taurine
2-aminoethanesulphonic acid
 
Notes:
a conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. it is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids. Essential nutrient obt. from diet and by in vivo synth. from methionine and cysteine. Present in meats, fish, legumes, human milk, molluscs and other foodstuffs. Dietary supplement, e.g. in Red Bull drink Taurine is a sulfur amino acid like methionine, cystine, cysteine and homocysteine. It is a lesser-known amino acid because it is not incorporated into the structural building blocks of protein. Yet taurine is an essential amino acid in pre-term and newborn infants of humans and many other species. Adults can synthesize their own taurine, yet are probably dependent in part on dietary taurine. Taurine is abundant in the brain, heart, breast, gallbladder and kidney and has important roles in health and disease in these organs. Taurine has many diverse biological functions serving as a neurotransmitter in the brain, a stabilizer of cell membranes and a facilitator in the transport of ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Taurine is highly concentrated in animal and fish protein, which are good sources of dietary taurine. It can be synthesized by the body from cysteine when vitamin B6 is present. Deficiency of taurine occurs in premature infants and neonates fed formula milk, and in various disease states. Inborn errors of taurine metabolism have been described. OMIM 168605, an unusual neuropsychiatric disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion through 3 generations of a family. Symptoms began late in the fifth decade in 6 affected persons and death occurred after 4 to 6 years. The earliest and most prominent symptom was mental depression not responsive to antidepressant drugs or electroconvulsive therapy. Sleep disturbances, exhaustion and marked weight loss were features. Parkinsonism developed later, and respiratory failure occurred terminally. OMIM 145350 describes congestive cardiomyopathy and markedly elevated urinary taurine levels (about 5 times normal). Other family members had late or holosystolic mitral valve prolapse and elevated urinary taurine values (about 2.5 times normal). In 2 with mitral valve prolapse, congestive cardiomyopathy eventually developed while the amounts of urinary taurine doubled. Taurine, after GABA, is the second most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its inhibitory effect is one source of taurine's anticonvulsant and antianxiety properties. It also lowers glutamic acid in the brain, and preliminary clinical trials suggest taurine may be useful in some forms of epilepsy. Taurine in the brain is usually associated with zinc or manganese. The amino acids alanine and glutamic acid, as well as pantothenic acid, inhibit taurine metabolism while vitamins A and B6, zinc and manganese help build taurine. Cysteine and B6 are the nutrients most directly involved in taurine synthesis. Taurine levels have been found to decrease significantly in many depressed patients. One reason that the findings are not entirely clear is because taurine is often elevated in the blood of epileptics who need it. It is often difficult to distinguish compensatory changes in human biochemistry from true metabolic or deficiency disease. Low levels of taurine are found in retinitis pigmentosa. Taurine deficiency in experimental animals produces degeneration of light-sensitive cells. Therapeutic applications of taurine to eye disease are likely to be forthcoming. Taurine has many important metabolic roles. Supplements can stimulate prolactin and insulin release. The parathyroid gland makes a peptide hormone called glutataurine (glutamic acid-taurine), which further demonstrates taurine's role in endocrinology. Taurine increases bilirubin and cholesterol excretion in bile, critical to normal gallbladder function. It seems to inhibit the effect of morphine and potentiates the effects of opiate antagonists. Low plasma taurine levels have been found in a variety of conditions, i.e., depression, hypertension, hypothyroidism, gout, institutionalized patients, infertility, obesity, kidney failure and others. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/); Taurine is an essential dietary requirement for feline health, since cats cannot synthesize the compound. The absence of taurine causes a cat's retina to slowly degenerate, causing eye problems and (eventually) irreversible blindness ? a condition known as central retinal degeneration (CRD), as well as hair loss and tooth decay. It was discovered in 1987 that taurine deficiency can also cause feline dilated cardiomyopathy. Unlike CRD, the condition is reversible with supplementation. Taurine is now a requirement of the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and any dry or wet food product labeled approved by the AAFCO should have a minimum of 0.1% taurine in dry food and 0.2% in wet food.; Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic acid. It is also a major constituent of bile and can be found in the lower intestine and in small amounts in the tissues of many animals, including humans. Taurine is a derivative of the sulfur-containing (sulfhydryl) amino acid, cysteine. Taurine is one of the few known naturally occurring sulfonic acids.
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      A0295 2-Aminoethanesulfonic Acid >98.0%(T)
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 107-35-7Picture of molecule
Other: 91105-79-2
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 203-483-8
FDA UNII: 1EQV5MLY3D
Nikkaji Web: J5.056C
Beilstein Number: 1751215
MDL: MFCD00008197
CoE Number: 16056
XlogP3-AA: -4.10 (est)
Molecular Weight: 125.14739000
Formula: C2 H7 N O3 S
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives, also ingredient in enhanced water beverages at a concentration of 45 parts per million
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 586 Taurine View-notice PDF
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1435  taurine
Flavis Number: 16.056 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 16.056  taurine
FEMA Number: 3813  taurine
FDA Mainterm: TAURINE
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white to pale yellow crystalline solid (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 301.00 to  303.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.000170 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C.
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -2.769 (est)
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 water, 80700 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: low
 
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
bland
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
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Suppliers:
Aceto
Taurine, Pure Natural
Aceto
Taurine
AIDP
Taurine 98.5%
Atlantic Chemicals
Taurine
AuNutra® Industries
Taurine
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Taurine >98%
Changsha Organic Herb
Oyster Extract Taurine
Changsha Organic Herb
Taurine
Charkit Chemical
TAURINE USP
ECSA Chemicals
Taurine
Company Profile
Foodchem International
Taurine
George Uhe Company
Taurine
Glentham Life Sciences
Taurine
Graham Chemical
Taurine
Jiangyin Healthway
Natural Taurine
New functional food ingredients
Jiangyin Healthway
Taurine
OQEMA
Taurine/ Taurine JP8
Penta International
TAURINE FOOD GRADE, Kosher
Penta International
TAURINE USP GRADE, Kosher
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Taurine
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Taurine
Sigma-Aldrich
Taurine, ≥98%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
2-Aminoethanesulfonic Acid >98.0%(T)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intravenous-rat LD50  > 7000 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER
Yakuri to Chiryo. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Vol. 19, Pg. 2671, 1991.

