colloidal clay
a colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water. tsca definition 2008: a colloidal clay. consists primarily of montmorillonite. Used in foods as a colourant, pigment and stabiliser Also known as potash bentonite or K-bentonite, potassium bentonite is a potassium rich illitic clay formed from alteration of volcanic ash.; Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. There are a few types of bentonites and their names depend on the dominant elements, such as K, Na, Ca, and Al. As noted in several places in the geologic literature, there are some nomenclatorial problems with the classification of bentonite clays. Bentonite usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water. However, the term bentonite, as well as a similar clay called tonstein, have been used for clay beds of uncertain origin. For industrial purposes, two main classes of bentonite exist: sodium and calcium bentonite. In stratigraphy and tephrochronology, completely devitrified (weathered volcanic glass) ash-fall beds are commonly referred to as K-bentonites when the dominant clay species is illite. Other common clay species, and sometimes dominant, are montmorillinite and kaolinite. Kaolinite dominated clays are commonly referred to as tonsteins and are typically associated with coal.; Bentoquatam protects the skin like a shield against poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac by physically blocking skin contact with their resin. The best protection against getting these conditions is to avoid contact with these plants. This medicine does not dry oozing and weeping caused by the rash of poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac.; Calcium bentonite is a useful adsorbent of ions in solution. as well as fats and oils, being a main active ingredient of Fuller's Earth, probably one of the earliest industrial cleaning agents. Calcium bentonite may be converted to sodium bentonite (termed sodium beneficiation or sodium activation) to exhibit many of sodium bentonite's properties by a process known as "ion exchange" (patented in 1935 by Germans U Hofmann and K Endell). Commonly this means adding 5-10% of a soluble sodium salt such as sodium carbonate to wet bentonite, mixing well, and allowing time for the ion exchange to take place and water to remove the exchanged calcium.[citation needed] Some properties, such as viscosity and fluid loss of suspensions, of sodium beneficiated calcium bentonite (or sodium activated bentonite) may not be fully equivalent to natural sodium bentonite. For example, residual calcium carbonates (formed if exchanged cations are insufficiently removed) may result in inferior performance of the bentonite in geosynthetic liners; Much of bentonite's usefulness in the drilling and geotechnical engineering industry comes from its unique rheological properties. Relatively small quantities of bentonite suspended in water form a viscous, shear thinning material. Most often, bentonite suspensions are also thixotropic, although rare cases of rheopectic behavior have also been reported. At high enough concentrations (~60 grams of bentonite per litre of suspension), bentonite suspensions begin to take on the characteristics of a gel (a fluid with a minimum yield strength required to make it move). For these reasons it is a common component of drilling mud used to curtail drilling fluid invasion by its propensity for aiding in the formation of mud cake.; Pascalite is a commercial name for the calcium bentonite clay.
  • ECSA Chemicals
    • ECSA Chemicals
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      ECSA Group offers its customers in these business segments a complete 'one-stop shopping' solution.
      A hundred years on from its establishment, the Emanuele Centonze Holding SA has developed a solid presence in Switzerland and in Europe. The Group currently includes: ECSA Chemicals AG/ECSA Italia SRL Societ con Unico Socio – ECSA Maintenance AG – ECSA Energy SA – Porta Ticino Easy Stop SA. The Group operates in the distribution of chemical and petroleum products, in the international trading of commodities, and in the distribution of maintenance systems. With 285 employees, a consolidated turnover of 335 million Swiss Francs in 2015, and more than 15,000 active customers, the Group ranks among the top 500 companies in Switzerland. ECSA operates in Switzerland and the EU, and in particular has consolidated its geographical position on the main axis linking northern and southern Europe, thus creating a competitive and privileged logistical hub.
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    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
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      02-08500 BENTONITE FCC
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CAS Number: 1302-78-9Picture of molecule
Other: 10043-07-9
ECHA EC Number: 215-108-5
MDL: MFCD00130611
Molecular Weight: 180.05951720
Formula: Al2 H2 O6 Si
Category: processing aids
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1155 Bentonite View-review
DG SANTE Food Additives: bentonite
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.

Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings.

Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.170 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.

Subpart D--Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids
Sec. 178.3297 Colorants for polymers.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1155 Bentonite.
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1.238e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data2
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: absorbents
bulking agents
cosmetic colorants
emulsion stabilisers
viscosity controlling agents
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BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Bentonite 95%
Bristol Botanicals
Bentonite Clay powder
CG Herbals
ECSA Chemicals
Company Profile
Kraft Chemical
Liberty Natural Products
Penta International
For experimental / research use only.
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Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intravenous-rat LD50  35 mg/kg
Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale. Vol. 44, Pg. 1685, 1968.

intravenous-dog LDLo  10 mg/kg
Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 42, Pg. 860, 1963.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: processing aids
Recommendation for bentonite usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for bentonite flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Safety of aluminium from dietary intake[1] - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Food Contact Materials (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, bentonite, aluminium potassium sulphate for use in active food contact materials
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of bentonite as a technological feed additive for all species
View page or View pdf
Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: mode of action and assessment of efficacy
View page or View pdf
Outcome of the consultation with Member States and EFSA on the basic substance application for clayed charcoal for use in plant protection as a protectant in grapevines
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of a preparation of algae interspaced bentonite as a feed additive for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of bentonite as a feed additive for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Safety assessment of the active substances carboxymethylcellulose, acetylated distarch phosphate, bentonite, boric acid and aluminium sulfate, for use in active food contact materials
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
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NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
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Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 1302-78-9
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 517273
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
Chemidplus: 0001302789
RTECS: 1302-78-9
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Canada Domestic Sub. List: 1302-78-9
Pubchem (cid): 517273
Pubchem (sid): 135208061
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
KEGG (GenomeNet): D03084
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): Search
FooDB: FDB012878
Export Tariff Code: 2508.10.0000
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
•hollander & mcclanahan base is a hydrophilic base containing bentoniteit contains petrolatum 32 g, bentonite 13 g, sodium lauryl sulfate 0.5 g, water 54 g, methylparaben 0.1 g bentonite usp •bentonite usp: magma usp (5%) contains bentonite 5 g & purified water, to make 100 ml. ointment contains bentonite 15 g, propylene glycol 15 ml, & petrolatum, to make 100 g. bentonite usp •bentonite magma usp prepn: sprinkle...(50 g), in portions, upon hot purified water (800 ml), allowing each portion to become thoroughly wetted without stirring. allow it to stand with occasional stirring for 24 hr. stir until uniform...add purified water to make 1000 ml & mix. bentonite magma usp •addition of a humectant (glycerin, sorbitol, etc) in amt up to 10% will retard...drying action of bentonite & water ointments. bentonite usp •depending on sequence of mixing it is possible to prepare both oilwater & wateroil emulsions. when oilwater emulsion is desired, bentonite is first dispersed in water & allowed to form magma. oil phase is then added gradually with constant trituration. to prepare wateroil emulsion, bentonite is first dispersed in oil; water is then added gradually. •there are two varieties: (1) sodium bentonite (wyoming or western), which has high swelling capacity in water; and (2) calcium bentonite (southern), with negligible swelling capacity.
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
 cosmetic colorants 
 emulsion stabilisers 
 viscosity controlling agents 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 celery plant
Search Trop  Picture
 not found in nature
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 accofloc 352
 accugel F
 bengel 11
 bengel HVP
 bentolite L
 bentone 34
 bentosolon 82
 c.i. 77004
 ci 77004
colloidal clay
 ivy block
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PubMed: Alternative bleaching methods for Cheddar cheese whey.
PubMed: In vitro assessment of the effectiveness of non-nutritive sorbent materials as binding agents for boar taint compounds.
PubMed: Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.
PubMed: Immunochemical investigation of allergenic residues in experimental and commercially-available wines fined with egg white proteins.
