EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

ethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-

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CAS Number: 811-97-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:212-377-0
Nikkaji Web:J7.107B
XlogP3-AA:1.70 (est)
Molecular Weight:102.03155280
Formula:C2 H2 F4
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:extraction solvents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 82 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) View - notice PDF
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless gas (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: -39.80 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:4990.000000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point:-120.00 °F. TCC ( -84.40 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 0.770 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 767.8 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: propellants
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane CP2005/EP5
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane ≥99%
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-dog LC > 32 pph/1H
Human & Experimental Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 715, 1995.

inhalation-mouse LC50 1700000 mg/m3/2H
Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. Vol. (3), Pg. 25, 1996.

inhalation-rat LC50 1500000 mg/m3/4H
Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. Vol. (3), Pg. 25, 1996.

Safety in Use Information:
extraction solvents
Recommendation for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):811-97-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :13129
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:811-97-2
Pubchem (cid):13129
Pubchem (sid):134976996
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):D05208
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Export Tariff Code:2903.30.2010
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 ethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-
 freon 134a
 HC 134a
 HCFC 134a
 HFC 134a
 hydrofluorocarbon 134A
 refrigerant 134a
 refrigerant R 134a
 refrigerant R134a


PubMed:Quantification of Aerosol Hydrofluoroalkane HFA-134a Elimination in the Exhaled Human Breath Following Inhaled Corticosteroids Administration.
PubMed:Thermochemical Properties Enthalpy, Entropy, and Heat Capacity of C1-C4 Fluorinated Hydrocarbons: Fluorocarbon Group Additivity.
PubMed:Does acetaminophen/hydrocodone affect cold pulpal testing in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
PubMed:Environmental fate of the next generation refrigerant 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf).
PubMed:Factors influencing aerodynamic particle size distribution of suspension pressurized metered dose inhalers.
PubMed:Palatal anesthesia: comparison of four techniques for decreasing injection discomfort.
PubMed:Skin sterility after application of a vapocoolant spray.
PubMed:Hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients as a function of temperature and IR absorption cross sections for CF3CH=CH2 (HFO-1243zf), potential replacement of CF3CH2F (HFC-134a).
PubMed:R-134a (1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane) Inhalation Induced Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome.
PubMed:Orofacial and digital frostbite caused by inhalant abuse.
PubMed:Airborne trifluoroacetic acid and its fraction from the degradation of HFC-134a in Beijing, China.
PubMed:Evaluation of dental pulp sensibility tests in a clinical setting.
PubMed:Pyrolysis of wood to biochar: increasing yield while maintaining microporosity.
PubMed:Blood and exhaled air can be used for biomonitoring of hydrofluorocarbon exposure.
PubMed:Estimated emissions of chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and hydrofluorocarbons based on an interspecies correlation method in the Pearl River Delta region, China.
PubMed:Identification of volatiles by headspace gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.
PubMed:Predictive values of thermal and electrical dental pulp tests: a clinical study.
PubMed:Cryosurgery by tetrafluoroethane: An answer to black gums.
PubMed:Performance of an electrothermal swing adsorption system with postdesorption liquefaction for organic gas capture and recovery.
PubMed:Optimization of subcritical fluid extraction of carotenoids and chlorophyll a from Laminaria japonica Aresch by response surface methodology.
PubMed:Development of a subcritical fluid extraction and GC-MS validation method for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine samples.
PubMed:Cryotherapeutic topical analgesics for pediatric intravenous catheter placement: ice versus vapocoolant spray.
PubMed:Cosuspensions of microcrystals and engineered microparticles for uniform and efficient delivery of respiratory therapeutics from pressurized metered dose inhalers.
PubMed:Optimisation for subcritical fluid extraction of 17-methyltestosterone with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane for HPLC analysis.
PubMed:Fast and simple extraction of pesticide residues in selected fruits and vegetables using tetrafluoroethane and toluene followed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Development and validation of a subcritical fluid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography assay for medroxyprogesterone in aquatic products.
PubMed:Future emissions and atmospheric fate of HFC-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in Europe.
PubMed:Reverse aqueous microemulsions in hydrofluoroalkane propellants and their aerosol characteristics.
PubMed:Synthetic utilization of 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane.
PubMed:Effect of topical vapocoolant spray on response to arthrocentesis and intravenous catheterization in unsedated horses.
PubMed:Stratum corneum permeation and percutaneous drug delivery of hydrophilic molecules enhanced by cryopneumatic and photopneumatic technologies.
PubMed:A randomized controlled trial of analgesia during vaccination in adults.
PubMed:Effect of repeated refrigerant spray applications using various carriers on pulpal temperature change.