oral-mouse LD50  > 7000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 51, 1990.

intravenous-mouse LD50  > 7000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 51, 1990.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  6630 mg/kg
Yaoxue Tongbao. Bulletin of Pharmacology. Vol. 18, Pg. 658, 1983.

intravenous-dog LD50  > 2000 mg/kg
Yakuri to Chiryo. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Vol. 19, Pg. 2677, 1991.

oral-mammal (species unspecified) LD  > 10000 mg/kg
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 33(10), Pg. 57, 1989.

intramuscular-mouse LD50  > 7000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 51, 1990.

intravenous-rabbit LD50  > 1000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 51, 1990.

oral-rat LD50  > 5000 mg/kg
Yakuri to Chiryo. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Vol. 19, Pg. 2671, 1991.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 6000 mg/kg
Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. Vol. 19, Pg. 48, 1946.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives, also ingredient in enhanced water beverages at a concentration of 45 parts per million
Recommendation for taurine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 770.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 217.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 17
Click here to view publication 17
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 250.00000250.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 30.0000030.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: 1000.000001000.00000
cheese: 630.00000630.00000
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: 1125.000001125.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: 190.00000190.00000
fats / oils: 565.00000565.00000
fish products: 190.00000190.00000
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: 375.00000375.00000
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: 190.00000190.00000
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 585.00000585.00000
milk products: --
nut products: 640.00000640.00000
other grains: --
poultry: 550.00000550.00000
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: 200.00000200.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 375.00000375.00000
seasonings / flavors: 70000.0000070000.00000
snack foods: 2100.000002100.00000
soft candy: --
soups: 500.00000500.00000
sugar substitutes: 3750.000003750.00000
sweet sauces: 375.00000375.00000
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
The use of taurine and D-glucurono-gamma-lactone as constituents of the so-called ôenergyö drinks
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted on request by DG SANCO. Addendum to FGE. 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 76, 77, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85 and 87.
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of taurine as a feed additive for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 107-35-7
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 1123
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid
Chemidplus: 0000107357
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: WX0175000 for cas# 107-35-7
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References:
 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 107-35-7
Pubchem (cid): 1123
Pubchem (sid): 134972418
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00245
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00251
FooDB: FDB003191
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00772
Export Tariff Code: 2921.19.6190
MedlinePlusSupp: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 curcuma amada roxb.
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 garlic bulb
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 garlic plant
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 irish moss thallus
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 meat
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 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
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 parsley plant
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 seafood
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Synonyms:
2-aminoetahanesulfonic acid
2-aminoethane sulfonic acid
2-aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid
1-aminoethane-2-sulfonic acid
2-aminoethanesulfonic acid
2-aminoethanesulphonic acid
2-aminoethyl sulfonic acid
beta-aminoethyl sulfonic acid
.beta.-aminoethylsulfonic acid
2-aminoethylsulfonic acid
b-aminoethylsulfonic acid
 ethanesulfonic acid, 2-amino-
 ethanesulfonic acid, 2-amino- (9CI)
2-sulfoethyl amine
 taukard
 tauphon
 taurine (8CI)
 taurine [INN]
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Articles:
Info: Taurine
PubMed: New insights into sulfur metabolism in yeasts as revealed by studies of Yarrowia lipolytica.
PubMed: Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation.
PubMed: Effect of taurine in chronic alcoholic patients.
PubMed: (1)H-NMR-based profiling of organic components in leachate from animal carcasses disposal site with time.
PubMed: Effects of chicken-liver hydrolysates on lipid metabolism in a high-fat diet.
PubMed: A Veterinary Guide to the Fish Gastrointestinal Tract.
PubMed: Analysing the effects of frozen storage and processing on the metabolite profile of raw mullet roes using (1)H NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed: The extent of linkage disequilibrium in beef cattle breeds using high-density SNP genotypes.
PubMed: Probiotic administration attenuates myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure after myocardial infarction in the rat.
PubMed: Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function.
PubMed: Proximate composition, amino Acid, mineral, and heavy metal content of dried laver.
PubMed: Effects of intragastric administration of five oyster components on endurance exercise performance in mice.
PubMed: Evidence for positive selection of taurine genes within a QTL region on chromosome X associated with testicular size in Australian Brahman cattle.
PubMed: Acute effects of green tea extract intake on exogenous and endogenous metabolites in human plasma.
PubMed: Metabonomic analysis of quercetin against the toxicity of chronic exposure to low-level dichlorvos in rats via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Thermodynamic analysis of osmolyte effect on thermal stability of ribonuclease A in terms of water activity.
PubMed: EFFECTS OF AMINO ACID DERIVATIVES ON PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES.
PubMed: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Maillard reaction products from xylan with chitosan/chitooligomer/glucosamine hydrochloride/taurine model systems.
PubMed: Taurine reverses endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat testis.
PubMed: A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.
PubMed: The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.
PubMed: Divergent metabolic responses of Apostichopus japonicus suffered from skin ulceration syndrome and pathogen challenge.
PubMed: Beneficial effects of cod protein on inflammatory cell accumulation in rat skeletal muscle after injury are driven by its high levels of arginine, glycine, taurine and lysine.
