EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes


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Name:(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
CAS Number: 56-87-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-294-2
Nikkaji Web:J9.176F
Beilstein Number:1722531
CoE Number:11947
XlogP3:-3.00 (est)
Molecular Weight:146.18998000
Formula:C6 H14 N2 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
According to JECFA: "Sp.rotation = +12.5 to +13.5 (23, 6N HCl)". Register name to be changed to L-Lysine.
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1439 L-lysine
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:17.026 L-lysine
FEMA Number:3847 L-lysine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):56-87-1 ; L-LYSINE
FDA Regulation:
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 215.00 to 219.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 311.00 to 312.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 288.00 °F. TCC ( 142.22 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.734 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol, slightly
 water, 1000000 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
Flavor: characteristic
ADM Liquid L-Lysine (50%) is an aqueous solution of L-Lysine free base. It is obtained by concentrating lysine from the fermentation broth. It contains the same active molecule (L-Lysine) as L-Lysine monohydrochloride (L-Lys-HCl) and possesses the same nutritional qualities.
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
L-Lysine 98%
Atlantic Chemicals
AuNutra® Industries
BBFY Industrial
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
H-Lys-OH >98%
For experimental / research use only.
George Uhe Company
Glentham Life Sciences
Graham Chemical
Penta International
L-Lysine, ≥98%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
For experimental / research use only.
L-(+)-Lysine >97.0%(T)
Tianjin Talent Chemical
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 [sex: M,F] 10130 mg/kg
(Breglia et al., 1973)

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-lysine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 1000.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 57.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 18. Update in publication number(s): 25
Click here to view publication 18
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 1400.000003000.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 60.00000600.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 60.00000600.00000
breakfast cereal: 600.000003000.00000
cheese: 1400.000003000.00000
chewing gum: 100.00000500.00000
condiments / relishes: 2000.000005000.00000
confectionery froastings: 300.00000500.00000
egg products: 1000.000002000.00000
fats / oils: 200.00000600.00000
fish products: 1000.000002500.00000
frozen dairy: 1400.000003000.00000
fruit ices: 200.00000600.00000
gelatins / puddings: 200.00000500.00000
granulated sugar: 5.0000025.00000
gravies: 1400.000003000.00000
hard candy: 200.00000600.00000
imitation dairy: 1400.000003000.00000
instant coffee / tea: 300.00000600.00000
jams / jellies: 300.00000500.00000
meat products: 1400.000003000.00000
milk products: 1400.000003000.00000
nut products: 300.000001000.00000
other grains: 300.000002000.00000
poultry: 1000.000002000.00000
processed fruits: 60.00000300.00000
processed vegetables: 300.00000500.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 200.00000400.00000
seasonings / flavors: 20000.00000250000.00000
snack foods: 2000.000005000.00000
soft candy: 200.00000600.00000
soups: 1000.000005000.00000
sugar substitutes: 200.000001000.00000
sweet sauces: 200.00000500.00000
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted on request by DG SANCO. Addendum to FGE. 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 76, 77, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85 and 87.
View page or View pdf

Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of concentrated liquid L-lysine (base), concentrated liquid L-lysine monohydrochloride and L-lysine monohydrochloride produced by Escherichia coli (FERM BP-10941) for all animal species, based on three dossiers submitted by Ajinomoto Eurolysine SAS
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of concentrated liquid L-lysine (base), concentrated liquid L-lysine monohydrochloride and L-lysine monohydrochloride technically pure produced using Escherichia coli (FERM BP-11355) for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Ajinomoto Eurolysine S.A.S.
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of l-lysine monohydrochloride and concentrated liquid l-lysine (base) produced by fermentation using Corynebacterium glutamicum strain NRRL B-50775 for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by ADM
View page or View pdf

Safety of concentrated l-lysine (base), l-lysine monohydrochloride and l-lysine sulfate produced using different strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by FEFANA asbl
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of l-lysine monohydrochloride and l-lysine sulfate produced using Corynebacterium glutamicum CCTCC M 2015595 for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of l-lysine monohydrochloride and concentrated liquid l-lysine (base) produced by fermentation using Corynebacterium glutamicum strain KCCM 10227 for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of l-lysine monohydrochloride and concentrated liquid l-lysine (base) produced by fermentation using Corynebacterium glutamicum strains NRRL-B-67439 or NRRL B-67535 for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of concentrated liquid l-lysine (base) and l-lysine monohydrochloride produced by fermentation with Corynebacterium casei KCCM 80190 as feed additives for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of l-lysine monohydrochloride and concentrated liquid l-lysine (base) produced by fermentation with Corynebacterium glutamicum KCCM 80216 as feed additive for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of l-lysine monohydrochloride and concentrated liquid l-lysine (base) produced by fermentation with Corynebacterium glutamicumKCTC 12307BP as feed additives for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of the feed additives concentrated liquid l-lysine (base) and l-lysine monohydrochloride produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum KCCM 80183 for all animal species (CJ Europe GmbH)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):56-87-1
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :5962
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
RTECS:OL5540000 for cas# 56-87-1
 (2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:56-87-1
Pubchem (cid):5962
Pubchem (sid):134972925
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00047
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00182
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01424
Export Tariff Code:2922.41.0090
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
•as dl- and l-lysine monohydrochloride. •usp and fcc grades lysine hydrochloride
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
 hair conditioning
 skin conditioning
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 almond seed
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 apple custard apple fruit
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 apple custard apple fruit
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 apple fruit
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 apricot fruit
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 artichoke jerusalem artichoke tuber
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 asparagus shoot
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 avocado fruit
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 banana fruit
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 basil leaf
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 bean adzuki bean seed
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 bean asparagus bean fruit
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 bean asparagus bean seed
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 bean banner bean seed
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 bean black bean fruit
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 bean black bean seed
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 bean black bean sprout
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 bean butter bean seed
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 bean fava bean seed
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 bean field bean fruit
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 bean mat bean seed
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 bean mung bean seed
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 bean mung bean sprout
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 bean winged bean leaf
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 bean winged bean seed
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 bean winged bean tuber
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 bean yam bean tuber
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 beet root
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 blueberry fruit
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 brazil nut
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 breadfruit fruit
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 breadfruit seed
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli leaf
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 brussel sprout leaf
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 buckwheat seed
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 burdock root