PubMed:Supercritical fluid extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from house dust with supercritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a).
PubMed:Estimated 2017 refrigerant emissions of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States resulting from automobile air conditioning.
PubMed:Efficacy of lamellar resection, cryotherapy, and adjunctive grafting for the treatment of canine limbal melanoma.
PubMed:Reproductive and developmental toxicity of hydrofluorocarbons used as refrigerants.
PubMed:Liquid-air partition coefficients of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC152a), 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC143a), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a), 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane (HFC125) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC245fa).
PubMed:The validity of pulp testing: a clinical study.
PubMed:A comparison of a refrigerant and a topical anesthetic gel as preinjection anesthetics: a clinical evaluation.
PubMed:All-atom force field for the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria and interfacial properties of HFA134a.
PubMed:Solvent-solute interactions in hydrofluoroalkane propellants.
PubMed:Decomposition of hydrofluorocarbons in a dielectric-packed plasma reactor.
PubMed:[Pleural talcage and peroperative detection of a second halogen gas: careful to 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane].
PubMed:Determination of reference ultrasound parameters for model and hydrofluoroalkane propellants using high-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy.
PubMed:One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.
PubMed:Stability and activity of lipase in subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a).
PubMed:Extrinsic allergic alveolitis with eosinophil infiltration induced by 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a): a case report.
PubMed:Use of the cold test as a measure of pulpal anesthesia during endodontic therapy: a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
PubMed:Cryosurgical treatment of gingival melanin pigmentation with tetrafluoroethane.
PubMed:Toxicokinetics of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) in male volunteers after experimental exposure.
PubMed:Microscopic and thermodynamic properties of the HFA134a-water interface: atomistic computer simulations and tensiometry under pressure.
PubMed:Surfactant design for the 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane-water interface: ab initio calculations and in situ high-pressure tensiometry.
PubMed:Comparative study of cryogen spray cooling with R-134a and R-404a: implications for laser treatment of dark human skin.
PubMed:Application of the cell potential method to predict phase equilibria of multicomponent gas hydrate systems.
PubMed:CH-stretching overtone spectroscopy of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane.
PubMed:Survey of volatile organic compounds found in indoor and outdoor air samples from Japan.
PubMed:An overview of environmental hazards and exposure risk of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
PubMed:A new method for separating HFC-134a from gas mixtures using clathrate hydrate formation.
PubMed:Cold testing through full-coverage restorations.
PubMed:[Corticoid dose aerosol without FCKW. New technology assures optimal particle size].
PubMed:An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization study of the positive and negative ion chemistry of the hydrofluorocarbons 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and of perfluoro-n-hexane (FC-72) in air plasma at atmospheric pressure.
PubMed:Medical aerosol propellant interference with infrared anaesthetic gas monitors.
PubMed:On-line high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyte quantitation from pressurized metered dose inhalers.
PubMed:Application of magnetic resonance imaging to the investigation of the diffusivity of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluorethane in two polymers.
PubMed:Effect of spurt duration on the heat transfer dynamics during cryogen spray cooling.
PubMed:Experimental study of cryogen spray properties for application in dermatologic laser surgery.
PubMed:A glass capillary cell for in situ powder X-ray diffraction of condensed volatile compounds. Solid HCFC-123a and HCFC-124.
PubMed:Methodology for characterizing heat removal mechanism in human skin during cryogen spray cooling.
PubMed:Effects of mass flow rate and droplet velocity on surface heat flux during cryogen spray cooling.
PubMed:Dynamic behavior of cryogen spray cooling: effects of spurt duration and spray distance.
PubMed:Measurements of laser light attenuation following cryogen spray cooling spurt termination.
PubMed:Chemically assisted laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry.
PubMed:[Formulation of advancing products of pulmonary medicine absorption].
PubMed:Quantification of the refrigerants R22 and R134a in mixtures by means of different polymers and reflectometric interference spectroscopy.
PubMed:Comparison of carbon dioxide versus refrigerant spray to determine pulpal responsiveness.
PubMed:R-134a emissions from vehicles.
PubMed:Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling.
PubMed:Metering performance of several metered-dose inhalers with different spacers/holding chambers.
PubMed:Investigations on the liver toxicity of a blend of HCFC-123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) and HCFC-124 (2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) in guinea-pigs.
PubMed:Laser-mediated cartilage reshaping with feedback-controlled cryogen spray cooling: biophysical properties and viability.
PubMed:An analysis of heat removal during cryogen spray cooling and effects of simultaneous airflow application.
PubMed:Cryogen spray cooling in laser dermatology: effects of ambient humidity and frost formation.
PubMed:Acute neurobehavioral effects in rats from exposure to HFC 134a or CFC 12.
PubMed:Characterisation of the aggregation behaviour in a salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation aerosol system.
PubMed:Active skin cooling in conjunction with laser dermatologic surgery.