PubMed: Quantification of taurine in energy drinks using (1)H NMR.
PubMed: Metabolomic analysis of amino acid metabolism in colitic rats supplemented with lactosucrose.
PubMed: The retention and recovery of amino acids from pork longissimus muscle following cooking to either 60┬░C or 75┬░C.
PubMed: Taurine improves obesity-induced inflammatory responses and modulates the unbalanced phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages.
PubMed: Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.
PubMed: Taurine ameliorates potassium bromate-induced kidney damage in rats.
PubMed: Combined high pressure and thermal processing on inactivation of type A and proteolytic type B spores of Clostridium botulinum.
PubMed: Metabolic phenotypes associated with high-temperature tolerance of Porphyra haitanensis strains.
PubMed: The methionine precursor DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid protects intestinal epithelial barrier function.
PubMed: ┬╣H NMR and multivariate data analysis of the relationship between the age and quality of duck meat.
PubMed: Taurine prevented cell cycle arrest and restored neurotrophic gene expression in arsenite-treated SH-SY5Y cells.
PubMed: Effect of endocannabinoids on IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells.
PubMed: Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.
PubMed: Health benefits of seafood; is it just the fatty acids?
PubMed: Cholestasis induced by total parenteral nutrition: effects of the addition of Taurine (Tauramin®) on hepatic function parameters; possible synergistic action of structured lipids (SMOFlipid®).
PubMed: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass normalizes the blunted postprandial bile acid excursion associated with obesity.
PubMed: The effect of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on body weight, large intestine indices, and fecal bile acid profile in wild type and IL10-/- mice.
PubMed: Calcium-deficiency assessment and biomarker identification by an integrated urinary metabonomics analysis.
PubMed: Lipid components and water soluble metabolites in salted and dried tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) roes.
PubMed: Effects of taurine on cadmium exposure in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of Carassius auratus.
PubMed: A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis.
PubMed: Effect of dietary taurine and arginine supplementation on bone mineral density in growing female rats.
PubMed: Relationship among self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students.
PubMed: Antioxidant and DNA protection effects of taurine by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.
PubMed: Dietary taurine and nutrient intake and dietary quality by alcohol consumption level in Korean male college students.
PubMed: Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.
PubMed: Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.
PubMed: Effects of taurine supplementation upon food intake and central insulin signaling in malnourished mice fed on a high-fat diet.
PubMed: Effect of taurine feeding on bone mineral density and bone markers in rats.
PubMed: Gestational diabetes is associated with high energy and saturated fat intakes and with low plasma visfatin and adiponectin levels independent of prepregnancy BMI.
PubMed: Application of highly differentiated SNPs between Japanese Black and Holstein to a breed assignment test between Japanese Black and F(1) (Japanese Black x Holstein) and Holstein.
PubMed: Taurine supplementation improves liver glucose control in normal protein and malnourished mice fed a high-fat diet.
PubMed: Seafood: nutritional benefits and risk aspects.
PubMed: Hepatic metabolism of sulfur amino acids in db/db mice.
PubMed: Taurine-nitrite interaction as a precursor of alkylation mechanisms.
PubMed: Taurine ameliorate alloxan induced oxidative stress and intrinsic apoptotic pathway in the hepatic tissue of diabetic rats.
PubMed: Mechanism of the protective action of taurine in toxin and drug induced organ pathophysiology and diabetic complications: a review.
PubMed: Evaluation of cognitive learning, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal functions in healthy puppies fed foods fortified with docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil from 8 to 52 weeks of age.
PubMed: Nutritional pork meat compounds as affected by ham dry-curing.
PubMed: The effects of energy beverages on cultured cells.
PubMed: Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.
PubMed: [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].
PubMed: Taurine is a liver X receptor-╬▒ ligand and activates transcription of key genes in the reverse cholesterol transport without inducing hepatic lipogenesis.
PubMed: The effect of taurine on cholesterol metabolism.
PubMed: On the molecular mechanism of stabilization of proteins by cosolvents: role of Lifshitz electrodynamic forces.
PubMed: Behavioral effects of taurine pretreatment in zebrafish acutely exposed to ethanol.
PubMed: A simple assay of taurine concentrations in food and biological samples using taurine dioxygenase.
PubMed: Dietary combination of fish oil and taurine decreases fat accumulation and ameliorates blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic/obese KK-A(y) mice.
PubMed: Improvements in quantitative EEG following consumption of a natural citicoline-enhanced beverage.
PubMed: Taurine postponed the replicative senescence of rat bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells in vitro.
PubMed: Effects of ionic substances on the adsorption of egg white proteins to a stainless steel surface.
PubMed: Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics for prediction of gastric damage induced by indomethacin in rats.
PubMed: NMR-based metabonomics detection of differences in the metabolism of hydrolysed versus intact protein of similar amino acid profile.
PubMed: Dietary taurine reduces zinc-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats.
PubMed: All 4 bile salt hydrolase proteins are responsible for the hydrolysis activity in Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III.
PubMed: Taurine attenuates maternal and embryonic oxidative stress in a streptozotocin-diabetic rat model.
PubMed: Molecular evidence of host influences on the evolution and spread of human tapeworms.
PubMed: Antidepressant effect of taurine in diabetic rats.
PubMed: Identification of N-acetyltaurine as a novel metabolite of ethanol through metabolomics-guided biochemical analysis.
PubMed: Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes.
PubMed: The real-time-based assessment of the microbial killing by the antimicrobial compounds of neutrophils.
PubMed: Dietary herring improves plasma lipid profiles and reduces atherosclerosis in obese low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.
PubMed: An open-label naturalistic pilot study of acamprosate in youth with autistic disorder.
PubMed: Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-╬▒ and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.
PubMed: Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation.
