EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

D-vitamin E

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 119-13-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):16698-36-5
Nikkaji Web:J5.309K
Beilstein Number:92691
XlogP3-AA:10.00 (est)
Molecular Weight:402.66202000
Formula:C27 H46 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:nutrient supplements, antioxidants
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
EU SANCO Tocopherol-rich extract View - review
EU SANCO Delta-tocopherol View - review
DG SANTE Food Additives:delta-tocopherol
Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 504.00 to 505.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 392.00 °F. TCC ( 200.10 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 10.493 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 3.835e-006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antioxidants
skin conditioning
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Odor: characteristic
Use: -Tocopherol is a form of vitamin E, a class of eight fat-soluble compounds.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
(+)-d-Tocopherol ≥90%
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
(+)-d-Tocopherol ≥90%
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
nutrient supplements, antioxidants
Recommendation for delta-tocopherol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for delta-tocopherol flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion on mixed tocopherols, tocotrienol tocopherol and tocotrienols as sources for vitamin E added as a nutritional substance in food supplements[1] - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing aids and Materials in Contact with food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of tocopherol-rich extract (E 306), a-tocopherol (E 307), ?-tocopherol (E 308) and d-tocopherol (E 309) as food additives
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):119-13-1
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :92094
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:119-13-1
Pubchem (cid):92094
Pubchem (sid):135047907
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C14151
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB02902
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-dihydro-2,8-dimethyl-2-((4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-, (2R)-
2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-dihydro-2,8-dimethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-, (2R)-
D-vitamin E


PubMed:Final report on the safety assessment of Tocopherol, Tocopheryl Acetate, Tocopheryl Linoleate, Tocopheryl Linoleate/Oleate, Tocopheryl Nicotinate, Tocopheryl Succinate, Dioleyl Tocopheryl Methylsilanol, Potassium Ascorbyl Tocopheryl Phosphate, and Tocophersolan.
PubMed:Nutritional value, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and enrichment of cream cheese with chestnut mushroom Agrocybe aegerita (Brig.) Sing.
PubMed:Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components.
PubMed:Analysis of vitamin E metabolites including carboxychromanols and sulfated derivatives using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Tocopherols in Sunflower Seedlings under Light and Dark Conditions.
PubMed:Wine grape pomace flour improves blood pressure, fasting glucose and protein damage in humans: a randomized controlled trial.
PubMed:Determination of tocopherols and sitosterols in seeds and nuts by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Effects of omega-3 PUFA on the vitamin E and glutathione antioxidant defense system in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis.
PubMed:Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.
PubMed:Tocopherols and tocotrienols in serum and liver of dairy cows receiving conjugated linoleic acids or a control fat supplement during early lactation.
PubMed:Vitamin E: Curse or Benefit in Alzheimer's Disease? A Systematic Investigation of the Impact of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol on Aß Generation and Degradation in Neuroblastoma Cells.
PubMed:Dietary, supplement, and adipose tissue tocopherol levels in relation to prostate cancer aggressiveness among African and European Americans: The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP).
PubMed:Characteristics of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) cold-pressed oil and its oxidative stability studied by the differential scanning calorimetry method.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol reduces human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration.
PubMed:A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and cell proliferative 3,4-δ-dehydrotocopherols from Stemona tuberosa.
PubMed:Singlet oxygen autoxidation of vegetable oils: evidences for lack of synergy between β-carotene and tocopherols.
PubMed:δ-Tocopherol prevents methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis by reducing ROS generation and inhibiting apoptotic signaling cascades in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
PubMed:Post-synthetic modification of MIL-101(Cr) with pyridine for high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of tocopherols.
PubMed:Serum tocopherol levels and vitamin E intake are associated with lung function in the normative aging study.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities of tocopherols/tocotrienols and lipophilic antioxidant capacity of wheat, vegetable oils, milk and milk cream by using photochemiluminescence.
PubMed:Tocochromanols composition in kernels recovered from different apricot varieties: RP-HPLC/FLD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) study.
PubMed:Regenerable antioxidants-introduction of chalcogen substituents into tocopherols.
PubMed:A correlation between tocopherol content and antioxidant activity in seeds and germinating seeds of soybean cultivars.
PubMed:Comparison of the physico-chemical and phytochemical characteristics of the oil of two Plukenetia species.
PubMed:Influence of deficit irrigation strategies on fatty acid and tocopherol concentration of almond (Prunus dulcis).
PubMed:Vitamin E isomer δ-tocopherol enhances the efficiency of neural stem cell differentiation via L-type calcium channel.
PubMed:Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.
PubMed:Unique variability of tocopherol composition in various seed oils recovered from by-products of apple industry: rapid and simple determination of all four homologues (α, β, γ and δ) by RP-HPLC/FLD.
PubMed:Pharmacological potential of tocotrienols: a review.
PubMed:Potent inhibitory effect of δ-tocopherol on prostate cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in vivo.
PubMed:Increased antioxidant efficacy of tocopherols by surfactant solubilization in oil-in-water emulsions.
PubMed:Vitamin E-drug interactions: molecular basis and clinical relevance.
PubMed:Effects of antioxidants and additional emulsifiers on the stability of emulsified milk fat in the photo/radical oxidation system.
PubMed:High environmental stress yields greater tocotrienol content while changing vitamin e profiles of wild emmer wheat seeds.
PubMed:Antiradical activities and phytochemical compounds of firethorn (Pyracantha coccinea) fruit extracts.
PubMed:Tocopherols in Seafood and Aquaculture Products.
PubMed:Niemann-Pick Disease Type C: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neuronal Cells for Modeling Neural Disease and Evaluating Drug Efficacy.
