EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

choline chloride
2-hydroxyethyl(trimethyl)azanium chloride

Supplier Sponsors

Name:2-hydroxyethyl(trimethyl)azanium chloride
CAS Number: 67-48-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-655-4
FDA UNII:45I14D8O27
Beilstein Number:3563126
MDL:MFCD00011721
Molecular Weight:139.62478000
Formula:C5 H14 Cl N O
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:nutrient supplements
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
182.8252 Choline Chloride View - review
JECFA Food Flavoring:2003 choline chloride
FEMA Number:4500 choline chloride
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):67-48-1 ; CHOLINE CHLORIDE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart I--Nutrients
Sec. 182.8252 Choline chloride.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 302.00 to 305.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -3.700 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: not used anymore
 
Suppliers:
American International Chemical, LLC.
Choline Chloride
Balchem
VitaCholine™
Flavor: characteristic
Choline is an essential nutrient important to the healthy structure and function of the human body.
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Choline chloride
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Choline Chloride
Dow Chemical
Choline Chloride FCC/USP
Eastman Chemical
Choline Chloride 78% Solution
Odor: characteristic
Use: Choline is customary classified as a vitamin. It belongs to the family of water soluble B-vitamins. It was formerly known as the vitamin B4. Like other vitamins, it plays a significant role in nutrition, but its daily requirement seems to be hundreds of times greater than that of other vitamins.
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Choline Chloride
OQEMA
Choline Chloride 60%
OQEMA
Choline Chloride 75%
Penta International
CHOLINE CHLORIDE FCC 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Choline chloride, ≥98%, FCC
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Choline Chloride ≥99%
Taminco (Eastman)
(2-hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Choline Chloride >98.0%(T)
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 3400 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: CHROMODACYRORREA: EYE LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 58, Pg. 87, 1945.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 450 mg/kg
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. Vol. 24, Pg. 91, 1986.

oral-mouse LD50 3900 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: LACRIMATION: EYE BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 33, Pg. 1016, 1983.

intravenous-mouse LD50 53 mg/kg
SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: LACRIMATION: EYE LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 33, Pg. 1016, 1983.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 320 mg/kg
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 51, Pg. 281, 1942.

intravenous-cat LDLo 25 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

intravenous-dog LDLo 5 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

unreported-frog LDLo 1500 mg/kg
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 51, Pg. 281, 1942.

intraperitoneal-rabbit LDLo 500 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: CORNEAL DAMAGE: EYE
Journal of Infectious Diseases. Vol. 42, Pg. 473, 1928.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo 1100 ug/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 51, Pg. 281, 1942.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LDLo 735 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 6, Pg. 477, 1914/1915.

subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 1000 mg/kg
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 51, Pg. 281, 1942.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: nutrient supplements
Recommendation for choline chloride usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 24. Update in publication number(s): 26
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 4000.000006000.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: 4000.000006000.00000
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: 600.000001200.00000
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: 4000.000006000.00000
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 4000.000006000.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: 4000.000006000.00000
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: 4000.000006000.00000
snack foods: 4000.000006000.00000
soft candy: --
soups: 2500.000004000.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Choline-stabilised orthosilicic acid added for nutritional purposes to food supplements
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):67-48-1
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6209
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
SCCNFP:opinion
WGK Germany:1
2-hydroxyethyl(trimethyl)azanium chloride
Chemidplus:0000067481
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:67-48-1
 
References:
 2-hydroxyethyl(trimethyl)azanium chloride
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:67-48-1
Pubchem (cid):6209
Pubchem (sid):134970718
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB29558
FooDB:FDB000711
Export Tariff Code:2923.10.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
FAO:Choline chloride
Formulations/Preparations:
forms available generically: tablets 250 mg (choline bitartrates); powder (choline chloride, choline dihydrogen citrate).
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
None Found
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
 