PubMed: Blood values of adult captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented beef or whole rabbit carcasses.
PubMed: Clinical and nutritional benefits of cysteine-enriched protein supplements.
PubMed: Alterations in protein metabolism and amino acid concentrations in rats fed by a high-protein (casein-enriched) diet - effect of starvation.
PubMed: Experimental evidence for therapeutic potential of taurine in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed: Molecular characterization of bile salt hydrolase from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi30.
PubMed: Taurine enhances the anorexigenic effects of insulin in the hypothalamus of rats.
PubMed: Alcohol dependence treatments: comprehensive healthcare costs, utilization outcomes, and pharmacotherapy persistence.
PubMed: How cognitive assessment through clinical neurophysiology may help optimize chronic alcoholism treatment.
PubMed: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.
PubMed: Composition and some quality characteristics of the longissimus muscle of reindeer in Norway compared to farmed New Zealand red deer.
PubMed: Possible association of high urinary magnesium and taurine to creatinine ratios with metabolic syndrome risk reduction in Australian aboriginals.
PubMed: Effect of manganese chloride on the neurochemical profile of the rat hypothalamus.
PubMed: Acamprosate-responsive brain sites for suppression of ethanol intake and preference.
PubMed: Structure-function analysis of the tertiary bile acid TUDCA for the resolution of endoplasmic reticulum stress in intestinal epithelial cells.
PubMed: Maternal malnutrition programs the endocrine pancreas in progeny.
PubMed: Acamprosate attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats.
PubMed: Taurine is more effective than melatonin on cytochrome P450 2E1 and some oxidative stress markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
PubMed: Is there any cardioprotective role of Taurine during cold ischemic period following global myocardial ischemia?
PubMed: Application of fluorescent techniques to evaluate the survival of probiotic lactobacilli to bile acid.
PubMed: Comparison of healthcare utilization among patients treated with alcoholism medications.
PubMed: Supplementation with soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin complex improves endurance exercise capacity in humans.
PubMed: A NMR-based metabolomic approach for differentiation of hagfish dental and somatic skeletal muscles.
PubMed: Health effects of energy drinks on children, adolescents, and young adults.
PubMed: Radiation metabolomics. 4. UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS-Based metabolomics for urinary biomarker discovery in gamma-irradiated rats.
PubMed: Comparison of metabolic profiling of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and extracts from blueberry in aged mice.
PubMed: Milk composition in free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as a model for captive rearing milk formula.
PubMed: Preventive effects of taurine on development of hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat/cholesterol dietary habit.
PubMed: Acamprosate in the treatment of binge eating disorder: a placebo-controlled trial.
PubMed: Application of lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate in fermented cooked sausages with 50% replacement of NaCl by KCl.
PubMed: [The pathways of taurine influences on gastric secretion].
PubMed: [Risks of energy drinks in youths].
PubMed: High-Resolution (1)H Magic Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy of Intact Arctic Char (Salvelinus Alpinus) Muscle. Quantitative Analysis of n-3 Fatty Acids, EPA and DHA.
PubMed: Cysteine supplementation reverses methionine restriction effects on rat adiposity: significance of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase.
PubMed: [The effect of taurine derivative of change the biochemical parameters carbohidrate and lipide status by starvation].
PubMed: Taurine in health and diseases: consistent evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies.
PubMed: Taurine in morning spot urine for the useful assessment of dietary seafood intake in Japanese children and adolescents.
PubMed: Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet.
PubMed: A case-control study on the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status and life stress of functional constipation patients in Korean male college students.
PubMed: Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.
PubMed: Antioxidant and hepatic protective effects of lotus root hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet.
PubMed: Deterioration of traditional dietary custom increases the risk of lifestyle-related diseases in young male Africans.
PubMed: Characterization of taurine as anti-obesity agent in C. elegans.
PubMed: Low cardiovascular risks in the middle aged males and females excreting greater 24-hour urinary taurine and magnesium in 41 WHO-CARDIAC study populations in the world.
PubMed: Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.
PubMed: Toxicometabolomics approach to urinary biomarkers for mercuric chloride (HgClÔéé)-induced nephrotoxicity using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (┬╣H NMR) in rats.
PubMed: Sensory profile of a model energy drink with varying levels of functional ingredients-caffeine, ginseng, and taurine.
PubMed: Effects of dietary taurine on egg production, egg quality and cholesterol levels in Japanese quail.
PubMed: Problematic use of energy drinks by adolescents.
PubMed: Evaluation of body composition and cartilage biomarkers in large-breed dogs fed two foods designed for growth.
PubMed: Percentage of subjects with no heavy drinking days: evaluation as an efficacy endpoint for alcohol clinical trials.
PubMed: Energy drinks: a review of use and safety for athletes.
PubMed: Effects of taurine on glutamate uptake and degradation in M├╝ller cells under diabetic conditions via antioxidant mechanism.
PubMed: Quality characteristics and composition of the longissimus muscle in the short-loin from male and female farmed red deer in New Zealand.
PubMed: Effects of taurine on glial cells apoptosis and taurine transporter expression in retina under diabetic conditions.
PubMed: Taurine buffers glutamate homeostasis in retinal cells in vitro under hypoxic conditions.
PubMed: Effect of processing on proteolysis and biogenic amines formation in a Portuguese traditional dry-fermented ripened sausage "Chouri├žo Grosso de Estremoz e Borba PGI".
PubMed: Changes of metabolic profiles in urine after oral administration of quercetin in rats.
PubMed: Neurochemical profile of the mouse hypothalamus using in vivo 1H MRS at 14.1T.
PubMed: Pharmacotherapies for alcoholism: the old and the new.
PubMed: Linking endoplasmic reticulum stress to cell death in hepatocytes: roles of C/EBP homologous protein and chemical chaperones in palmitate-mediated cell death.