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 butternut seed
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 cabbage leaf
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 cacao bean
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 caraway seed
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 carob bean seed
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 carrot root
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 cashew nut
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 cassava root
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 cayenne fruit
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 celery plant
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 chayote fruit
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 chestnut sweet chestnut nut
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 chickpea seed
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 chicory leaf
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 chive leaf
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 coconut endosperm
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 coconut leaf
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 coconut seed
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 coriander fruit
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 coriander leaf
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 coriander seed
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 corn seed
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 cucumber fruit
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 date palm fruit
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 dill seed
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 eggplant fruit
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 endive leaf
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 evening-primrose seed
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 fenugreek leaf
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 fenugreek seed
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 fig fruit
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 flax plant
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 flax seed
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 garlic bulb
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 garlic leaf
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 ginger root
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 ginkgo biloba seed
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 goosefoot seed
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 gourd calabash gourd fruit
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 gourd white gourd fruit
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 grape fruit
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 guava fruit
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 guava strawberry guava fruit
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 kohlrabi stem
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 leek wild leek plant
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 lentil seed
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 lentil sprout
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 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
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 lettuce leaf
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 lime fruit
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 lotus indian lotus rhizome
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 lotus indian lotus seed
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 macadamia nut
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 mallow jew's mallow leaf
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 mandarin fruit
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 mango fruit
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 marango shoot
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 melon bitter melon seed
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 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
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 mustard white mustard seed
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 oat plant
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 oat seed
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 okra fruit
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 onion bulb
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 orange fruit
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 papaya fruit
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 parsley plant
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 pea black-eyed pea seed
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 pea fruit
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 pea pigeon pea seed
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 pea seed
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 peach fruit
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 peanut seed
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 pear fruit
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 peppermint leaf
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 pigweed leaf
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 pine pinyon pine seed
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 pineapple fruit
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 pistachio nut
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 plum fruit
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 poppy opium poppy seed
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 potato sweet potato root
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 potato tuber
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 purslane herb
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 radish root
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 rice hay
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 rosemary leaf
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 rye seed
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 saffron bulb
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 sesame seed
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 soursop fruit
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 soybean seed
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 soybean shoot
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 spearmint leaf
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 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach leaf
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 spinach plant
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 squash summer squash fruit
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 star fruit fruit
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 sunflower seed
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 tamarind fruit
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 tamarind seed
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 taro leaf
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 taro root
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 tarragon leaf
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 tarragon root
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 tea leaf
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 thyme plant
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 tomato fruit
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 turnip indian turnip root
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 watercress herb
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 watermelon fruit
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 watermelon seed
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 wheat plant
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 wheat seed
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 yam mountain yam root
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L-2,6-diainohexanoic acid
(2S)-2,6-diamino-hexanoic acid
(S)-2,6-diamino-hexanoic acid
(S)-2,6-diaminocaproic acid
(S)-a,E-diaminocaproic acid
(S)-alpha,epsilon-diaminocaproic acid
(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
(S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
2,6-diaminohexanoic acid, (S)-
L-lysine base
L-lysine free base (anhydrous)
 lysine, L-


PubMed:52 effect of carboxylated poly-L-lysine on the post-thaw viability of in vitro-produced bovine blastocyst.
J-Stage:Effects of Dietary Low Level of Threonine and Lysine on the Accumulation of Intramuscular Fat in Porcine Muscle
J-Stage:Occurrence, Biosynthesis, Biodegradation, and Industrial and Medical Applications of a Naturally Occurring e-Poly-L-lysine
PubMed:Epsilon-poly-l-lysine guided improving pulmonary delivery of supramolecular self-assembled insulin nanospheres.
PubMed:Chitosan/fucoidan multilayer nanocapsules as a vehicle for controlled release of bioactive compounds.
PubMed:Methylotrophy in the thermophilic Bacillus methanolicus, basic insights and application for commodity production from methanol.
PubMed:Improvement of ε-Poly-L-Lysine Production Through Seed Stage Development Based on In Situ pH Monitoring.
PubMed:The solubility and conformational characteristics of porcine myosin as affected by the presence of L-lysine and L-histidine.
PubMed:The Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action of Epsilon-Poly-l-Lysine.
PubMed:New enzymatic methods for selective assay of l-lysine using an l-lysine specific decarboxylase/oxidase from Burkholderia sp. AIU 395.
PubMed:Efficient Production of epsilon-Poly-L-lysine by Streptomyces ahygroscopicus Using One-stage pH Control Fed-batch Fermentation Coupled with Nutrient Feeding.