PubMed:Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.
PubMed:Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
PubMed:Optimization conditions of samples saponification for tocopherol analysis.
PubMed:Natural forms of vitamin E: metabolism, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities and their role in disease prevention and therapy.
PubMed:Uptake of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin, anatoxin-a, and alterations in oxidative stress in the submerged aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum.
PubMed:Fatty acid and tocopherol contents of several soybean oils.
PubMed:Concentrations of tocols and γ-oryzanol compounds in rice bran oil obtained by fractional extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide.
PubMed:Effect of cyclolinopeptides on the oxidative stability of flaxseed oil.
PubMed:Catalytic antioxidants: regenerable tellurium analogues of vitamin E.
PubMed:Modulation of NF-κB and Nrf2 control of inflammatory responses in FHs 74 Int cell line is tocopherol isoform-specific.
PubMed:Increases in both acute and chronic temperature potentiate tocotrienol concentrations in wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'.
PubMed:Gamma-tocopherol attenuates moderate but not severe colitis and suppresses moderate colitis-promoted colon tumorigenesis in mice.
PubMed:The methanolic extract of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link fruiting body shows antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antihuman tumor cell lines properties.
PubMed:Vitamin E secretion by Caco-2 monolayers to APOA1, but not to HDL, is vitamer selective.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of tocopherols on expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-α or Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae.
PubMed:High expression of tocochromanol biosynthesis genes increases the vitamin E level in a new line of giant embryo rice.
PubMed:Low vitamin and carotenoid levels are related to cerebral white matter lesions.
PubMed:Impact of roasting on the chemical composition and oxidative stability of perilla oil.
PubMed:Profiles of lipid components, fatty acid distributions of triacylglycerols and phospholipids in Jack beans (Canavalia gladiata DC.).
PubMed:δ-Tocopherol reduces lipid accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C1 and Wolman cholesterol storage disorders.
PubMed:Comprehensive profiling of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in milk from different animal species by LC-DAD-MS/MS hyphenation.
PubMed:Dietary administration of δ- and γ-tocopherol inhibits tumorigenesis in the animal model of estrogen receptor-positive, but not HER-2 breast cancer.
PubMed:Compositional study and antioxidant potential of Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. and Lepidium sativum L. seeds.
PubMed:Plasma and tissue concentrations of α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol following high dose dietary supplementation in mice.
PubMed:Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).
PubMed:Notable effects of metal salts on UV-vis absorption spectra of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopheroxyl radicals in acetonitrile solution. The complex formation between tocopheroxyls and metal cations.
PubMed:Modulated phases of phospholipid bilayers induced by tocopherols.
PubMed:Rapid method for the determination of vitamins A and E in foods using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Identification of plasmalogen in the gut of silkworm (Bombyx mori).
PubMed:Rapid baseline-separation of all eight tocopherols and tocotrienols by reversed-phase liquid-chromatography with a solid-core pentafluorophenyl column and their sensitive quantification in plasma and liver.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of chestnut cultivars from three consecutive years: chemometrics and contribution for authentication.
PubMed:Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin with Cinnamomum camphora seed oil to produce zero-trans medium-chain triacylglycerols-enriched plastic fat.
PubMed:Plasma vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 are not associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction in Singapore Chinese adults.
PubMed:Production of human milk fat analogue containing docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids.
PubMed:Vitamins at physiological levels cause oxidation to the DNA nucleoside deoxyguanosine and to DNA--alone or in synergism with metals.
PubMed:Impact of high-pressure processing on vitamin E (α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol), vitamin D (cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol), and fatty acid profiles in liquid foods.
PubMed:Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits.
PubMed:Soybean (Glycine max) oil bodies and their associated phytochemicals.
PubMed:δ- and γ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, inhibit colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-treated F344 rats.
PubMed:Fatty acid, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamin composition of wild and captive freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus).
PubMed:Fatty acids, tocopherols, selenium and total carotene of pistachios (P. vera L.) from Diyarbakir (Southeastern Turkey) and walnuts (J. regia L.) from Erzincan (Eastern Turkey).
PubMed:Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of tocopherol and tocol on activated hepatic stellate cells.
PubMed:The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.).
PubMed:Chemopreventive activity of vitamin E in breast cancer: a focus on γ- and δ-tocopherol.
PubMed:Determination of tocopherol and tocotrienol content of Greek barley varieties under conventional and organic cultivation techniques using validated reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method.
PubMed:Determination of lipoic acid, Trolox methyl ether and tocopherols in human plasma by liquid-chromatography and ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:In vitro fermented nuts exhibit chemopreventive effects in HT29 colon cancer cells.
PubMed:Varying quality of fish oil capsules: fatty acids and tocopherol.
PubMed:Effects of high temperature stress at different development stages on soybean isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations.
PubMed:γ-Tocopherol methyltransferase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: functional characterization and expression analysis.
PubMed:Expression of modified tocopherol content and profile in sunflower tissues.
PubMed:Legumes are valuable sources of tocopherols.
PubMed:Vitamin E prevents the age-dependent and palmitate-induced disturbances of sphingolipid turnover in liver cells.
PubMed:Vitamin E forms inhibit IL-13/STAT6-induced eotaxin-3 secretion by up-regulation of PAR4, an endogenous inhibitor of atypical PKC in human lung epithelial cells.
PubMed:Supercritical CO₂extraction of oleoresin from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) flowers and determination of its antioxidant components with online HPLC-ABTS(·+) assay.
PubMed:Chemical genoprotection: reducing biological damage to as low as reasonably achievable levels.
PubMed:Tocopherol concentration in almond oil: genetic variation and environmental effects under warm conditions.