PubMed: Effects of dietary ingredients on function and expression of P-glycoprotein in human intestinal epithelial cells.
PubMed: [Effects of prenatal taurine on mRNA expression of PKA CREB signal pathway and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor in fetal rat brains of intrauterine growth restriction].
PubMed: Parenteral amino acid intakes in critically ill children: a matter of convenience.
PubMed: Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.
PubMed: Effects of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures on metabolomic profiles of rat brain.
PubMed: Effect of season on the chemical composition and nutritional quality of the edible crab Cancer pagurus.
PubMed: Modified egg as a nutritional supplement during peak brain development: a new target for fortification.
PubMed: Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin.
PubMed: The effect of taurine, a novel biochemical modulator, on the antitumor activity of doxorubicin.
PubMed: Biochemical and physiological observations in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) at two zoos during a dietary transition to a diet designed for insectivores.
PubMed: Lupin protein compared to casein lowers the LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol-ratio of hypercholesterolemic adults.
PubMed: Beneficial effects of taurine on cardiac abnormality in NZB/W F1 mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus).
PubMed: The potential protective effects of taurine on coronary heart disease.
PubMed: Dietary Ascophyllum nodosum increases urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in male Sprague-dawley rats.
PubMed: Effects of dietary taurine supplementation on growth performance and immune status in growing Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).
PubMed: Fermented goats' milk produced with selected multiple starters as a potentially functional food.
PubMed: Pattern recognition analysis for the prediction of adverse effects by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs using 1H NMR-based metabolomics in rats.
PubMed: The effect of subacute supplementation of taurine on spatial learning and memory.
PubMed: Effective amino acid composition of seaweeds inducing food preference behaviors in Aplysia kurodai.
PubMed: Taurine protects transformed rat retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction.
PubMed: Effect of taurine supplementation on cytochrome P450 2E1 and oxidative stress in the liver and kidneys of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
PubMed: Methiocarb-induced oxidative damage following subacute exposure and the protective effects of vitamin E and taurine in rats.
PubMed: Changes in messenger RNA abundance of amino acid transporters in rat mammary gland during pregnancy, lactation, and weaning.
PubMed: Selection of nutrients for prevention or amelioration of lead-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.
PubMed: Understanding the human salivary metabolome.
PubMed: Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.
PubMed: Correlations between dietary taurine intake and life stress in Korean college students.
PubMed: Effect of taurine supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels of the middle-aged Korean women.
PubMed: Taurine normalizes blood levels and urinary loss of selenium, chromium, and manganese in rats chronically consuming alcohol.
PubMed: The effects of dietary taurine supplementation on plasma and liver lipid in ovariectomized rats.
PubMed: Effect of PTP1B inhibitors and taurine on blood lipid profiles in adolescent obesity.
PubMed: The effects of dietary taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats.
PubMed: The preventive effect of fermented milk supplement containing tomato (lycopersion esculentum) and taurine on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.
PubMed: Composition, disintegrative properties, and labeling compliance of commercially available taurine and carnitine dietary products.
PubMed: Protein properties of mackerel viscera extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide.
PubMed: Evaluations of the trans-sulfuration pathway in multiple liver toxicity studies.
PubMed: The state of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
PubMed: Effects of gamma irradiation and pasteurization on the nutritive composition of commercially available animal diets.
PubMed: [Effects of taurine on alterations in structure and function of sternohyoid muscle in metabolic syndrome rats].
PubMed: Taurine reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells.
PubMed: Chemical composition characteristics of the longissimus and semimembranosus muscles for pigs from New Zealand and Singapore.
PubMed: Composition and quality differences between the longissimus and infraspinatus muscles for several groups of pasture-finished cattle.
PubMed: Treatment with taurine attenuates hepatic apoptosis in NZB/W F1 mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Acute effects of acamprosate and MPEP on ethanol Drinking-in-the-Dark in male C57BL/6J mice.
PubMed: Food factors for atherosclerosis prevention: Asian perspective derived from analyses of worldwide dietary biomarkers.
PubMed: Impact of processing on the taurine content in processed seafood and their corresponding unprocessed raw materials.
PubMed: Creatine supplementation augments skeletal muscle carnosine content in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8).
PubMed: Dietary taurine supplementation prevents glial alterations in retina of diabetic rats.
PubMed: Functional analysis of four bile salt hydrolase and penicillin acylase family members in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1.
PubMed: Galloylated catechins as potent inhibitors of hypochlorous acid-induced DNA damage.
PubMed: [Pharmacological review of alcoholic dependence treatment].
PubMed: Effects of homocysteine on metabolic pathways in cultured astrocytes.
PubMed: Effects of dietary taurine supplementation on plasma and liver lipids in OVX rats fed calcium-deficient diet.
PubMed: Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine.
PubMed: [Taurine and its potential therapeutic application].
PubMed: Impact of diet on the cardiovascular risk profile of Japanese immigrants living in Brazil: contributions of World Health Organization CARDIAC and MONALISA studies.
PubMed: Acamprosate efficacy in alcohol-dependent patients: summary of results from three pivotal trials.
PubMed: Taurine determination by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection: from clinical field to quality food applications.
PubMed: The effect of acamprosate on alcohol and food craving in patients with alcohol dependence.
PubMed: Taurine and zoo felids: considerations of dietary and biological tissue concentrations.
PubMed: Taurine prevents oxidative damage of high glucose-induced cataractogenesis in isolated rat lenses.
PubMed: Intrauterine programming of the endocrine pancreas.
PubMed: Update on neuropharmacological treatments for alcoholism: scientific basis and clinical findings.
PubMed: Composition of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and goat milk-based infant and follow-on formulae.
