in mice after prenatal exposure to barbiturate.
PubMed:Adaptation of rats to diets containing different levels of protein: effects on food intake, plasma and brain amino acid concentrations and brain neurotransmitter metabolism.
PubMed:Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric methodology for simultaneous assay of salsolinol, dopamine, norepinephrine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylethanol.
PubMed:Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and gas chromatography-mass fragmentography for the assay of salsolinol, dopamine and dopamine metabolites in food and beverage samples.
PubMed:A comparative study of the effects of prostaglandins and d-amphetamine on the metabolism of 3H-dopamine continuously presented to rat brain in vivo.
PubMed:Intracerebroventricular apomorphine alleviates spontaneous forgetting and increases cortical noradrenaline.
PubMed:Time-dependent changes in hypothalamic dopamine metabolism during feeding in the rat.
PubMed:L-tryptophan injection fails to alter nutrient selection by rats.
PubMed:Activity-wheel stress: effects on brain monoamines and the pituitary-gonadal axis.
PubMed:Effect of L-tryptophan pretreatment on d-amphetamine self administration.
PubMed:Tyrosine administration enhances dopamine synthesis and release in light-activated rat retina.
PubMed:Metabolism of 3H-dopamine continuously perfused through push-pull cannulas in rats' brains: modification by amphetamine or prostaglandin F2 alpha.
PubMed:Feeding increases dopamine metabolism in the rat brain.
PubMed:Dietary induced changes in catecholamine metabolites in rat urine.
a deaminated metabolite of levodopa. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine. (Wikipedia) An intermediate of the metabolic breakdown of tyrosine and phenylalanine; it occurs in the urine in cases of alkaptonuria. (OMIN 203500) Homogentisic acid is the primary precursor of melanin synthesis in Vibrio cholerae. [HMDB]
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