PubMed:Characterization of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)-enriched seed oil from Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and its oxidative stability.
PubMed:δ-tocopherol is more active than α - or γ -tocopherol in inhibiting lung tumorigenesis in vivo.
PubMed:Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice.
PubMed:Evaluation of a method based on liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry for a rapid and comprehensive characterization of the fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid profile of selected plant foods.
PubMed:Natural forms of vitamin E and 13'-carboxychromanol, a long-chain vitamin E metabolite, inhibit leukotriene generation from stimulated neutrophils by blocking calcium influx and suppressing 5-lipoxygenase activity, respectively.
PubMed:The effects of fungal stress on the antioxidant contents of black soybeans under germination.
PubMed:Distribution of α- and δ-tocopherols in seminal plasma and sperm fractions of men with normal and abnormal semen parameters.
PubMed:Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.
PubMed:Proapoptotic effects of long-chain vitamin E metabolites in HepG2 cells are mediated by oxidative stress.
PubMed:Characterization of a potential nutraceutical ingredient: pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil unsaponifiable fraction.
PubMed:The comparison of black currant juice and vitamin E for the prevention of oxidative stress.
PubMed:19F MRI of 3D CEM cells to study the effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols.
PubMed:High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.
PubMed:Soybean tocopherol concentrations are affected by crop management.
PubMed:Effects of vitamin E on the osteoblast differentiation.
PubMed:Relationships among dietary nutrients and subjective sleep, objective sleep, and napping in women.
PubMed:Partition of tocopheryl glucopyranoside into liposome membranes studied by fluorescence methods.
PubMed:Follicular fluid high density lipoprotein-associated micronutrient levels are associated with embryo fragmentation during IVF.
PubMed:Xenia effects on oil content and fatty acid and tocopherol concentrations in autogamous almond cultivars.
PubMed:Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.
PubMed:Degradation of tocopherols in rice bran oil submitted to heating at different temperatures.
PubMed:Effect of genotype, environment, and their interaction on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of low-linolenic soybeans grown in Maryland.
PubMed:Plasma levels of retinoids, carotenoids and tocopherols in patients with mild obstructive sleep apnoea.
PubMed:Production of beta-maltooligosaccharides of alpha- and delta-tocopherols by Klebsiella pneumoniae and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase as anti-allergic agents.
PubMed:Comparison of plasma antioxidant levels and related metabolic parameters between smokers and non-smokers.
PubMed:Comparison of the inhibitory effects of vitamin E analogues on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells.
PubMed:Inhibition of lung cancer growth in mice by dietary mixed tocopherols.
PubMed:Assessment of variation in antioxidative defense system in salt-treated pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars and its putative use as salinity tolerance markers.
PubMed:High tocopherol and triacylglycerol contents in Pinus pinea L. seeds.
PubMed:The application of 19F magnetic resonance ex vivo imaging of three-dimensional cultured breast cancer cells to study the effect of delta-tocopherol.
PubMed:Alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols reduce inflammatory angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells.
PubMed:Protection of half sulfur mustard gas-induced lung injury in guinea pigs by antioxidant liposomes.
PubMed:Identification and assessment of antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals from kiwi fruits.
PubMed:Isocratic rapid liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols in human serum.
PubMed:Relative changes in tocopherols, isoflavones, total phenolic content, and antioxidative activity in soybean seeds at different reproductive stages.
PubMed:Liposoluble antioxidants provide an effective radioprotective barrier.
PubMed:Quality and lipid composition of spermatozoa in rabbits fed DHA and vitamin E rich diets.
PubMed:Comparison between the free-radical-scavenging activities with vitamin E and ubiquinol in biological systems based on their reaction rates: a research account.
PubMed:Screening and comparing tocopherols in the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Oil and fatty acid diversity in genetically variable clones of Moringa oleifera from India.
PubMed:Long-chain carboxychromanols, metabolites of vitamin E, are potent inhibitors of cyclooxygenases.
PubMed:Vitamin A and vitamin E isoforms stability and peroxidation potential of all-in-one admixtures for parenteral nutrition.
PubMed:Dietary marine-derived tocopherol has a higher biological availability in mice relative to alpha-tocopherol.
PubMed:Off-line coupling of pressurized liquid extraction and LC/ED for the determination of retinyl acetate and tocopherols in infant formulas.
PubMed:Distribution of alpha-, gamma (+beta)- and delta-tocopherol in the seminal plasma, spermatozoa and seminal vesicles of rabbit.
PubMed:Nanoemulsions of an anti-oxidant synergy formulation containing gamma tocopherol have enhanced bioavailability and anti-inflammatory properties.
PubMed:Heterogeneous effects of distinct tocopherol analogues on NO release, cell volume, and cell death in microglial cells.
PubMed:Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.
PubMed:Inhibition of oxidative metabolism of tocopherols with omega-N-heterocyclic derivatives of vitamin E.
PubMed:Tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries during ripening.
PubMed:Comparison of nutritional traits variability in selected eighty-seven inbreds from Chinese maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm.
PubMed:Circular dichroism of tocopherols versus tocotrienols.
PubMed:Comparison of extraction methods for quantifying vitamin E from animal tissues.
PubMed:Separation of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols and alpha-tocopherol acetate on a pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate-ethylene dimethacrylate monolith by capillary electrochromatography.
PubMed:Dietary alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols in lung cancer risk.
PubMed:Caryodendron orinocense ('nuez de Barinas') oil: tocopherol content and use in cosmetics.
PubMed:Plasma tocopherols and risk of cognitive impairment in an elderly Italian cohort.