PubMed: Influence of the structural features of commercial mannoproteins in white wine protein stabilization and chemical and sensory properties.
PubMed: Effect of fining on the colour and pigment composition of young red wines.
PubMed: Effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the protein structure and thermal stability of Sauvignon blanc wine.
PubMed: Earthy off-flavour in wine: evaluation of remedial treatments for geosmin contamination.
PubMed: Synthesis and synergistic, additive inhibitory effects of novel spiro derivatives against ringworm infections.
PubMed: Aspartic acid protease from Botrytis cinerea removes haze-forming proteins during white winemaking.
PubMed: Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.
PubMed: Effect of incorporation of mahua extract, fining agent and ageing on the quality characteristics of red wine.
PubMed: Nanocomposite PAAm/methyl cellulose/montmorillonite hydrogel: evidence of synergistic effects for the slow release of fertilizers.
PubMed: Addition of carrageenan at different stages of winemaking for white wine protein stabilization.
PubMed: Selective removal and inactivation of bacteria by nanoparticle composites prepared by surface modification of montmorillonite with quaternary ammonium compounds.
PubMed: Reduction in the urinary aflatoxin M1 biomarker as an early indicator of the efficacy of dietary interventions to reduce exposure to aflatoxins.
PubMed: Effect of clay concentration on morphology and properties of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films.
PubMed: Efficacy of coating activated carbon with milk proteins to prevent binding of bacterial cells from foods for PCR detection.
PubMed: Oxygen barrier of multilayer thin films comprised of polysaccharides and clay.
PubMed: In vitro toxicological assessment of clays for their use in food packaging applications.
PubMed: Effect of monogastric and ruminant gastrointestinal conditions on in vitro aflatoxin B₁ adsorption ability by a montmorillonite.
PubMed: Alginate/quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/clay nanocomposite microspheres: preparation and drug-controlled release behavior.
PubMed: Prevention of conglomerate formation in not-from-concentrate single-cultivar cloudy apple juice by using different treatment methods.
PubMed: Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites.
PubMed: Structure modification of montmorillonite nanoclay by surface coating with soy protein.
PubMed: Clarification and pasteurisation effects on monomeric anthocyanins and percent polymeric colour of black carrot (Daucus carota L.) juice.
PubMed: Degradation of white wine haze proteins by Aspergillopepsin I and II during juice flash pasteurization.
PubMed: The influence of fining agents on the removal of some pesticides from white wine of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Emir.
PubMed: Effect of adding a mycotoxin-sequestering agent on milk aflatoxin M₁ concentration and the performance and immune response of dairy cattle fed an aflatoxin B₁-contaminated diet.
PubMed: Flocculation and haze removal from crude beer using in-house produced laccase from Trametes versicolor cultured on brewer's spent grain.
PubMed: Ultrasound-assisted pullulan/montmorillonite bionanocomposite coating with high oxygen barrier properties.
PubMed: Alternative bleaching methods for Cheddar cheese whey.
PubMed: Effect of experimental feed additives on aflatoxin in milk of dairy cows fed aflatoxin-contaminated diets.
PubMed: Urea-montmorillonite-extruded nanocomposites: a novel slow-release material.
PubMed: Interaction of Lactobacillus plantarum MON03 with Tunisian montmorillonite clay and ability of the composite to immobilize Zearalenone in vitro and counteract immunotoxicity in vivo.
PubMed: Effect of humic acid on pyrene removal from water by polycation-clay mineral composites and activated carbon.
PubMed: Ochratoxin A removal from red wine by several oenological fining agents: bentonite, egg albumin, allergen-free adsorbents, chitin and chitosan.
PubMed: Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.
PubMed: Water vapor adsorption isotherms of agar-based nanocomposite films.
PubMed: Preparation and properties of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites for food packaging.
PubMed: Evaluation of pathological effects in broilers during fumonisins and clays exposure.
PubMed: Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces urinary biomarkers of fumonisin B₁ exposure in rats and humans.