Synonyms:
 biocolina
 cholinchloride
 choline chloride 2 silica conditioned
 choline chloride FCC
 choline chloride USP FCC
 cholinium chloride
(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-trimethyl-ammonium
2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride
2-hydroxyethyl(trimethyl)azanium chloride
(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethyl-ammonium chloride
(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
(beta-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylazanium chloride
 luridin chloride
2-(trimethylamino)ethan-1-ol, chloride
 

Articles:

PubMed:A novel digestion method based on a choline chloride-oxalic acid deep eutectic solvent for determining Cu, Fe, and Zn in fish samples.
PubMed:Construction of Au nanoparticles on choline chloride modified glassy carbon electrode for sensitive detection of nitrite.
PubMed:Enhancement of salt intake by choline chloride.
PubMed:Simple electrochemical sensor for caffeine based on carbon and Nafion-modified carbon electrodes.
PubMed:An episode of dioxin contamination in feedingstuff: the choline chloride case.
PubMed:[Lipid metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract of lactating cows during the duodenal infusion of choline chloride and methionine].
PubMed:Enzymatic production of pyrimidine nucleotides using Corynebacterium ammoniagenes cells and recombinant Escherichia coli cells: enzymatic production of CDP-choline from orotic acid and choline chloride (Part I).
PubMed:Acute toxicity assessment of choline by inhalation, intraperitoneal and oral routes in Balb/c mice.
PubMed:Dioxin contamination of food in Italy: an overview of the situation 1999-2000.
PubMed:Dipsogenic and feeding influences of intraventricularly infused anionic choline solutions.
PubMed:Growth of the skeletal units of the rat mandible in acute renal failure experimental model.
PubMed:Evaluation of PCDD/Fs characterization in animal feed and feed additives.
PubMed:Choline distribution and metabolism in pregnant rats and fetuses are influenced by the choline content of the maternal diet.
PubMed:The effects of manganese, biotin, and choline on hexosamine and hydroxyproline content as related to leg weakness.
PubMed:Dietary S-methylmethionine, a component of foods, has choline-sparing activity in chickens.
PubMed:Effect of supplementary choline on the performance of broiler breeders fed on different energy sources.
PubMed:Lung surfactant phospholipids as related to hydration and choline status of fasted rats.
PubMed:Lack of effect of choline and narcotic antagonists upon apomorphine discrimination.
PubMed:Prolonged survival of female AKR mice fed diets supplemented with methionine and choline.
PubMed:Effects of cationic species on visual color formation in model Maillard reactions of pentose sugars and amino acids.
PubMed:A choline-rich diet improves survival in a rat model of endotoxin shock.
PubMed:The folic acid requirements of starting broiler chicks fed diets based on practical ingredients. 1. Interrelationships with dietary choline.
PubMed:[Studies on the vitamin requirement and vitamin supply in fattening turkeys. 2. Checking the vitamin supplements to state-approved mixed animal feed for fattening turkeys].
PubMed:Construction of a plasmid carrying both CTP synthetase and a fused gene formed from cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase and choline kinase genes and its application to industrial CDP-choline production: enzymatic production of CDP-choline from orotic acid (Part II).
PubMed:Rumen-protected choline and vitamin E supplementation in periparturient dairy goats: effects on milk production and folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin E status.
PubMed:Solid-state fermentation for production of griseofulvin on rice bran using Penicillium griseofulvum.
PubMed:Rumen-protected choline administration to transition cows: effects on milk production and vitamin E status.
PubMed:Dietary choline requirements of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus.
PubMed:Effects of Ionic and Osmotic Strength on the Glucosyltransferase of Rhizobium meliloti Responsible for Cyclic beta-(1,2)-Glucan Biosynthesis.
 
Notes:
a basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. it is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. Choline chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. Choline chloride is mass produced and is an important additive in feed especially for chickens where it accelerates growth. Other commercial choline salts are choline hydroxide and choline bitartrate. In foodstuffs the compound is often present as phosphatidylcholine. (Wikipedia)
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