PubMed: DNA induces folding in alpha-synuclein: understanding the mechanism using chaperone property of osmolytes.
PubMed: Dietary taurine reduces retinal damage produced by photochemical stress via antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed: Early oxidative stress in testis and epididymal sperm in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: its progression and genotoxic consequences.
PubMed: Hemolymph patterns of free amino acids in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana after three days starvation at different salinities.
PubMed: Reduced genetic structure of north Ethiopian cattle revealed by Y-chromosome analysis.
PubMed: 1H MRS-detectable metabolic brain changes and reduced impulsive behavior in adult rats exposed to methylphenidate during adolescence.
PubMed: The cosmetic treatment of wrinkles.
PubMed: The effect of dietary taurine supplementation on plasma and liver lipid concentrations and mineral metabolism in rats fed alcohol.
PubMed: The effect of dietary taurine supplementation on plasma and liver lipid concentrations and free amino acid concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Effects of garlic powder and taurine supplementation on abdominal fat, muscle weight, and blood amino acid pattern in ovariectomized rats.
PubMed: Effects of taurine on mRNA levels of nuclear receptors and factors involved in cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis in mice.
PubMed: Taurine-induced changes in transcription profiling of metabolism-related genes in human hepatoma cells HepG2.
PubMed: Rapid analysis of taurine in energy drinks using amino acid analyzer and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as basis for toxicological evaluation.
PubMed: Copper deficiency does not lead to taurine deficiency in rats.
PubMed: Effect of taurine on gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic erosion in brain ischemic rats.
PubMed: Choosing the right medication for the treatment of alcoholism.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinamide, caffeine and taurine in energy drinks by planar chromatography-multiple detection with confirmation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Site-specific sampling of taurine from rat brain followed by on-line sample pre-concentration, throughout in-capillary derivatization and capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed: Appearance of individual amino acid concentrations in arterial blood during steady-state infusions of different amino acid formulations to ICU patients in support of whole-body protein metabolism.
PubMed: Physiological and behavioral effects of chemoreceptors located in different body parts of the swimming crab Callinectes danae.
PubMed: Schedule-induced alcohol drinking: non-selective effects of acamprosate and naltrexone.
PubMed: What's new in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics.
PubMed: The BRENDA model: integrating psychosocial treatment and pharmacotherapy for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.
PubMed: Taurine-responsive genes related to signal transduction as identified by cDNA microarray analyses of HepG2 cells.
PubMed: Mechanisms and biomarkers of cardiovascular injury induced by phosphodiesterase inhibitor III SK&F 95654 in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.
PubMed: Spray-dried milk supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid decreases HMG Co A reductase activity and increases biliary secretion of lipids in rats.
PubMed: Heterogeneous distribution of taste cells in facial and vagal nerve-innervated taste buds.
PubMed: Medications for treating alcohol dependence.
PubMed: Pharmacotherapy of alcohol use disorders.
PubMed: Nutritional peculiarities and diet palatability in the cat.
PubMed: Biothiols, taurine, and lipid-soluble antioxidants in the edible pulp of Sicilian cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruits and changes of bioactive juice components upon industrial processing.
PubMed: Taurine and cholestasis associated to TPN. Experimental study in rabbit model.
PubMed: Enhancing effect of taurine on CYP7A1 mRNA expression in Hep G2 cells.
PubMed: Understanding the role of dietary components on atherosclerosis using genetic engineered mouse models.
PubMed: Acamprosate for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
PubMed: Bioactive compounds in cod (Gadus morhua) products and suitability of 1H NMR metabolite profiling for classification of the products using multivariate data analyses.
PubMed: Ecotoxicological effects of metal pollution in two mollusc species from the Spanish South Atlantic littoral.
PubMed: The effect of production system and age on levels of iron, taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatine in beef muscles and liver.
PubMed: An anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutritional supplement for hypoalbuminemic hemodialysis patients: a pilot/feasibility study.
PubMed: Comparative regulation of major enzymes in the bile acid biosynthesis pathway by cholesterol, cholate and taurine in mice and rats.
PubMed: Metabolic profile of XK469 (2(R)-[4-(7-chloro-2-quinoxalinyl)oxyphenoxy]-propionic acid; NSC698215) in patients and in vitro: low potential for active or toxic metabolites or for drug-drug interactions.
PubMed: Morphological and biochemical heterogeneity in facial and vagal nerve innervated taste buds of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.
PubMed: Taurine chloramine, an oxidant derived from neutrophils, induces apoptosis in human B lymphoma cells through mitochondrial damage.
PubMed: Cortisol and IGF-1 synergistically up-regulate taurine transport by the rat skeletal muscle cell line, L6.
PubMed: Effect of flavonoids on stress responses in myotube cultures.
PubMed: Metabonomics, dietary influences and cultural differences: a 1H NMR-based study of urine samples obtained from healthy British and Swedish subjects.
PubMed: Cooking temperature effects on the forms of iron and levels of several other compounds in beef semitendinosus muscle.
PubMed: Taurine alters respiratory gas exchange and nutrient metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.
PubMed: Concentrations in beef and lamb of taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatine.
PubMed: Functional sulfur amino acid production and seawater remediation system by sterile Ulva sp. (Chlorophyta).
PubMed: Purification and characterization of three different types of bile salt hydrolases from Bifidobacterium strains.
PubMed: The effect of taurine on cholesterol degradation in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Pet food manufacturer comments on taurine in diets.
PubMed: Taurine status in normal dogs fed a commercial diet associated with taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy.
PubMed: Regional differences in the dietary taurine intake in Korean college students.
PubMed: Effect of the obesity index on plasma taurine levels in Korean female adolescents.
PubMed: Dietary taurine intake and serum taurine levels of women on Jeju Island.