PubMed:Features of the biotechnologically relevant polyamide family "cyanophycins" and their biosynthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
PubMed:Quantification of l-lysine in cheese by a novel amperometric biosensor.
PubMed:Sensitivity improvement in hydrophilic interaction chromatography negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol as a post-column modifier for non-targeted metabolomics.
PubMed:Antifreeze effect of carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine on the growth kinetics of ice crystals.
PubMed:Studies on the reaction of trans-2-heptenal with peanut proteins.
PubMed:Physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of starch films incorporated with ε-poly-L-lysine.
PubMed:Self-assembly of NH₂-(α,L-lysine)₅-COOH and SDS into nanodiscs or nanoribbons regulated by pH.
PubMed:L-lysine dose dependently delays gastric emptying and increases intestinal fluid volume in humans and rats.
PubMed:Characterization of a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent l-lysine decarboxylase/oxidase from Burkholderia sp. AIU 395.
PubMed:Economical production of poly(ε-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.
PubMed:Interaction between immobilized polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles and human mesenchymal stromal cells.
PubMed:Functionalized graphene oxide for the fabrication of paraoxon biosensors.
PubMed:Metabolomic analysis of antimicrobial mechanisms of ε-poly-L-lysine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Development of new chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis system with amino acid ionic liquids ligands and its application in studying the kinetics of L-amino acid oxidase.
PubMed:Mutational and crystallographic analysis of l-amino acid oxidase/monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813: Interconversion between oxidase and monooxygenase activities.
PubMed:Alternative Biomarkers of n-Hexane exposure: Characterization of aminoderived pyrroles and thiol-pyrrole conjugates in urine of rats exposed to 2,5-Hexanedione.
PubMed:2D square arrays of protein nanocages through channel-directed electrostatic interactions with poly(α, l-lysine).
PubMed:Gustatory responsiveness to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).
PubMed:Mineral composition of seawater bittern nigari products and their effects on changing of browning and antioxidant activity in the glucose/lysine maillard reaction.
PubMed:Cloning of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) synthetase gene from a newly isolated ε-PL-producing Streptomyces albulus NK660 and its heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans.
PubMed:Characterization of a novel l-amino acid oxidase with protein oxidizing activity from Penicillium steckii AIU 027.
PubMed:Cost-effective endo-mannanase from Bacillus sp. CFR1601 and its application in generation of oligosaccharides from guar gum and as detergent additive.
PubMed:Enhancement of survival of alginate-encapsulated Lactobacillus casei NCDC 298.
PubMed:Self-assembly of ferritin nanocages into linear chains induced by poly(α, L-lysine).
PubMed:Beneficial effects of cod protein on inflammatory cell accumulation in rat skeletal muscle after injury are driven by its high levels of arginine, glycine, taurine and lysine.
PubMed:Characterization and application of aminoamide-oxidizing enzyme from Aspergillus carbonarius AIU 205.
PubMed:A novel amperometric biosensor based on a co-crosslinked L-lysine-α-oxidase/overoxidized polypyrrole bilayer for the highly selective determination of L-lysine.
PubMed:Isotope dilution ESI-LC-MS/MS for quantification of free and total Nε-(1-Carboxymethyl)-L-Lysine and free Nε-(1-Carboxyethyl)-L-Lysine: comparison of total Nε-(1-Carboxymethyl)-L-Lysine levels measured with new method to ELISA assay in gruel samples.
PubMed:Differentially-expressed genes in Candida albicans exposed to ε-poly-L-lysine.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of ε-poly-L-lysine.
PubMed:Specific amino acids inhibit food intake via the area postrema or vagal afferents.
PubMed:Trypsin from viscera of vermiculated sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, Weber, 1991: its purification and characterization.
PubMed:Poly(L-diaminopropionic acid), a novel non-proteinic amino acid oligomer co-produced with poly(ε-L-lysine) by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.
PubMed:Overexpression of Escherichia coli phytase in Pichia pastoris and its biochemical properties.
PubMed:Effects of dietary L-lysine intake on the intestinal mucosa and expression of CAT genes in weaned piglets.
PubMed:Efficacy of polymer coating of probiotic beads suspended in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices on the exposure to simulated gastrointestinal environment.
PubMed:The effect of poly-L-lysine structure on the pH response of polygalacturonic acid-based multilayers.
PubMed:Intra-tissue localization of an antibacterial L-amino acid oxidase in the rockfish Sebastes schlegeli.
PubMed:Investigation of alginate-ε-poly-L-lysine microcapsules for cell microencapsulation.
PubMed:Safety of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia according to a variety of health indices in different age groups.
PubMed:Combined QCMD and AFM studies of lysozyme and poly-L-lysine-poly-galacturonic acid multilayers.
PubMed:Enhanced epsilon-poly-L-lysine production from Streptomyces ahygroscopicus by a combination of cell immobilization and in situ adsorption.
PubMed:Bitter taste inhibiting agents for whey protein hydrolysate and whey protein hydrolysate beverages.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of an L-amino acid oxidase from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813.
PubMed:[Biosorption of chromium (VI) by waste biomass of epsilon-poly-L-lysine fermentation].
PubMed:Leucine is essential for attenuating fetal growth restriction caused by a protein-restricted diet in rats.
PubMed:Cytotoxicity of peptide-coated silver nanoparticles on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2.
PubMed:Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Attenuates Monosodium Urate-induced Inflammation in Mice.
PubMed:Improved synthesis of lysine- and arginine-derived Amadori and Heyns products and in vitro measurement of their angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity.