PubMed:Tocotrienols, the unsaturated forms of vitamin E, can function as antioxidants and lipid protectors in tobacco leaves.
PubMed:Genetic possibilities for altering sunflower oil quality to obtain novel oils.
PubMed:In vivo gamma-tocopherol supplementation decreases systemic oxidative stress and cytokine responses of human monocytes in normal and asthmatic subjects.
PubMed:Enhanced anti-proliferative effects of combinatorial treatment of delta-tocopherol and resveratrol in human HMC-1 cells.
PubMed:Modulation of proteasome activity by vitamin E in THP-1 monocytes.
PubMed:Kinetic studies of the free radical-scavenging actions of tocopherol metabolites (alpha-, gamma-, and delta-carboxyethyl-6-hydroxychroman) and Trolox in ethanol and micellar solutions.
PubMed:A survey of sesamin and composition of tocopherol variability from seeds of eleven diverse sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes using HPLC-PAD-ECD.
PubMed:Tocopherol content and isomers' composition in selected plant species.
PubMed:Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil is a rich source of gamma-tocopherol.
PubMed:Effect of vitamin supplementation on breast milk concentrations of retinol, carotenoids and tocopherols in HIV-infected Tanzanian women.
PubMed:Effect of type of oil and addition of delta-tocopherol on model flavor compound stability during storage.
PubMed:Effect of total replacement of pork backfat with walnut on the nutritional profile of frankfurters.
PubMed:Total alpha-tocopherol intakes are associated with serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations in African American adults.
PubMed:Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) decreases lipid peroxidation level and protects antioxidant capacity in sera and erythrocytes of old female Wistar rats induced by the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.
PubMed:Increased bioavailability of a transdermal application of a nano-sized emulsion preparation.
PubMed:Antibacterial constituents from Stemona sessilifolia.
PubMed:Comprehensive analysis of vitamin E constituents in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Effects of tocopherols and 2,2'-carboxyethyl hydroxychromans on phorbol-ester-stimulated neutrophils.
PubMed:Vitamin E chemistry. Nitration of non-alpha-tocopherols: products and mechanistic considerations.
PubMed:Glycosylation of tocopherols by cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana.
PubMed:Gamma-tocopherol as a marker of Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) adulteration by corn.
PubMed:Mechanism of deactivation of triplet-excited riboflavin by ascorbate, carotenoids, and tocopherols in homogeneous and heterogeneous aqueous food model systems.
PubMed:Improved antioxidant activity of Vitamin E through solubilization in ethanol: A model study with ground beef.
PubMed:Comparison of reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for analysis of dietary tocopherols.
PubMed:Tocotrienols in health and disease: the other half of the natural vitamin E family.
PubMed:Identification and determination of fat-soluble vitamins and metabolites in human serum by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring.
PubMed:Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars.
PubMed:Antioxidant content and free radical scavenging ability of fresh red pummelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] juice and freeze-dried products.
PubMed:Tocopherol and tocotrienol levels of foods consumed in Hawaii.
PubMed:Structure-activity relationship of the free-radical-scavenging reaction by vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-Tocopherols) and ubiquinol-10: pH dependence of the reaction rates.
PubMed:Bioavailability of a novel, water-soluble vitamin E formulation in malabsorbing patients.
PubMed:Free radical interaction between vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol), ascorbate and flavonoids.
PubMed:A pharmacological action of vitamin E unrelated to its antioxidant capacity.
PubMed:Associations between serum carotenoids and tocopherols and type-specific HPV persistence: the Ludwig-McGill cohort study.
PubMed:Dietary supplementation with 11trans- and 12trans-18:1 and oxidative stress in humans.
PubMed:Does gamma-tocopherol play a role in the primary prevention of heart disease and cancer? A review.
PubMed:Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for the separation of retinol, cholecalciferol, delta-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol.
PubMed:Significant differences in the electrochemical behavior of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols (vitamin E).
PubMed:Simultaneous analysis of Vitamins A and E in infant milk-based formulae by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection using a short narrow-bore column.
PubMed:Esterase-activated chromane-sydnonimine prodrug hybrids.
PubMed:Increased levels of F2-isoprostanes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in humans.
PubMed:Combined lycopene and vitamin E treatment suppresses the growth of PC-346C human prostate cancer cells in nude mice.
PubMed:Liquid chromatograpic-mass spectrometric analysis of phenolics and free radical scavenging activity of rosemary extract from different raw material.
PubMed:Prooxidant and antioxidant activity of vitamin E analogues and troglitazone.
PubMed:Increased expression of transglutaminase-1 and PPARgamma after vitamin E treatment in human keratinocytes.
PubMed:Recent advances in vitamin E metabolism and deficiency.
PubMed:Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols.
PubMed:Cyclodextrin-modified microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for separation of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol acetate.
PubMed:Induction of cytokines by radioprotective tocopherol analogs.
PubMed:Coenzyme Q concentration and total antioxidant capacity of human milk at different stages of lactation in mothers of preterm and full-term infants.
PubMed:Sources of variation in nutrient intakes among men in Shanghai, China.
PubMed:Selective accumulation of alpha-tocopherol in Drosophila is associated with cytochrome P450 tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase activity but not alpha-tocopherol transfer protein.
PubMed:Effect of temperature, cholesterol content, and antioxidant structure on the mobility of vitamin E constituents in biomembrane models studied by laterally diffusion-controlled fluorescence quenching.
PubMed:Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamin contents of breast milk from Japanese women.
PubMed:Glucosinolates and fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol composition of seed oils from Capparis spinosa Var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. Var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood.
PubMed:Slow internal release of bioactive compounds under the effect of skin enzymes.
