EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid gamma-lactone

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 497-23-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:207-839-3
Nikkaji Web:J82.323F
Beilstein Number:0383585
XlogP3:-0.60 (est)
Molecular Weight:84.07428000
Formula:C4 H4 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category: flavoring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:2000 4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid gamma-lactone
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:10.066 furan-2(5H)-one
FEMA Number:4138 4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid gamma-lactone
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale brown yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:1.18200 to 1.18800 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 9.835 to 9.885
Refractive Index:1.46600 to 1.47200 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 4.00 to 5.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 86.00 to 87.00 °C. @ 12.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 214.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.273000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 214.00 °F. TCC ( 101.11 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.600
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:refrigerate in tightly sealed containers.
Soluble in:
 water, 4.178e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: buttery
Odor Description:buttery
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
Beijing Lys Chemicals
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
2(5H)-Furanone 96%
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
2(5H)-Furanone 98%
Soda Aromatic
For experimental / research use only.
gamma-Crotonolactone >93.0%(GC)
Tengzhou Xiang Yuan Aroma Chemicals
Tianjin Danjun International
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavoring agents
Recommendation for 2(5H)-furanone usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.01 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 22
Click here to view publication 22
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): 3.500005.00000
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 3.800005.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 3.8700014.99000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 1.000002.38000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 1.00000150.50000
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): 0.550000.90000
Confectionery (05.0): 7.6400021.05000
Chewing gum (05.3): --
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 5.3300014.99000
Bakery wares (07.0): 4.0800015.06000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 0.008002.13000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 1.200005.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): --
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 1.900005.41000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 0.081003.10000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 0.050000.27000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): --
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

List of apha, beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones representative of FGE.19 substances for Genotoxicity Testing [1] - Statement of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 217: alpha,beta-Unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.1 of FGE.19: Lactones[1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 217, Revision 1 (FGE.217Rev1). Consideration of genotoxic potential for a,-unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.1 of FGE.19: Lactones
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 217 Revision 2 (FGE.217Rev2), consideration of genotoxic potential for a,-unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.1 of FGE.19: lactones
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :10341
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
RTECS:LU3453000 for cas# 497-23-4
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):10341
Pubchem (sid):134977583
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C17601
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB32330
Export Tariff Code:2932.29.5050
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
EFSA Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Previous report: Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food:Read Report
EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food:Read Report
FAO:4-Hydroxy-2-butenoic acid gamma-lactone
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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2-butenoic acid gamma-lactone
 furan-2(5H)-one; 2-Buten-1,4-olide
4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid gamma-lactone
4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid lactone
4-hydroxycrotonic acid gamma-lactone
gamma-hydroxycrotonic acid lactone
inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats. Used as a food additive [EAFUS]
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