PubMed:[Biosynthesis of epsilon-poly-L-lysine--a review].
PubMed:Impact of phloretin and phloridzin on the formation of Maillard reaction products in aqueous models composed of glucose and L-lysine or its derivatives.
PubMed:24kDa Trypsin: A predominant protease purified from the viscera of hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus×Clarias gariepinus).
PubMed:Alginate encapsulated cells secreting Fas-ligand reduce lymphoma carcinogenicity.
PubMed:Gelatin enhances 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production based on Ketogulonigenium vulgare genome annotation.
PubMed:Molecular cloning, heterologous expression, and characterization of Ornithine decarboxylase from Oenococcus oeni.
PubMed:Identification of H₂O₂ as a major antimicrobial component in coffee.
PubMed:Occurrence, biosynthesis, biodegradation, and industrial and medical applications of a naturally occurring ε-poly-L-lysine.
PubMed:Spectrophotometric determination of various polyanions with polymeric film optodes using microtiter plate reader.
PubMed:Changes in the metabolic profile of rat liver after α-tocopherol deficiency as revealed by metabolomics analysis.
PubMed:Characteristics and antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products from psicose-lysine and fructose-lysine model systems.
PubMed:Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by food antimicrobials applied singly and in combination.
PubMed:Optimization of medium constituents for ε-poly-L-lysine fermentation with response surface methodology.
PubMed:Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids.
PubMed:Tumor accumulation of ε-poly-lysines-based polyamines conjugated with boron clusters.
PubMed:Microarray analysis of virulence gene profiles in Salmonella serovars from food/food animal environment.
PubMed:Cell viability measurement using 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester and a cantilever sensor.
PubMed:Micrococcus lactis sp. nov., isolated from dairy industry waste.
PubMed:Environmental responsiveness of polygalacturonic acid-based multilayers to variation of pH.
PubMed:Discovery of serum L-amino acid oxidase in the rockfish Sebastes schlegeli: isolation and biochemical characterization.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of a novel ε-poly-L-lysine producing strain: Streptomyces griseofuscus.
PubMed:Assessment of the Efficacy of L-Lysine Sulfate vis-à-vis L-Lysine Hydrochloride as Sources of Supplemental Lysine in Broiler Chickens.
PubMed:Alkaline chymotrypsin from striped seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus) viscera: purification and characterization.
PubMed:Twofold pH and temperature stimuli-responsive behaviour in block copolypeptide-decorated single wall carbon nanotubes.
PubMed:Production of the amino acids l-glutamate, l-lysine, l-ornithine and l-arginine from arabinose by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.
PubMed:Effects of sea hare ink secretion and its escapin-generated components on a variety of predatory fishes.
PubMed:Enzymes responsible for the conversion of N alpha-[(Benzyloxy)carbonyl]-D-lysine to N alpha-[(Benzyloxy)carbonyl]-D-aminoadipic acid by Rhodococcus sp. AIU Z-35-1.
PubMed:Metabolic pathways and fermentative production of L-aspartate family amino acids.
PubMed:Exogenous and endogenous protease inhibitors in the gut of the fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda.
PubMed:High-yield production of short chain length poly(epsilon-L-lysine) consisting of 5-20 residues by Streptomyces aureofaciens, and its antimicrobial activity.
PubMed:Enzymes responsible for metabolism of Nα-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine in microorganisms.
PubMed:A new automated approach to determine monosodium glutamate in dehydrated broths by using the flow-batch methodology.
PubMed:Application of the bactericidal activity of epsilon-poly-l-lysine to the storage of human platelet concentrates.
PubMed:Construction of a novel shuttle vector for use in Brevibacterium flavum, an industrial amino acid producer.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of trypsin from the intestine of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusxO.aureus).
PubMed:Novel yellow compounds, dilysyldipyrrolones A and B, formed from xylose and lysine by the Maillard reaction.
PubMed:Degradation of glucose: reinvestigation of reactive alpha-Dicarbonyl compounds.
PubMed:Purification and characteristics of trypsin from masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) cultured in fresh-water.
PubMed:Isolation and cDNA cloning of an antibacterial L-amino acid oxidase from the skin mucus of the great sculpin Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus.
PubMed:In vivo calcium imaging of OFF-responding ASK chemosensory neurons in C. elegans.
PubMed:An improved method of microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria for their stability in acidic and bile conditions during storage.
PubMed:Generation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone from rhamnose as affected by reaction parameters: experimental design approach.
PubMed:Structural elucidation of T-2 toxin thermal degradation products and investigations toward their occurrence in retail food.
PubMed:Two crystal structures of lysyl-tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus in complex with lysyladenylate-like compounds: insights into the irreversible formation of the enzyme-bound adenylate of L-lysine hydroxamate.
PubMed:Year-long changes in protein metabolism in elderly men and women supplemented with a nutrition cocktail of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), L-arginine, and L-lysine.
PubMed:Development of antibody array for simultaneous detection of foodborne pathogens.
PubMed:Comparative study on the proteases from fish pyloric caeca and the use for production of gelatin hydrolysate with antioxidative activity.
PubMed:Substrate-induced conformational changes of the truncated catalytic domain of Geobacillus stearothermophilus lysyl-tRNA synthetase as examined by fluorescence.
PubMed:Oral supplementation with L-lysine did not prevent upper respiratory infection in a shelter population of cats.
PubMed:Influences of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and total lysine content on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of heavy pigs.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity and chemical properties of crude and fractionated Maillard reaction products derived from four sugar-amino acid Maillard reaction model systems.