PubMed:[Effects of packaging on the stability of vitamin E in peach kernels stored at high temperature].
PubMed:Vitamin E composition of walnuts (Juglans regia L.): a 3-year comparative study of different cultivars.
PubMed:The relationship between the physicochemical properties of antioxidants and their ability to inhibit lipid oxidation in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsions.
PubMed:Model system for testing the efficacy of antioxidants in muscle foods.
PubMed:Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system?
PubMed:Solution to spectroscopy challenge 8.
PubMed:Effect of processing on the antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant capacity of Vigna sinensis Var. Carilla.
PubMed:Assessment of lipid peroxidation and serum vitamin E concentration in dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.
PubMed:gamma-Tocopherol or combinations of vitamin E forms induce cell death in human prostate cancer cells by interrupting sphingolipid synthesis.
PubMed:The cytotoxicity of vitamin E is both vitamer- and cell-specific and involves a selectable trait.
PubMed:Recombinant SEC14-like proteins (TAP) possess GTPase activity.
PubMed:Skin absorption and metabolism of a new vitamin E prodrug, delta-tocopherol-glucoside: in vitro evaluation in human skin models.
PubMed:Antioxidant dehydrotocopherols as a new chemical character of Stemona species.
PubMed:Distribution of exogenous delta-tocopherol between the membrane lipids and triacylglycerols of a cod muscle-triacylglycerol model system.
PubMed:Variation in nutrient intakes among women in Shanghai, China.
PubMed:Development of a validated liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of eight fat-soluble vitamins in biological fluids after solid-phase extraction.
PubMed:Non-antioxidant activities of vitamin E.
PubMed:A case-control study of serum tocopherol levels and the alpha- to gamma-tocopherol ratio in radiographic knee osteoarthritis: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project.
PubMed:Tocopherol composition of deodorization distillates and their antioxidative activity.
PubMed:Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes.
PubMed:Antioxidants, carotenoids, and risk of rectal cancer.
PubMed:Effects of alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols on the autoxidation of purified rapeseed oil triacylglycerols in a system containing low oxygen.
PubMed:Antioxidizing potency of phenol compounds in olive oil mill wastewater.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of tocotrienols, tocopherols, retinol, and major carotenoids in human plasma.
PubMed:Engineering vitamin E content: from Arabidopsis mutant to soy oil.
PubMed:Electrophile tocopheryl quinones in apoptosis and mutagenesis: thermochemolysis of thiol adducts with proteins and in cells.
PubMed:Antioxidant effect of gamma-tocopherol supplied by propofol preparations (Diprivan) during ischemia-reperfusion in experimental lung transplantation.
PubMed:[Effect of apoptosis induced by different vitamin E homologous analogues in human hepatoma cells(HepG2)].
PubMed:Dietary (+)-catechin and BHT markedly increase alpha-tocopherol concentrations in rats by a tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase-independent mechanism.
PubMed:Supplementation of diets with alpha-tocopherol reduces serum concentrations of gamma- and delta-tocopherol in humans.
PubMed:Serum vitamins and the subsequent risk of bladder cancer.
PubMed:Foreign body-type multinucleated giant cell formation is potently induced by alpha-tocopherol and prevented by the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022.
PubMed:[Effect of apoptosis induced by different vitamin E homologous analogues in human hepatoma cells (HepG2)].
PubMed:Non-nutritive bioactive food constituents of plants: tocopherols (vitamin E).
PubMed:Antiphoto-oxidative activity of sesamol in methylene blue- and chlorophyll-sensitized photo-oxidation of oil.
PubMed:[Effect of different vitamin E homologous analogues on human hepatoma cell HepG2 proliferation in vitro].
PubMed:ESR study of a biological assay on whole blood: antioxidant efficiency of various vitamins.
PubMed:Vitamin E isoforms alpha-tocotrienol and gamma-tocopherol prevent cerebral infarction in mice.
PubMed:Determination of tocopherols, tocopherolquinones and tocopherolhydroquinones by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and preseparation with lipophilic gel chromatography.
PubMed:Partitioning of exogenous delta-tocopherol between the triacylglycerol and membrane lipid fractions of chicken muscle.
PubMed:Development and validation of a fast and sensitive chromatographic assay for all-trans-retinol and tocopherols in human serum and plasma using liquid-liquid extraction.
PubMed:Warm temperatures or drought during seed maturation increase free alpha-tocopherol in seeds of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).
PubMed:Mixed tocopherols have a stronger inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation than alpha-tocopherol alone.
PubMed:Supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato processing byproducts.
PubMed:Development and validation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay for lipophilic antioxidants using randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin as the solubility enhancer.
PubMed:Lipid composition of some yeast strains from Livingston Island, Antarctica.
PubMed:Does lack of tocopherols and tocotrienols put women at increased risk of breast cancer?
PubMed:Vitamin E inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell growth is associated with a reduction in protein kinase C(alpha) activation.
PubMed:Relationship between fatty acid profile and vitamin E content in maize hybrids (Zea mays L.).
PubMed:Different isoforms of tocopherols enhance nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and inhibit human platelet aggregation and lipid peroxidation: implications in therapy with vitamin E.
PubMed:Gas chromatographic characterization of vegetable oil deodorization distillate.
PubMed:Tocopherols are metabolized in HepG2 cells by side chain omega-oxidation and consecutive beta-oxidation.
PubMed:Evidence for alterations in circulating low-molecular-weight antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation in smokers on hemodialysis.
PubMed:Stability of thiamine and vitamins E and A during storage of enteral feeding formula.