PubMed: Effect of alpha-tocopherol and taurine supplementation on oxidized LDL levels of middle aged Korean women during aerobic exercise.
PubMed: Effect of taurine on cholesterol degradation and bile acid pool in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Effects of dietary taurine supplementation on hepatic morphological changes of rats in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
PubMed: Protein kinase C and cAMP mediated regulation of taurine transport in human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 & Caco-2).
PubMed: The effect of dietary taurine supplementation on plasma and urinary free amino acid concentrations in diabetic rats.
PubMed: Taurine prevents hypercholesterolemia in ovariectomized rats fed corn oil but not in those fed coconut oil.
PubMed: The effect of taurine on the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with cholestyramine or high amounts of bile acid.
PubMed: Taurine concentrations in animal feed ingredients; cooking influences taurine content.
PubMed: Quantification of non-protein nitrogen components of infant formulae and follow-up milks: comparison with cows' and human milk.
PubMed: NMR-based metabonomic studies on the biochemical effects of epicatechin in the rat.
PubMed: The effect of taurine on plasma cholesterol concentration in genetic type 2 diabetic GK rats.
PubMed: Serum amino acid concentrations in aging men and women.
PubMed: Plasma and whole blood taurine in normal dogs of varying size fed commercially prepared food.
PubMed: Effects of added dietary taurine on erythrocyte lipids and oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.
PubMed: [Effect of taurine on blood and liver lipids in rats].
PubMed: Mycosporine-like amino acid content in four species of sea anemones in the genus Anthopleura reflects phylogenetic but not environmental or symbiotic relationships.
PubMed: Dietary taurine enhances cholesterol degradation and reduces serum and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of ingredients in a vitamin-enriched drink by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed: Effect of dietary amino acids on behavior and serum levels of amino acids in stress loaded rats.
PubMed: Diet composition and blood values of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented meat or commercial food preparations.
PubMed: mRNA expression of enzymes involved in taurine biosynthesis in rat adipose tissues.
PubMed: Development of beta-cell mass in fetuses of rats deprived of protein and/or energy in last trimester of pregnancy.
PubMed: Characterization of a Listeria monocytogenes Scott A isolate with high tolerance towards high hydrostatic pressure.
PubMed: Central nervous system mechanisms in alcohol relapse.
PubMed: Protective effect of taurine against renal interstitial fibrosis of rats induced by cisplatin.
PubMed: Attenuation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatotoxicity by betaine or taurine in rats.
PubMed: [Effects of aluminum on amino acid neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats].
PubMed: Taurine intake and excretion in patients undergoing long term enteral nutrition.
PubMed: Immunohistochemical localization of insulin in pancreatic beta-cells of taurine-supplemented or taurine-depleted diabetic rats.
PubMed: Effect of taurine and beta-alanine on morphological changes of pancreas in streptozotocin-induced rats.
PubMed: Dietary taurine changes ascorbic acid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls.
PubMed: Daily dietary taurine intake in Japan.
PubMed: Weight gain in post-seized rats is facilitated by adding aspirin, glucose, or glucose-taurine-acetaminophen to food mush.
PubMed: Cellular model for induction of drip loss in meat.
PubMed: Efficacy of naltrexone and acamprosate for alcoholism treatment: a meta-analysis.
PubMed: Effect of taurine on toxicity of cadmium in rats.
PubMed: Hemolymph analysis and evaluation of newly formulated media for culture of shrimp cells (Penaeus stylirostris).
PubMed: The effects of ascorbic acid, taurine, carnosine and rosemary powder on colour and lipid stability of beef patties packaged in modified atmosphere.
PubMed: Ethnic and environmental differences in various markers of dietary intake and blood pressure among Chinese Han and three other minority peoples of China: results from the WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study.
PubMed: Effect of starvation on free histidine and amino acids in white muscle of milkfish Chanos chanos.
PubMed: Epidemiological and nutritional research on prevention of cardiovascular disease in China.
PubMed: Dietary taurine potentiates polychlorinated biphenyl-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats*
PubMed: Role of osmoregulation in the actions of taurine.
PubMed: Development and characterization of a flavoring agent from oyster cooker effluent.
PubMed: Stimulation of Cl(-) secretion by L-alanine oligopeptides in the mammalian large intestine.
PubMed: Comparative studies of diet-related factors and blood pressure among Chinese and Japanese: results from the China-Japan Cooperative Research of the WHO-CARDIAC Study. Cardiovascular Disease and Alimentary Comparison.
PubMed: Determination of total taurine in pet foods by liquid chromatography of the dansyl derivative: collaborative study.
PubMed: Free amino acid content in standard infant formulas: comparison with human milk.
PubMed: Effect of taurine on toxicity of oxidized fish oil in rats.
PubMed: Identification of a taurine transport inhibitory substance in sesame seeds.
PubMed: Neuropharmacological treatments for alcoholism: scientific basis and clinical findings.
PubMed: Influences of pre- and postnatal nutritional exposures on vascular/endocrine systems in animals.
PubMed: Thiamin is decomposed due to Anaphe spp. entomophagy in seasonal ataxia patients in Nigeria.
PubMed: Inverse relationship between protein intake and plasma free amino acids in healthy men at physical exercise.
PubMed: Amplifying effect of dietary taurine on the induction of cytochrome P-450 and on the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid in rats fed on phenobarbital-containing diets.
PubMed: Dietary taurine alters ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls.
PubMed: Protective effects of several amino acid-nutrients on gastric hemorrhagic erosions in acid-irrigated stomachs of septic rats.
PubMed: [Determination of taurine in food by high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed: Improving effect of dietary taurine on marked hypercholesterolemia induced by a high-cholesterol diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
PubMed: Dietary taurine decreases hepatic secretion of cholesterol ester in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Synthesis and characterisation of a new class of stable S-adenosyl-L-methionine salts.