PubMed:Supramolecular structure of the casein micelle.
PubMed:Sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction with a chemically defined bioadhesive.
PubMed:Biomarkers of furan exposure by metabolic profiling of rat urine with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.
PubMed:Optical enzyme sensor for determining L-lysine content using L-lysine oxidase from the rockfish Sebastes schlegeli.
PubMed:Effects of Maillard reaction products on hilA expression in Salmonella typhimurium.
PubMed:Biocompatibility and membrane strength of C3H10T1/2 cell-loaded alginate-based microcapsules.
PubMed:Characterization of covalent addition products of chlorogenic acid quinone with amino acid derivatives in model systems and apple juice by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Study on alpha-amylase hydrolysis of potato amylopectin by a quartz crystal microbalance.
PubMed:The role of lysine amino nitrogen in the biosynthesis of mousy off-flavor compounds by Dekkera anomala.
PubMed:Characterization of metacaspases with trypsin-like activity and their putative role in programmed cell death in the protozoan parasite Leishmania.
PubMed:Trypsin from the pyloric caeca of bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix).
PubMed:Epsilon-poly-L-lysine and nisin A act synergistically against Gram-positive food-borne pathogens Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:29 kDa Trypsin from the pyloric ceca of Atlantic Bonito (Sarda sarda): recovery and characterization.
PubMed:Studies on the effect of Amadoriase from Aspergillus fumigatus on peptide and protein glycation in vitro.
PubMed:Coffee and Maillard products activate NF-kappaB in macrophages via H2O2 production.
PubMed:Parameters for the evaluation of the thermal damage and nutraceutical potential of lupin-based ingredients and food products.
PubMed:Construction of Lactobacillus plantarum strain with enhanced L-lysine yield.
PubMed:Synthesis of 1-piperideine-6-carboxylic acid produced by L-lysine-epsilon-aminotransferase from the Streptomyces clavuligerus gene expressed in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:The influence of extrusion on loss and racemization of amino acids.
PubMed:L-lysine fermentation.
PubMed:Production of epsilon-poly-L-lysine by newly isolated Kitasatospora sp. PL6-3.
PubMed:Mousy off-flavor: a review.
PubMed:Generation of an antibody specific to erythritol, a non-immunogenic food additive.
PubMed:Enhanced production of scleroglucan by Sclerotium rolfsii MTCC 2156 by use of metabolic precursors.
PubMed:Transepithelial flux of early and advanced glycation compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers and their interaction with intestinal amino acid and peptide transport systems.
PubMed:Cobalt tetrasulphonated phthalocyanine immobilized on poly-L-lysine film onto glassy carbon electrode as amperometric sensor for cysteine.
PubMed:Sulfated polysaccharides derived from dietary seaweeds increase the esterase activity of a lymphocyte tryptase, granzyme A.
PubMed:Specificity of a Vibrio vulnificus aminopeptidase toward kinins and other peptidyl substrates.
PubMed:Deposition of pectin/poly-L-lysine multilayers with pectins of varying degrees of esterification.
PubMed:Aminophospholipid glycation and its inhibitor screening system: a new role of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as the inhibitor.
PubMed:Evaluation of human serum albumin as a substitute of foetal bovine serum for cell culture.
PubMed:Fermentative production of L-lysine: fungal fermentation and mutagenesis-II: a review.
PubMed:A novel acylase from Streptomyces mobaraensis that efficiently catalyzes hydrolysis/synthesis of capsaicins as well as N-acyl-L-amino acids and N-acyl-peptides.
PubMed:Regulation of aspartokinase, aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase and dihydrodipicolinate reductase in Lactobacillus plantarum.
PubMed:Effect of individual amino acids and glucose on activation and germination of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores in tempe starter.
PubMed:Development of gene delivery systems for the epsilon-poly-L-lysine producer, Streptomyces albulus.
PubMed:Stable polymeric microballoons as multifunctional device for biomedical uses: synthesis and characterization.
PubMed:Atopococcus tabaci gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped bacterium isolated from tobacco.
PubMed:Biodistribution and catabolism of 18F-labelled isopeptide N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine.
PubMed:Measuring bacterial growth by tapered fiber and changes in evanescent field.
PubMed:Effect of adding dietary L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine to a low gluten diet on urea synthesis in rats.
PubMed:Optimisation of the composition of a screen-printed acrylate polymer enzyme layer with respect to an improved selectivity and stability of enzyme electrodes.
PubMed:Nonenzymatic browning kinetics of a carbohydrate-based low-moisture food system at temperatures applicable to spray drying.
PubMed:Magnetic resonance imaging of labeled T-cells in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.
PubMed:Gene transfer into human hepatoma cells by receptor-associated protein/polylysine conjugates.
PubMed:Pyridinium-carbaldehyde: active Maillard reaction product from the reaction of hexoses with lysine residues.
PubMed:Influence of baking conditions and precursor supplementation on the amounts of the antioxidant pronyl-L-lysine in bakery products.
PubMed:Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of synthetic polymers.
PubMed:Physicochemical studies of pectin/poly-L-lysine gelation.
PubMed:A diet fortified with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces plasma cortisol and blocks anxiogenic response to transportation in pigs.
PubMed:Feeding frequency and type of isotope tracer do not affect direct estimates of lysine oxidation in growing pigs.
PubMed:Preliminary study of L-lysine production by Bacillus species using various agricultural by-products.