PubMed: Montmorillonite intercalated with glutathione for antioxidant delivery: synthesis, characterization, and bioavailability evaluation.
PubMed: Transparent films based on PLA and montmorillonite with tunable oxygen barrier properties.
PubMed: Aflatoxin toxicity reduction in feed by enhanced binding to surface-modified clay additives.
PubMed: Influence of the simultaneous addition of bentonite and cellulose fibers on the mechanical and barrier properties of starch composite-films.
PubMed: Bio-based nanocomposite coating to preserve quality of Fior di latte cheese.
PubMed: Structure and physical properties of starch/poly vinyl alcohol/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposite films.
PubMed: Isotherm modeling of organic activated bentonite and humic acid polymer used as mycotoxin adsorbents.
PubMed: Toxicity of aluminum silicates used in hemostatic dressings toward human umbilical veins endothelial cells, HeLa cells, and RAW267.4 mouse macrophages.
PubMed: Antimicrobial silver-montmorillonite nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of fresh fruit salad.
PubMed: Zearalenone removal in synthetic media and aqueous part of canned corn by montmorillonite K10 and pillared montmorillonite K10.
PubMed: Preparation and characterization of agar/clay nanocomposite films: the effect of clay type.
PubMed: Effects of various plasticizers and nanoclays on the mechanical properties of red algae film.
PubMed: Effects of ionic strength and sulfate upon thermal aggregation of grape chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins in a model system.
PubMed: Detection of 5 CFU/g of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce using activated charcoal and real-time PCR without enrichment.
PubMed: Direct probing of the folding/unfolding event of bovine hemoglobin at montmorillonite clay modified electrode by adsorptive-transfer voltammetry.
PubMed: Active systems based on silver-montmorillonite nanoparticles embedded into bio-based polymer matrices for packaging applications.
PubMed: Applying zeta potential measurements to characterize the adsorption on montmorillonite of organic cations as monomers, micelles, or polymers.
PubMed: Direct electrochemical determination of methyl jasmonate in wheat spikelet at a nano-montmorillonite film modified electrode by derivative square wave voltammetry.
PubMed: Effect of type and content of modified montmorillonite on the structure and properties of bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate and montmorillonite.
PubMed: Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.
PubMed: Adsorption and oxidative transformation of phenolic acids By Fe(III)-montmorillonite.
PubMed: Genotoxicity of unmodified and organo-modified montmorillonite.
PubMed: Value-added processing of peanut meal: aflatoxin sequestration during protein extraction.
PubMed: Characterization, antigenicity and detection of fish gelatine and isinglass used as processing aids in wines.
PubMed: Physicochemical properties of starch-CMC-nanoclay biodegradable films.
PubMed: Determination of the bovine food allergen casein in white wines by quantitative indirect ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blot and immunostaining.
PubMed: Effect of the inclusion of adsorbents on aflatoxin B1 quantification in animal feedstuffs.
PubMed: Lysozyme in wine: A risk evaluation for consumers allergic to hen's egg.
PubMed: Three different targets for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains resulting in improved effectiveness of bentonite fining.
PubMed: Performance of activated carbon and bentonite for adsorption of amoxicillin from wastewater: mechanisms, isotherms and kinetics.
PubMed: Addition of modified bentonites in polymer gel formulation of 2,4-D for its controlled release in water and soil.
PubMed: Sequential use of bentonites and solar photocatalysis to treat winery wastewater.
PubMed: Efficacy of bentonite clay in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in piglets fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.
PubMed: Adsorption effect on the degradation of carbaryl, mecoprop, and paraquat by anodic fenton treatment in an SWy-2 montmorillonite clay slurry.
PubMed: Quaternary herbicides retention by the amendment of acid soils with a bentonite-based waste from wineries.
PubMed: Environmentally friendly formulations of alachlor and atrazine: preparation, characterization, and reduced leaching.
PubMed: NovaSil clay does not affect the concentrations of vitamins A and E and nutrient minerals in serum samples from Ghanaians at high risk for aflatoxicosis.