PubMed:Epidermal protection with cryogen spray cooling during high fluence pulsed dye laser irradiation: an ex vivo study.
PubMed:Human safety and pharmacokinetics of the CFC alternative propellants HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3, 3-heptafluoropropane) following whole-body exposure.
PubMed:Polystyrene microsphere spray standards based on CFC-free inhaler technology.
PubMed:Long-term safety of a non-chlorofluorocarbon-containing triamcinolone acetonide inhalation aerosol in patients with asthma. Azmacort HFA Study Group.
PubMed:Solubilization of hydrophilic compounds in 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane with a cationic surfactant
PubMed:Cryogen spray cooling during laser tissue welding.
PubMed:Safety of cryogen spray cooling during pulsed laser treatment of selected dermatoses.
PubMed:Cryogen spray cooling and higher fluence pulsed dye laser treatment improve port-wine stain clearance while minimizing epidermal damage.
PubMed:Cumulative dose response study comparing HFA-134a albuterol sulfate and conventional CFC albuterol in patients with asthma.
PubMed:Compatibility evaluation of metered-dose inhaler valve elastomers with tetrafluoroethane (P134a), a non-CFC propellant.
PubMed:Surfactant dissolution and water solubilization in chlorine-free liquified gas propellants.
PubMed:Summarizing the effectiveness of supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from natural matrix environmental samples.
PubMed:Metered-dose inhaler formulations with beclomethasone-17,21-dipropionate using the ozone friendly propellant R 134a.
PubMed:A comparative study of human skin thermal response to sapphire contact and cryogen spray cooling.
PubMed:Centrifugal Distortion Analysis of the Millimeter-Wave Spectrum of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
PubMed:Tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134A) propellant-driven aerosols of proteins.
PubMed:Adsorbability of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoromethane (HFC134a) onto Plasma-Treated Activated Carbon in CF4 and CCl4
PubMed:Subchronic toxicity and teratogenicity of 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124).
PubMed:HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane): effects of inhalation exposure upon reproductive performance, development and maturation of rats.
PubMed:Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements.
PubMed:Clinical evaluation of CFC-free metered dose inhalers.
PubMed:Clinical pharmacology of HFA134a.
PubMed:Safety of propellants.
PubMed:An overview of the toxicology of HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane).
PubMed:HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane); lack of oncogenicity in rodents after inhalation.
PubMed:A theoretical study of the thermal response of skin to cryogen spray cooling and pulsed laser irradiation: implications for treatment of port wine stain birthmarks.
PubMed:Gas-uptake pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124) in the rat, mouse, and hamster.
PubMed:Disposition of inhaled 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFA134A) in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Measurement by 18F-labeling and whole-body gamma-counting.
PubMed:GR106642X: a new, non-ozone depleting propellant for inhalers.
PubMed:Salmeterol inhaler using a non-chlorinated propellant, HFA134a: systemic pharmacodynamic activity in healthy volunteers.
PubMed:Determination of the chlorofluorocarbon substitute 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFA-134a) in human and animal blood using gas chromatography with headspace analysis.
PubMed:1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane: repeat exposure inhalation toxicity in the rat, developmental toxicity in the rabbit, and genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Synthesis and in vivo disposition studies of 18F-labeled HFA-134a.
PubMed:Dynamic monitoring of total-body absorption by 19F NMR spectroscopy: one hour ventilation of HFA-134a in male and female rats.
PubMed:The minimal metabolism of inhaled 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to trifluoroacetic acid in man as determined by high sensitivity 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine samples.
PubMed:Formation of trifluoroacetic acid from the atmospheric degradation of hydrofluorocarbon 134a: a human health concern?
PubMed:Interaction of fluoroethane chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes with microsomal cytochrome P450. Stimulation of P450 activity and chlorodifluoroethene metabolism.
PubMed:Metabolic fate and disposition of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a) in rat following a single exposure by inhalation.
PubMed:Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of selected halon replacement candidates.
PubMed:Pentahaloethane-based chlorofluorocarbon substitutes and halothane: correlation of in vivo hepatic protein trifluoroacetylation and urinary trifluoroacetic acid excretion with calculated enthalpies of activation.
PubMed:Dominant role of cytochrome P-450 2E1 in human hepatic microsomal oxidation of the CFC-substitute 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane.
PubMed:Defluorination of the CFC-substitute 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane: comparison in human, rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes.
PubMed:Metabolism and toxicity of hydrochlorofluorocarbons: current knowledge and needs for the future.
PubMed:Oxidation of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane in rat liver microsomes is catalyzed primarily by cytochrome P-450IIE1.
PubMed:Oxidative defluorination of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane by rat liver microsomes.
PubMed:Modulation of glucose metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes by 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane.
PubMed:Defluorination of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) by rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane: an inhalation anesthetic agent of intermediate potency.
may replace r 12 as air-conditioning refrigerant.
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