PubMed:Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.
PubMed:[Direct determination of Cu and Pb in edible L-lysine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].
PubMed:Bound fumonisin B1: analysis of fumonisin-B1 glyco and amino acid conjugates by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Central pipecolic acid increases food intake under ad libitum feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.
PubMed:Design of chiral monochloro-s-triazine reagents for the liquid chromatographic separation of amino acid enantiomers.
PubMed:Intracerebroventricular administration of GABA-A and GABA-B receptor antagonists attenuate feeding and sleeping-like behavior induced by L-pipecolic acid in neonatal chicks.
PubMed:Allofustis seminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from pig semen.
PubMed:Maillard reaction products inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins in vitro.
PubMed:epsilon-Poly-L-lysine: microbial production, biodegradation and application potential.
PubMed:Use of ADME studies to confirm the safety of epsilon-polylysine as a preservative in food.
PubMed:Purification and identification of a binding protein for pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor: a novel role of the inhibitor as an anti-granzyme A.
PubMed:Efficacy of oral supplementation with L-lysine in cats latently infected with feline herpesvirus.
PubMed:Citeromyces siamensis sp. nov., a novel halotolerant yeast isolated in Thailand.
PubMed:Lysyl-tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus: the Trp314 residue is shielded in a non-polar environment and is responsible for the fluorescence changes observed in the amino acid activation reaction.
PubMed:Downregulation of nNOS and synthesis of PGs associated with endotoxin-induced delay in gastric emptying.
PubMed:Mousy off-flavor of wine: precursors and biosynthesis of the causative N-heterocycles 2-ethyltetrahydropyridine, 2-acetyltetrahydropyridine, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline by Lactobacillus hilgardii DSM 20176.
PubMed:Structural and functional characterization of pronyl-lysine, a novel protein modification in bread crust melanoidins showing in vitro antioxidative and phase I/II enzyme modulating activity.
PubMed:Analysis of glycated and ascorbylated proteins by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:New approach to immunochemical determinations for triclopyr and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by using a bifunctional hapten, and evaluation of polyclonal antiserum.
PubMed:Transition state stabilization by the N-terminal anticodon-binding domain of lysyl-tRNA synthetase.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of licochalcone A against spore-forming bacteria.
PubMed:Isobaculum melis gen. nov., sp. nov., a Carnobacterium-like organism isolated from the intestine of a badger.
PubMed:Chemical interactions between odor-active thiols and melanoidins involved in the aroma staling of coffee beverages.
PubMed:Microbacterium gubbeenense sp. nov., from the surface of a smear-ripened cheese.
PubMed:Intracerebroventricular injection of pipecolic acid inhibits food intake and induces sleeping-like behaviors in the neonatal chick.
PubMed:The effect of peptide-pectin interactions on the gelation behaviour of a plant cell wall pectin.
PubMed:Fas aggregation does not correlate with Fas-mediated apoptosis.
PubMed:Effects of L-lysine deficient diet on the hypothalamic interstitial norepinephrine and diet-induced thermogenesis in rats in vivo.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of the total available free and intrachain lysine in various foods.
PubMed:Structural Modification and Bioavailability of Starch Components As Related to the Extent of Maillard Reaction: An Enzymatic Degradation and a Solid-State (13)C CPMAS NMR Study.
PubMed:Production, characterization, and application of anti-gossypol polyclonal antibodies.
PubMed:Effect of amino acids on the composition and properties of extruded mixtures of wheat flour and glucose.
PubMed:Circadian release of hypothalamic norepinephrine in rats in vivo is depressed during early L-lysine deficiency.
PubMed:Characteristics of sperm acrosin-like activity of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula Walbaum).
PubMed:Effects of pelleting and storage of a complex nursery pig diet on lysine bioavailability.
PubMed:Generation of antibodies directed against the low-immunogenic peptide-toxins microcystin-LR/RR and nodularin.
PubMed:Olfactory discrimination of amino acids in brown bullhead catfish.
PubMed:Development of a stable isotope dilution assay for an accurate quantification of protein-bound N(epsilon)-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-lysine using a (13)C-labeled internal standard.
PubMed:Regulation of L-methionine and L-lysine uptake in chicken jejunal brush-border membrane by dietary methionine.
PubMed:Convenient synthesis of lactuloselysine and its use for LC-MS analysis in milk-like model systems.
PubMed:Change of biotransformation steps of formaldehyde cycle in water-melon plants after infection with Fusarium oxysporum.
PubMed:A new interference-free lysine biosensor using a non-conducting polymer film.
PubMed:High-throughput flow-injection analysis of glucose and glutamate in food and biological samples by using enzyme/polyion complex-bilayer membrane-based electrodes as the detectors.
PubMed:Cardiovascular effects of dietary salts and isosorbide-5-mononitrate in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
PubMed:Effects of dietary protein, methionine and lysine on urinary amino acid excretion in turkeys.
PubMed:Limiting amino acids for a corn and soybean meal diet in weaned calves less than three months of age.
PubMed:Effect of protein and lysine supply on performance, nitrogen balance, and body composition changes of sows during lactation.
PubMed:Influence of dietary salts on the cardiovascular effects of low-dose combination of ramipril and felodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
PubMed:Effect of a lysine-enriched diet on L-lysine transport by the brush-border membrane of the chicken jejunum.
PubMed:Response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to supplements of individual essential amino acids in a semipurified diet, including an estimate of the maintenance requirement for essential amino acids.