PubMed: Adsorption of Cry1Ab protein isolated from Bt transgenic rice on bentone, kaolin, humic acids, and soils.
PubMed: Removal of pesticides from white wine by the use of fining agents and filtration.
PubMed: Reduction of ochratoxin a levels in red wine by bentonite, modified bentonites, and chitosan.
PubMed: [Sorption characteristics of surfactant onto bentonite using microwave irradiation].
PubMed: Effect of bentonite characteristics on the elemental composition of wine.
PubMed: Use of activated carbon coated with bentonite for increasing the sensitivity of pcr detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Canadian oyster (Crassostrea gigas) tissue.
PubMed: Poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants--field observations.
PubMed: Removal of famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin residues in red wines: effects of clarification and filtration processes.
PubMed: Treatment of an acid soil with bentonite used for wine fining: effects on soil properties and the growth of Lolium multiflorum.
PubMed: Influence of winemaking practices on the concentration of rare earth elements in white wines studied by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Effect of fining and filtration on the haze formation in bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) juice.
PubMed: Controlled release of isoproturon, imidacloprid, and cyromazine from alginate-bentonite-activated carbon formulations.
PubMed: Comparative study of protein stabilization in white wine using zirconia and bentonite: physicochemical and wine sensory analysis.
PubMed: Strategies to prevent mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feed: a review.
PubMed: Co-composting of acid waste bentonites and their effects on soil properties and crop biomass.
PubMed: Montmorillonite ameliorates hyperthyroidism of rats and mice attributed to its adsorptive effect.
PubMed: Can Ivy Block prevent poison ivy?
PubMed: Development of controlled release formulations of carbofuran and evaluation of their efficacy against Meloidogyne incognita.
PubMed: The use of bentonite to remove dark colour in repeatingly used palm oil.
PubMed: PVPP-polyphenol complexes: a molecular approach.
PubMed: Australian research on ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A.
PubMed: Thermospectroscopic study of the adsorption mechanism of the hydroxamic siderophore ferrioxamine B by calcium montmorillonite.
PubMed: Properties of aged montmorillonite-wheat gluten composite films.
PubMed: Determination of the grape invertase content (using PTA-ELISA) following various fining treatments versus changes in the total protein content of wine. relationships with wine foamability.
PubMed: Aflatoxin B1 binding to sorbents in bovine ruminal fluid.
PubMed: Adsorption of pesticides from water by functionalized organobentonites.
PubMed: Inter-laboratory comparison of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in bleaching earth used in the refinement of edible oils.
PubMed: Use of bentonite and activated carbon in controlled release formulations of carbofuran.
PubMed: Effects of clarification and filtration processes on the removal of fungicide residues in red wines (var. Monastrell).
PubMed: Short-term safety evaluation of processed calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) in humans.
PubMed: Chronic toxicological evaluation of dietary NovaSil clay in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed: Water purification from organic pollutants by optimized micelle-clay systems.
PubMed: Sorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in model humic acid-clay systems.
PubMed: Adsorption of sterigmatocystin by montmorillonite and inhibition of its genotoxicity in the Nile tilapia fish (Oreachromis nilaticus).
PubMed: In vitro binding of zearalenone to different adsorbents.
PubMed: Effect of animal feed enriched with Se and clays on Hg bioaccumulation in chickens: in vivo experimental study.
PubMed: Organoclay formulations of acetochlor: effect of high salt concentration.
PubMed: Adsorption of atrazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine onto Fe(III) polyhydroxy cations intercalated vermiculite and montmorillonite.
PubMed: Efficacy of sodium bentonite as a detoxifier of broiler feed contaminated with aflatoxin and fumonisin.
PubMed: Effects of phytoplankton-induced turbidity on predation success of piscivorous Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis): possible implications for fish community structure in lakes.
PubMed: Profiling of soluble proteins in wine by nano-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Application of adsorbent agents technology in the removal of aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1) from malt extract.