PubMed:Changes in antioxidative mechanisms in elderly patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Investigation of the redox dynamics of alpha-tocopherol in erythrocyte membranes.
PubMed:Different tocopherols and the relationship between two methods for determination of primary oxidation products in fish oil.
PubMed:Comparison of the column performance of narrow-bore and standard-bore columns for the chromatographic determination of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol.
PubMed:Alteration of fatty acid composition, tocopherol content and peroxide value in margarine during storage at various temperatures.
PubMed:Gamma-linolenic acid and tocopherol contents in the seed oil of 47 accessions from several Ribes species.
PubMed:Lipophilic antioxidants and iron status in ESRD patients on hemodialysis.
PubMed:Absorption by rats of tocopherols present in edible vegetable oils.
PubMed:Cytochrome P4503A-dependent metabolism of tocopherols and inhibition by sesamin.
PubMed:Relation between insulin resistance and plasma concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides, carotenoids, and tocopherols.
PubMed:Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary epithelial cells.
PubMed:Automated analysis of vitamin E isomers in vegetable oils by continuous membrane extraction and liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection.
PubMed:Fatty acids and tocochromanols in seeds of Orobanche.
PubMed:Vitamin E: non-antioxidant roles.
PubMed:Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on normal mouse mammary epithelial cells.
PubMed:Concentrations of tocopherols and carotenoids in maternal and cord blood plasma.
PubMed:Vitamin E inhibition of O2*- production in the promonocyte cell line THP-1 is essentially due to RRR-delta-tocopherol.
PubMed:Vitamin E: function and metabolism.
PubMed:Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by tocopherols and tocotrienols.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and tocopherols in aquatic organisms and fish feed.
PubMed:Prevention of DNA photodamage by vitamin E compounds and sunscreens: roles of ultraviolet absorbance and cellular uptake.
PubMed:Value assignment of retinol, retinyl palmitate, tocopherol, and carotenoid concentrations in Standard Reference Material 2383 (Baby Food Composite).
PubMed:Maternal and neonatal plasma antioxidant levels in normal pregnancy, and the relationship with fatty acid unsaturation.
PubMed:Silver-plated vitamins: a method of detecting tocopherols and carotenoids in LC/ESI-MS coupling.
PubMed:alpha- and delta-tocopherol induce expression of hepatic alpha-tocopherol-transfer-protein mRNA.
PubMed:alpha-Tocopherol protects PC12 cells from hyperoxia-induced apoptosis.
PubMed:Dissimilar protection of tocopherol isomers against membrane hydrolysis by phospholipase A2.
PubMed:In vivo antioxidant activity of Okara Koji, a fermented okara, by Aspergillus oryzae.
PubMed:Shape selectivity of C30 phases for RP-HPLC separation of tocopherol isomers and correlation with MAS NMR data from suspended stationary phases.
PubMed:Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals. A real time kinetic study of antioxidant hierarchy.
PubMed:Inhibition of UVB induced DNA photodamage in mouse epidermis by topically applied alpha-tocopherol.
PubMed:Serum micronutrients and prostate cancer in Japanese Americans in Hawaii.
PubMed:Affinity for alpha-tocopherol transfer protein as a determinant of the biological activities of vitamin E analogs.
PubMed:Certification of nutrients in Standard Reference Material 1846: infant formula.
PubMed:High D-glucose does not affect binding of alpha-tocopherol to human erythrocytes.
PubMed:A rapid method for the determination of vitamin E forms in tissues and diet by high-performance liquid chromatography using a normal-phase diol column.
PubMed:Lipid peroxidation-associated oxidative stress during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in humans.
PubMed:Determination of vitamin E in aquatic organisms by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
PubMed:Application of Photoacoustic Calorimetry to the Measurement of the O-H Bond Strength in Vitamin E (alpha- and delta-Tocopherol) and Related Phenolic Antioxidants(1).
PubMed:Certification of fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum: Standard Reference Material 968b.
PubMed:Variability of vitamin E content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.).
PubMed:Rapid quantification of alpha-tocopherol in plasma and low- and high-density lipoproteins.
PubMed:Tocopherols in camel's plasma and tissues.
PubMed:Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in male long-term tobacco chewers, smokers and nonusers.
PubMed:Supplementation of broiler diets with all-rac-alpha- or a mixture of natural source RRR-alpha-,gamma-,delta-tocopheryl acetate. 2. Effect on the oxidative stability of raw and precooked broiler meat products.
PubMed:Supplementation of broiler diets with all-rac-alpha- or a mixture of natural source RRR-alpha-,gamma-,delta-tocopheryl acetate. 1. effect on vitamin E status of broilers in vivo and at slaughter.
PubMed:Population distributions and intralaboratory reproducibility for fat-soluble vitamin-related compounds in human serum.
PubMed:Haemorrhagic toxicity of a large dose of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols, ubiquinone, beta-carotene, retinol acetate and L-ascorbic acid in the rat.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of tocopherols, carotenes, and retinol and its geometric isomers in Italian cheeses.
PubMed:Bioefficiency of different tocopherols in chicken as assessed by haemolysis test and microsomal pentane production.
PubMed:A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of alpha-tocopherol and tocopherolquinone in human red blood cells and other biological samples where tocopherol is easily oxidized during sample treatment.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic method for the determination of carotenoids, retinoids and tocopherols in human serum and in food.
PubMed:Purification and partial characterisation of an alpha-tocopherol-binding protein from rabbit heart cytosol.
PubMed:[The biological activity of vitamin E].
PubMed:The biological activity of natural source tocopherols in chickens fed fresh or oxidized fat rich in linoleic acid.
PubMed:Isolation and properties of gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase in Euglena gracilis.