PubMed:Dipodascus starmeri sp. nov., a new species of yeast occurring in cactus necroses.
PubMed:Lysyl-tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Formation and isolation of an enzyme-lysyladenylate complex and its analogue.
PubMed:Macroaggregated albumin potentiates the hypoglycemic effect of microencapsulated islets in the fed state of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
PubMed:Chemotaxis of the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina and the ciliated Tetrahymena pyriformis--effects of glycine, lysine, and alanine, and their oligopeptides.
PubMed:Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-tumor promoter, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells.
PubMed:Kinetics of formation of fluorescent products from hexanal and L-lysine in a two-phase system.
PubMed:Fanconi's syndrome and tubulointerstitial nephritis in association with L-lysine ingestion.
PubMed:Lysyl-tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Purification, and fluorometric and kinetic analysis of the binding of substrates, L-lysine and ATP.
PubMed:Crystalline lysine and threonine supplementation of soft red winter wheat or triticale, low-protein diets for growing-finishing swine.
PubMed:Adherence to and population impact of non-pharmacological and pharmacological antihypertensive therapy.
PubMed:Analysis of epsilon-N-2-furoylmethyl-L-lysine (furosine) in dried milk by capillary electrophoresis with controlled electroosmotic flow using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,3-butanediamine in the running electrolyte solution.
PubMed:Synthesis of pyrraline reference material.
PubMed:Recognition and neural plasticity responding to deficient nutrient intake scanned by a functional MRI in the brain of rats with L-lysine deficiency.
PubMed:Enhancement of production of IgM and interferon-beta in human cell lines by poly-lysine.
PubMed:Consumption of carbohydrate or medium- or long-chain triglycerides by unfed rats exerts different protein-sparing effects.
PubMed:Characterization, subcellular localization, and developmental regulation of a cysteine proteinase from Dictyostelium discoideum.
PubMed:Effect of continuous infusion of lysine via different routes and hepatic vagotomy on dietary choice in rats.
PubMed:Glossopharyngeal denervation alters responses to nutrients and toxic substances.
PubMed:Lysine deficient diet and lysine replacement affect food directed operant behavior.
PubMed:Studies on the formation of lysinomethylalanine and histidinomethylalanine in milk products.
PubMed:The significance of apical K+ channels in mudpuppy feeding behavior.
PubMed:Nutritional profile and antimicrobial spectrum of the spice Aframomum danielli K. Schum.
PubMed:Biological efficacy of L-lysine preparations containing biomass compared to L-lysine-HCl.
PubMed:Lysine supplementation of cereal foods: a retrospective.
PubMed:Self-selection of lysine by growing pigs: choice combinations between deficient or suboptimal and adequate or superoptimal dietary levels according to sex.
PubMed:Immobilization of aminoacylase by encapsulation in poly-L-lysine-stabilized calcium alginate beads.
PubMed:Structure and function of the cytoskeleton in heliozoa: 2. Measurement of the force of rapid axopodial contraction in Echinosphaerium.
PubMed:Effect of tumor burden and route of administration on the immunotherapeutic properties of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with poly-L-lysine in carboxymethyl cellulose [Poly(I,C)-LC].
PubMed:The dietary lysine requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass.
PubMed:Effect of extrusion on the ileal and fecal digestibilities of lysine, nitrogen, and energy in diets for young pigs.
PubMed:Lysine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler breeder males.
PubMed:Amino acid supplementation of meat meal in lysine-fortified, corn-based diets for growing-finishing pigs.
PubMed:Lysine requirements of fast- and slow-growing broiler chicks.
PubMed:Growth performance of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets with or without dried whey at various L-lysine.HCl levels.
PubMed:Taste preference and protein nutrition and L-amino acid homeostasis in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:Improvement in the nutritional quality of bread.
PubMed:Identification of an aflatoxin G1-serum albumin adduct and its relevance to the measurement of human exposure to aflatoxins.
PubMed:Formation, nutritional value, and safety of D-amino acids.
PubMed:[The efficacy of enriching wheat meal, bread and gluten with L-lysine evaluated experimentally and theoretically].
PubMed:Electrophysiological study of L-lysine transport across Triturus proximal tubule: evidence for Na(+)-independent entry and Na(+)-dependent exit.
PubMed:Effect of extrusion on the ileal and fecal digestibilities of lysine in yellow corn in diets for young pigs.
PubMed:Amino acid-supplemented raw soybean diets for finishing swine.
PubMed:Performance and nutrient balance in growing swine fed low-protein diets supplemented with amino acids and potassium.
PubMed:Aspartyl- and glutamyl-lysine crosslinks formation and their nutritional availability.
PubMed:Cassava root meal in diets for growing rabbits.
PubMed:Influence of dietary protein, fat or amino acids on the response of weanling swine to aflatoxin B1.
PubMed:Reproductive toxicity of muroctasin.
PubMed:Purification and some properties of cathepsin B from rabbit skeletal muscle.
PubMed:Interaction of lysinoalanine with the protein synthesizing apparatus.
PubMed:Comparative effects of individual amino acid excesses when added to a corn-soybean meal diet: effects on growth and dietary choice in the chick.
PubMed:Effects of intraportal infusion of glucose and lysine on food intake in intact and hepatic-vagotomized chickens.
PubMed:Effect of excess levels of methionine, tryptophan, arginine, lysine or threonine on growth and dietary choice in the pig.
PubMed:Antibody response to haptenic sugar antigen: immunodominancy of protein-bound lactose formed by amino-carbonyl reaction.