PubMed: Assessment of residual immunoreactivity in red or white wines clarified with pea or lupin extracts.
PubMed: Toxicological evaluation and metal bioavailability in pregnant rats following exposure to clay minerals in the diet.
PubMed: Use of activated bentonites in controlled-release formulations of atrazine.
PubMed: Aflatoxin binders II: reduction of aflatoxin M1 in milk by sequestering agents of cows consuming aflatoxin in feed.
PubMed: Flazasulfuron: alcoholysis, chemical hydrolysis, and degradation on various minerals.
PubMed: Evaluation of residual immunoreactivity in red and white wines clarified with gluten or gluten derivatives.
PubMed: Structure of dried cellular alginate matrix containing fillers provides extra protection for microorganisms against UVC radiation.
PubMed: Analysis of two bentonites of enological interest before and after commercial activation by solid Na(2)CO(3).
PubMed: Photostabilization of an entomopathogenic fungus using composite clay matrices.
PubMed: Sulfentrazone adsorbed on micelle-montmorillonite complexes for slow release in soil.
PubMed: Sulfosulfuron incorporated in micelles adsorbed on montmorillonite for slow release formulations.
PubMed: Clarification of Muscat musts using wheat proteins and the flotation technique.
PubMed: Imazaquin adsorbed on pillared clay and crystal violet-montmorillonite complexes for reduced leaching in soil.
PubMed: Inexpensive isolation of beta-D-glucopyranosidase from alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, alpha-L-rhamnopyranosidase, and o-acetylesterase.
PubMed: Comprehensive study on dioxin contents in binder and anti-caking agent feed additives.
PubMed: Determination of PCDDs and PCDFs in different animal feed ingredients.
PubMed: Slow-release formulations of sulfometuron incorporated in micelles adsorbed on montmorillonite.
PubMed: Sulfometuron incorporation in cationic micelles adsorbed on montmorillonite.
PubMed: Influence of lysozyme treatments on champagne base wine foaming properties.
PubMed: Nicosulfuron: alcoholysis, chemical hydrolysis, and degradation on various minerals.
PubMed: Fe(III)-EDDHA and -EDDHMA sorption on Ca-montmorillonite, ferrihydrite, and peat.
PubMed: Reduction of patulin during apple juice clarification.
PubMed: Investigation of organophilic montmorillonite clay inclusion in zearalenone-contaminated diets using the mouse uterine weight bioassay.
PubMed: Recovery and characterization of by-products from egg processing plant wastewater using coagulants.
PubMed: Montmorillonite-phenyltrimethylammonium yields environmentally improved formulations of hydrophobic herbicides.
PubMed: Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon by using organoclays.
PubMed: Organo-clay formulations of the hydrophobic herbicide norflurazon yield reduced leaching.
PubMed: Pesticide residues in grapes, wine, and their processing products.
PubMed: Controlled release of carbofuran from an alginate-bentonite formulation: water release kinetics and soil mobility.
PubMed: Development of a gel formulation of formic acid for control of parasitic mites of honey bees.
PubMed: Controlled release of diuron from an alginate-bentonite formulation: water release kinetics and soil mobility study.
PubMed: Evolution of residual levels of six pesticides during elaboration of red wines. Effect of wine-making procedures in their dissappearance.
PubMed: Calamine Lotion: Experimenting with a New Suspending Agent.
PubMed: Effect of sodium bentonite on the performance and blood variables of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxins.
PubMed: Effects of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, synthetic zeolite and bentonite on serum biochemical and haematological characters of broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis.
PubMed: The regulation of crystalline silica: an industry perspective.
PubMed: Failure of dietary bentonite clay, Silent Herder mineral supplement, or parenteral Banamine to alleviate locoweed toxicosis in rats.
PubMed: From the Food and Drug Administration.
PubMed: Countermeasures for radiocesium in animal products in Norway after the Chernobyl accident--techniques, effectiveness, and costs.
PubMed: Kinetic study of anaerobic digestion of fruit-processing wastewater in immobilized-cell bioreactors.