PubMed:Determination of tocotrienol and tocopherol isomers at physiological concentration by HPLC in Caucasian and Japanese women.
PubMed:One-dimensional and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of vitamin E raw materials or analytical reference standards.
PubMed:Functions of vitamin E in reproduction and in prostacyclin and immunoglobulin synthesis in rats.
PubMed:Location of two antioxidants in oriented model membranes. Small-angle x-ray diffraction study.
PubMed:Determination of tocopherols by reverse-phase liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection at a surface-oxide modified platinum microelectrode, without added electrolyte.
PubMed:The oxidation products from two kinds of tocopherols co-existing in autoxidation system of methyl linoleate.
PubMed:Physical and chemical scavenging of singlet molecular oxygen by tocopherols.
PubMed:Vitamin E status in pediatric patients receiving antiepileptic drugs.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of vitamin E and oxidized and reduced coenzyme Q by high-performance liquid chromatography with in-line ultraviolet and electrochemical detection.
PubMed:Serum alpha-tocopherol levels after high-dose enteral vitamin E administration in patients with acute respiratory failure.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of tocopherols, ubiquinols, and ubiquinones in blood, plasma, tissue homogenates, and subcellular fractions.
PubMed:Studies on the tocopherol status in blood serum of premature babies and infants.
PubMed:Determination of vitamin E in microsamples of serum by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.
PubMed:Tocopherols and tocotrienols in Finnish foods: human milk and infant formulas.
PubMed:Vitamin E requirement of mink with special reference to tocopherol composition in plasma, liver, and adipose tissue.
PubMed:Electron spin resonance and electron nuclear double resonance studies of cation radicals derived from tocopherol model compounds.
PubMed:The fate of antioxidant radicals during lipid autooxidation. I. The tocopheroxyl radicals.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols and its application to diets and plasma of Finnish men. I. Analytical method.
PubMed:[Determination of the tocopherol content of the nonsaponifiable fraction of lupine oil (L. mutabilis)].
PubMed:Novel urinary metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol in rats.
PubMed:Vitamin E as an antioxidant in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities of tocopherols on Fe2+-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in lecithin liposomes.
PubMed:Photosynthetic apparatus of chilling-sensitive plants. IX. The involvement of alpha-tocopherol in the electron transport chain and the anti-oxidizing system in chloroplasts of tomato leaves.
PubMed:Oxidation by superoxide of tocopherols dispersed in aqueous media with deoxycholate.
PubMed:Blood serum tocopherol levels in calves born from cows winter fed hay or grass silage.
PubMed:Biological activity of vitamin E compounds and natural materials by the resorption-gestation test, and chemical determination of the vitamin E activity in foods and feeds.
PubMed:Tocopherols in canned entrées and vended sandwiches.
PubMed:Relative autoxidative and photolytic stabilities of tocols and tocotrienols.
PubMed:Distribution of tocopherols in human plasma and red blood cells.
PubMed:Identification of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols and their contents in human milk.
PubMed:[Effect of gamma-irradiation of vitamin E factors in solution. I. Tributyrin solution of alpha-tocopheryl acetate as well as alpha, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol].
PubMed:Electron spin resonance of chromanoxy free radicals from alpha, zeta, beta, gamma, delta-tocopherol and tocol.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of phytoquinones. Biosynthetic origins of the nuclei and satellite methyl groups of plastoquinone, tocopherols and tocopherolquinones in maize shoots, bean shoots and ivy leaves.
PubMed:Synthesis and some toxicity and oxidation studies of a fatty acid hydroquinone and analogs of tocol and delta-tocopherol.
PubMed:The isolation and properties of delta-tocotrienol from Hevea latex.
PubMed:[On the content of alpha-, beta plus gamma- and delta-tocopherol in the gastrointestinal tract, blood and urine of rats].
PubMed:delta-Tocopherol; isolation from soybean oil and properties.
PubMed:The presence of delta-tocopherol in hog fats.
Widespread occurrence in vegetable oils incl. soya and sunflower oils. Used as antioxidant food additive. Member of Vitamin E group. Added to fats and oils to prevent rancidity. The naturally occurring tocopherol is a single stereoisomer; synthetic forms are a mixt. of all eight possible isomers 1 IU of tocopherol is defined as ? milligrams of RRR-alpha-tocopherol (formerly named d-alpha-tocopherol or sometimes ddd-alpha-tocopherol). 1 IU is also defined as 1 milligram of an equal mix of the eight stereoisomers, which is a racemic mixture called all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. This mix of stereoisomers is often called dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, even though it is more precisely dl,dl,dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate). However, 1 IU of this racemic mixture is not now considered equivalent to 1 IU of natural (RRR) ?-tocopherol, and the Institute of Medicine and the USDA now convert IU's of the racemic mixture to milligrams of equivalent RRR using 1 IU racemic mixture = 0.45 "milligrams ?-tocopherol".; A cataract is a condition of clouding of the tissue of the lens of the eye. They increase the risk of disability and blindness in aging adults. Antioxidants are being studied to determine whether they can help prevent or delay cataract growth. Observational studies have found that lens clarity, which is used to diagnose cataracts, was better in regular users of vitamin E supplements and in persons with higher blood levels of vitamin E. A study of middle aged male smokers, however, did not demonstrate any effect from vitamin E supplements on the incidence of cataract formation. The effects of smoking, a major risk factor for developing cataracts, may have overridden any potential benefit from the vitamin E, but the conflicting results also indicate a need for further studies before researchers can confidently recommend extra vitamin E for the prevention of cataracts. It is important to note that the term "cataract" may be used in common parlance for an opacity involving any tissue of the eye, for example a corneal scar. Thus a character in theater or on television who is blind from cataracts might have white instead of clear corneas, covering over the iris and pupil. Since the lens is behind the pupil, real cataracts are difficult to see without special instrumentation, so people with cataracts have rather normally appearing eyes. -- Wikipedia; Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism that results in poor absorption of dietary fat and vitamin E. The vitamin E deficiency associated with this disease causes problems such as poor transmission of nerve impulses, muscle weakness, and degeneration of the retina that can cause blindness. Individuals with abetalipoproteinemia may be prescribed special vitamin E supplements by a physician to treat this disorder. -- Wikipedia; Alpha-tocopherol is traditionally recognized as the most active form of vitamin E in humans, and is a powerful biological antioxidant. The measurement of "vitamin E" activity in international units (IU) was based on fertility enhancement by the prevention of spontaneous abortions in pregnant rats relative to alpha tocopherol. It increases naturally to about 150% of normal in the maternal circulation during human pregnancies. 