PubMed:[Methodologic studies on the metabolically-oriented determination of lysine requirements in broiler chickens. 2. Effect of the lysine content of the diet on the lysine oxidation rate in a 15-hour feed withdrawal before 14C-lysine injection].
PubMed:[Methodological studies of the metabolism-oriented determination of the lysine requirement in broiler chickens. 1. Influence of the lysine content of the diet on the lysine oxidation rate in short-term food withdrawal before 14C-lysine injection].
PubMed:Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.
PubMed:Effect of heat on the nutritional value of lupin (Lupinus angustifolius)--seed meal for growing pigs.
PubMed:Effect of biotin and(or) lysine additions to corn-soybean meal diets on the performance and nutrient balance of growing pigs.
PubMed:Stimulatory effect of arginine on acetylglutamate synthesis in isolated mitochondria of mouse and rat liver.
PubMed:Lysinoalanine: absence of mutagenic response in the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity assay.
PubMed:Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the mycotoxin zearalenone.
PubMed:The effect of pelleting feed supplemented with lysine on its utilization by young pigs.
PubMed:Effects of combining protein sources on lysine utilization by starter pigs.
PubMed:Oligo(methionyl) proteins. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the model isopeptides N epsilon-oligo(L-methionyl)-L-lysine.
PubMed:Effect of excess L-lysine on rat growth and on plasma and tissue concentrations of copper, iron and zinc.
PubMed:Vibrio furnissii (formerly aerogenic biogroup of Vibrio fluvialis), a new species isolated from human feces and the environment.
PubMed:Effect of excess dietary lysine on plasma lipids of the chick.
PubMed:Effect of lysine and methionine supplementation of low protein roaster diets fed after six weeks of age.
PubMed:Dietary selection for lysine by the chick.
PubMed:Kinetics of aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus in the presence of N(alpha)-palmitoyl-L-lysyl-L-lysine-ethyl ester dihydrochloride or dichlorvos.
PubMed:[Chemical and nutritional evaluation of triticale (Secale sp.) cultivated in Chile].
PubMed:Atypical biogroups of Escherichia coli found in clinical specimens and description of Escherichia hermannii sp. nov.
PubMed:Purification and Partial Characterization of an Aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus lactis.
PubMed:Protein quality, food intake and growth in normal and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma-bearing rats.
PubMed:Antimicrobial effects of N alpha-palmitoyl-L-lysyl-L-lysine ethyl ester dihydrochloride and its use to extend the shelf life of creamed cottage cheese.
PubMed:Production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces rimosus 12,907 as an animal feed supplement.
PubMed:[Water and food ingestion in the young rabbit given food deficient in methionine or lysine and drinking by free choice a solution of that amino acid or pure water].
PubMed:The amino acid supplementation of barley for the growing pig. 2. Optimal additions of lysine and threonine for growth.
PubMed:In vitro rumen microbial stability and in vivo availability of polymerized L-lysine-HCl.
PubMed:Analysis for availability of amino acid supplements in foods and feeds: biochemical and nutritional implications.
PubMed:[Use of small peptides to study the loss of available methionine, lysine and tryptophan during technological processing].
PubMed:Nutritional improvement of food proteins by enzymatic modification, especially by plastein synthesis reaction.
PubMed:Bioavailability of acetylated derivatives of methionine, threonine, and lysine.
PubMed:[The influence of the quality of proteins in fluoride bone fixation].
PubMed:Amino acid uptake in chickens subjected to increasing levels of quantitative food restriction.
PubMed:Reactivity of glycerol in intermediate moisture meats.
PubMed:Digestibility and nutrient value of palmitoyl-L-lysine derivatives in weanling rats.
PubMed:Renal toxicity of Nepsilon-(DL-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine (lysinoalanine) in rats.
PubMed:Synthesis and properties of Nepsilon-(DL-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine, lysinoalanine.
PubMed:[Completion of the set of amino acids contained in high-protein wheat through the addition of protein feeds and L-lysine to rations fed to laying hens].
PubMed:Crosslinking of nucleic acids and proteins by bisulfite.
PubMed:[Biological value of a soy-corn-wheat based noodle (macaroni) supplemented with lysine (author's transl)].
PubMed:A fermentation process for producing both ethanol and lysine-enriched yeast.
PubMed:Rapid separation and analysis of Nepsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine-and Nepsilon-(beta-aspartyl)-L-lysine in protein digests.
PubMed:[Substitution of protein animal feed through lysine-supplemented high-protein wheat during the breeding and laying periods of hens. 5. Influence of graded lysine supplements fed during the laying period on the production characteristics of hens].
PubMed:Lysinoalanine: presence in foods and food ingredients.
PubMed:[Substitution of protein feed through lysine-supplemented high-protein wheat during the rearing and laying period of hens. 4. Effect of graded lysine doses during the rearing of young hens on the performance characteristics during the laying period].
PubMed:Carbon dioxide-protein interaction in a gas-solid phase.
PubMed:Evaluation of maize gluten meal as a protein source in egg production with and without supplements of L-lysine and DL-methionine.
an essential amino acid. it is often added to animal feed. Dietary supplement, nutrient. Found widely in protein hydrolysates, e.g. casein, egg albumen, fibrin, gelatin, beet molasses. Flavouring agent for a variety of foods Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an alpha-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. It is an essential amino acid, which means that the human body cannot synthesize it. Its codons are AAA and AAG. (Wikipedia)
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