PubMed: Kinetics of anaerobic digestion of soft drink wastewater in immobilized cell bioreactors.
PubMed: Effect of sodium bentonite or hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate on growth performance and tibia mineral concentrations in broiler chicks fed nutrient-deficient diets.
PubMed: Pine needle abortion in cattle: effects of diet variables on consumption of pine needles and parturition response.
PubMed: Chemical methods for reduction of the transfer of radionuclides to farm animals in semi-natural environments.
PubMed: Effectiveness of different types of clay for reducing the detrimental effects of aflatoxin-contaminated diets on performance and serum profiles of weanling pigs.
PubMed: Effects of feeding aflatoxin-contaminated diets with and without clay to weanling and growing pigs on performance, liver function, and mineral metabolism.
PubMed: Potential ameliorators of aflatoxicosis in weanling/growing swine.
PubMed: Effects of bentonite on wool growth and nitrogen metabolism in fauna-free and faunated sheep.
PubMed: Development of a laboratory method to predict rapidly the availability of radiocaesium.
PubMed: [Coexistent effect of clay minerals on transfer frequency of plasmid DNA to fecal coliforms isolated from ground water].
PubMed: Sodium bentonite as a component in layer diets.
PubMed: Investigations of the use of clay minerals and prussian blue in reducing the transfer of dietary radiocaesium to milk.
PubMed: Countermeasures for reducing the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods.
PubMed: Effects of bentonite on transfer of radionuclides from forage to milk.
PubMed: Bentonite models simulate turkey rolls during convective heating.
PubMed: Ion-pair reverse-phase liquid chromatographic determination of amprolium in complete feeds and premixes.
PubMed: [Histo-autoradiographic study of the synthesis of gastric mucus in the rat stomach. Chronology of stimulation of mucus synthesis following ingestion of water, food and a combination of montmorillonite beidellite and an antacid].
PubMed: Occurrence and properties of bacteriophages of Leuconostoc oenos in Australian wines.
PubMed: Response of lactating cows to pelleted and unpelleted soybean meal after partial protein depletion.
PubMed: [Histo-autoradiographic study of the secretion of gastric mucus in the rat stomach. II. Role of feeding and its combination with an antacid].
PubMed: Effects of pinealectomy on neurohypophysial hormones in the SFO and plasma of dehydrated rats exposed to 12 hours of light.
PubMed: Microbiological determination of lincomycin in feeds and supplements containing high concentrations of bentonite.
PubMed: Bentonite-water dispersions--an effective dietetic research tool.
PubMed: In vitro effect of pH variations on rumen fermentation, and in vivo effects of buffers in lambs before and after adaptation to high concentrate diets.
PubMed: Precipitation of proteins from potato juice with bentonite.
PubMed: [Optimization of the freezing process by load].
PubMed: [Toxicological studies of Bulgarian activated bentonite].
PubMed: Collaborative study of assay method for erythromycin in pelleted feeds containing binding agents.
PubMed: An epidemic of trichinosis after ingestion of wild pig in Hawaii.
PubMed: Studies on the adsorption and interaction of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. I. With montmorillonites.
PubMed: Hydrolysis of methylparathion in soils.
PubMed: [Low milk fat syndrome in dairy cows. Field trial with potential fat content increasing substances (author's transl)].
PubMed: The role of silages, feed additives, and less common feed substances in ovine nutrition.
PubMed: [Year-round buffering of cattle feed mixture and its effect on metabolism and productivity].
PubMed: [Year-round buffering of the feed ration using for dairy cows montmorillonite (Bentonite) and its effect on the health and the hematological and biochemical indices].
PubMed: [Buffering of the animal feed ration with montmorillonite (bentonite) in ruminants under experimental conditions].
PubMed: [Stability of some antibiotics in medicated feed and milkreplacers (author's transl)].
PubMed: Methods for detecting food-borne enteroviruses.
PubMed: Food-borne virus:detection in a model system.
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