1 IU of vitamin E is defined as the biological equivalent of 0.667 milligrams of d-alpha-tocopherol, or of 1 milligram of dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate. The other isomers are slowly being recognized as research begins to elucidate their additional roles in the human body. Many naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates suggest that vitamin E supplements contain at least 20% by weight of the other natural vitamin E isomers. Commercially available blends of natural vitamin E include "mixed tocopherols" and "high gamma tocopherol" formulas. Also selenium, Coenzyme Q10, and ample vitamin C have been shown to be essential cofactors of natural tocopherols. -- Wikipedia; Alzheimer's disease is a wasting disease of the brain. An observational trial conducted by The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health found that when vitamin E is taken daily in large doses (400-1000IU) in combination with vitamin C (500-1000mg) the onset of Alzheimer's was reduced between 64 and 78%. External Link - Johns Hopkins press release -- Wikipedia; Alzheimer's disease is a wasting disease of the brain. As oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's, tocopherols have been tested as both a means of prevention and treatment. The results of these studies have been mixed, with some research suggesting that high levels of vitamin E in the diet may reduce the risk of Alzheimer's, while other studies found no such link. Studies on progression have also been contradictory, with the Alzheimer?s Disease Cooperative Study suggesting that vitamin E supplementation might be beneficial, but a later trial finding no clinical benefit. Due to this contradictory and confusing evidence, vitamin E or tocopherol supplements are not currently recommended for treating or preventing Alzheimer's disease.; During feeding experiments with rats Herbert McLean Evans concluded in 1922 that besides vitamins B and C, an unknown vitamin existed. Although every other nutrition was present, the rats were not fertile. This condition could be changed by additional feeding with wheat germ. It took several years until 1936 when the substance was isolated from wheat germ and the formula C29H50O2 was determined. Evans also found that the compound reacted like an alcohol and concluded that one of the oxygen atoms was part of an OH (hydroxyl) group. As noted in the introduction, the vitamin was given its name by Evans from Greek words meaning "to bear young" with the addition of the -ol as an alcohol. The structure was determined shortly thereafter in 1938.; Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms or isomers, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. All isomers have a chromanol ring, with a hydroxyl group which can donate a hydrogen atom to reduce free radicals and a hydrophobic side chain which allows for penetration into biological membranes. There is an alpha, beta, gamma and delta form of both the tocopherols and tocotrienols, determined by the number of methyl groups on the chromanol ring. Each form has its own biological activity, the measure of potency or functional use in the body. -- Wikipedia; Recent studies also show that vitamin E acts as an effective free radical scavenger and can lower the incidence of lung cancer in smokers. The effects are opposite to that of the clinical trials based on administering carotenoid to male smokers, that resulted in increased risk of lung cancer. Hence vitamin E is an effective antagonist to the oxidative stress that is imposed by high carotenoids in certain patients. -- Wikipedia; Synthetic vitamin E, usually marked as d,l-tocopherol or d,l tocopheryl acetate, with 50% d-alpha tocopherol moiety and 50% l-alpha-tocopherol moiety, as synthesized by an earlier process is now actually manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopherol, with only about one alpha tocopherol molecule in 8 molecules as actual d-alpha tocpherol. The synthetic form is not as active as the natural alpha tocopherol form. The 1950's thalidomide disaster with numerous severe birth defects is a common example of d- vs l- epimer forms type problem with synthesized racemic mixtures. Information on any side effects of the synthetic vitamin E epimers is not readily available. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates have long considered the synthetic vitamin E forms to be with little or no merit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. -- Wikipedia; There are three stereocenters in alpha-tocopherol, so this is a chiral molecule. The eight stereoisomers of alpha-tocopherol differ in the arrangement of groups around these stereocenters. In the image of RRR-alpha-tocopherol below, all three stereocenters are in the R form. However, if the middle of the three stereocenters were changed (so the hydrogen was now pointing down and the methyl group pointing up), this would become the structure of RSR-alpha-tocopherol. RSR-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-alpha-tocopherol are mirror-images of each other. These stereoisomers can also be named in an alternative older nomenclature, where the stereocenters are either in the d or l form.; Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. Vitamin E is often used in skin creams and lotions because it is believed to play a role in encouraging skin healing and reducing scarring after injuries such as burns. -- Wikipedia; Tocopherols (or TCP) are a class of chemical compounds of which many have vitamin E activity. It is a series of organic compounds consisting of various methylated phenols. Because the vitamin activity was first identified in 1936 from a dietary fertility factor in rats, it was given the name "tocopherol" from the Greek words ??????? [birth], and ????????, [to bear or carry] meaning in sum "to carry a pregnancy," with the ending "-ol" signifying its status as a chemical alcohol.
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