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dextro-malic acid
D-hydroxybutanedioic acid

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Name:(2R)-2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
CAS Number: 636-61-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:211-262-2
FDA UNII: P750Y95K96
Nikkaji Web:J14.674I
Beilstein Number:1723540
XlogP3:-1.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:134.08782000
Formula:C4 H6 O5
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:food additive
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 98.00 to 102.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 306.00 to 307.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:0.000007 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 308.00 °F. TCC ( 153.40 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -1.370 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 3.64E+05 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
Aston Chemical
For experimental / research use only.
(R)-Malic Acid
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
D-(+)-Malic acid ≥98%, ≥95%e.e.
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
D-(+)-Malic acid
For experimental / research use only.
D-(+)-Malic acid unnatural form, ≥97.0% (T)
For experimental / research use only.
D-(+)-Malic Acid >98.0%(GC)(T)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rabbit LDLo 5500 mg/kg
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Vol. 15, Pg. 628, 1923.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
food additive
Recommendation for dextro-malic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :92824
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
(2R)-2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
RTECS:ON7260000 for cas# 636-61-3
 (2R)-2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):92824
Pubchem (sid):135050551
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00497
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB31518
Export Tariff Code:2918.19.6000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 roselle fruit
Search Trop Picture
D-(+)-apple acid
 butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, (2R)-
(R)-2-hydroxy-succinic acid
(R)-2-hydroxybutane dioic acid
(2R)-2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
(R)-hydroxybutanedioic acid
D-hydroxybutanedioic acid
(2R)-2-hydroxysuccinic acid
(R)-(+)-hydroxysuccinic acid
(R)-2-hydroxysuccinic acid
(+)-D-malic acid
(R)-malic acid
(R)-(+)-malic acid
D-malic acid
D-(+)-malic acid
R-malic acid
 malic acid, D-


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PubMed:Inhibitory constituents of Euscaphis japonica on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglia.
PubMed:Subulatin, an antioxidic caffeic acid derivative isolated from the in vitro cultured liverworts, Jungermannia subulata, Lophocolea heterophylla, and Scapania parvitexta.
PubMed:Kinetics, stereospecificity, and expression of the malolactic enzyme.
PubMed:Syntheses of (-)-Isocitric Acid Lactone and (-)-Homoisocitric Acid. A New Method of Conversion of Alkynylsilanes into the Alkynyl Thioether and Corresponding Carboxylic Acids.
PubMed:Determination of D-malic acid in apple juice by liquid chromatography: collaborative study.
PubMed:Detection of adulteration in apple juice by L-malic/total malic acid ratio: collaborative study.
PubMed:High Content of Hydroxycinnamic Acids Esterified with (+)-D-Malic Acid in the Upper Parts of Fumaria officinalis1.
PubMed:Transport of malic acid in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe: evidence for a proton-dicarboxylate symport.
PubMed:Transport of malic acid and other dicarboxylic acids in the yeast Hansenula anomala.
PubMed:D-Malic enzyme of Pseudomonas fluorescens.
PubMed:Malioxamycin, a new antibiotic with spheroplast-forming activity. II. Structural elucidation and total synthesis.
PubMed:The absolute configuration of SU 23397: a novel neuroleptic agent.
PubMed:Growth of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata on L- and D-malic acid.
PubMed:The enzymic degradation of alkyl-substituted gentisates, maleates and malates.
PubMed:Excretion of D-malic acid in the chicken.
This enantiomer of rare occurrence; reported from fruits and leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) although there are many more isolations of malic acid with no opt. rotn. given and some may be of the R-form
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