PubMed: Rumen-protected methionine fed to dairy cows: bioavailability and effects on plasma amino acid pattern and plasma metabolite and insulin concentrations.
PubMed: Effect of dietary taurine on endogenous hypercholesterolemia in rats fed on phenobarbital-containing diets.
PubMed: Dietary taurine enhances cholesterol degradation and reduces serum and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Improved suppression by dietary taurine of the fecal excretion of bile acids from hypothyroid rats.
PubMed: [Amino acids as biochemical markers in epidemic and endemic optic neuropathies].
PubMed: Increased fecal bile acid excretion and changes in the circulating bile acid pool are involved in the hypocholesterolemic and gallstone-preventive actions of psyllium in hamsters.
PubMed: [Preretinopathic changes in the oscillatory potential in diabetic retina: interpretation and significance].
PubMed: Impact of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion in regard to their hypolipidemic action in hamsters.
PubMed: Thiols and polyamines in the cytoprotective effect of taurine on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.
PubMed: Clinical pharmacokinetics of acamprosate.
PubMed: Acamprosate suppresses the expression of morphine-induced sensitization in rats but does not affect heroin self-administration or relapse induced by heroin or stress.
PubMed: Protective effect of Crassostrea gigas extract on audiogenic seizures in magnesium deficient mice.
PubMed: Psyllium, not pectin or guar gum, alters lipoprotein and biliary bile acid composition and fecal sterol excretion in the hamster.
PubMed: Effects of dietary taurine on auditory function in full-term infants.
PubMed: Taurine content in Chinese food and daily intake of Chinese men.
PubMed: The effect of dietary sulfur-containing amino acids on calcium excretion.
PubMed: Quantitation of taurine and selenium levels in human milk and estimated intake of taurine by breast-fed infants during the early periods of lactation.
PubMed: Effect of taurine on human fetal neuron cells: proliferation and differentiation.
PubMed: Dietary taurine supplementation reduces plasma and liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol or a cholesterol-free diet.
PubMed: Amplified effect of taurine on PCB-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.
PubMed: Effects of taurine supplementation on lipid peroxidation, blood glucose and blood lipid metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
PubMed: Taurine protects the liver against lipid peroxidation and membrane disintegration during rat hepatocarcinogenesis.
PubMed: Effect of taurine supplementation on the lipid peroxide formation and the activities of glutathione-related enzymes in the liver and islet of type I and II diabetic model mice.
PubMed: Effect of taurine on toxicity of copper in rats.
PubMed: Increasing effect of dietary taurine on the serum HDL-cholesterol concentration in rats.
PubMed: Relationship between fatty acid compositions and taurine concentration in breast milk from Chinese rural mothers.
PubMed: Studies on N-nitroso bile acid amides in relation to their possible role in gastrointestinal cancer.
PubMed: Amino acid metabolism in pediatric patients.
PubMed: Blood nutrient indices in breast and formula fed infants: amino acids metabolic responses.
PubMed: Recent nutritional approaches to the prevention and therapy of cardiovascular disease.
PubMed: Taurine analysis in milk and infant formulae by liquid chromatography: collaborative study.
PubMed: Acamprosate. A review of its pharmacology and clinical potential in the management of alcohol dependence after detoxification.
PubMed: Involvement of polyamines in the protection of taurine against the cytotoxicity of hydrazine or carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes.
PubMed: [A study on the mechanism of taurine postponing the aging process of human fetal brain neural cells].
PubMed: [Determination of taurine in Lycium barbarum L. by high performance liquid chromatography with OPA-urea pre-column derivatization].
PubMed: [Taurine and carnosine in tissues of Pacific mollusks].
PubMed: [Taurine as a regulator of fluid-electrolyte balance and arterial pressure].
PubMed: Antibodies to myeloperoxidase in propylthiouracil-induced autoimmune disease in the cat.
PubMed: Reversible model of magnesium depletion induced by systemic kainic acid injection in magnesium-deficient rats: I--Comparative study of various magnesium salts.
PubMed: Taurine supplementation prevents hyperaminoacidemia in growing term infants fed high-protein cow's milk formula.
PubMed: Magnesium taurate for the prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia.
PubMed: [Alcohol and energy drink--can combined consumption of both beverages modify automobile driving fitness?].
PubMed: Generalization among related complex odorant mixtures and their components: analysis of olfactory perception in the spiny lobster.
PubMed: Acamprosate and alcohol: III. Effects on alcohol discrimination in the rat.
PubMed: Acamprosate and alcohol: II. Effects on alcohol withdrawal in the rat.
PubMed: Effects of taurine supplementation in parenteral nutrition-associated hepatosteatosis and lidocaine metabolism. A study using isolated rat liver perfusion.
PubMed: Acid-base balance affects dietary choice in cats.
PubMed: Gut endogenous nitrogen and amino acid excretions in adult domestic cats fed a protein-free diet or an enzymatically hydrolyzed casein-based diet.
PubMed: Evidence for dual effect of bile acids on thymidine anabolism and catabolism by the regenerating rat liver.
PubMed: Dietary antibiotics decrease taurine loss in cats fed a canned heat-processed diet.
PubMed: beta-Alanine protects against taurine and NaCl--induced hypernatremia in the rat.
PubMed: The influence of different taurine diets on hearing development in normal babies. A preliminary report.
PubMed: Effects of oral taurine supplementation on lipids and sympathetic nerve tone.
PubMed: Taurine and diabetes. Humans and experimental models.
PubMed: Taurine intake of Korean breast-fed infants during lactation.
PubMed: Antihypercholesterolemic action of taurine on streptozotocin-diabetic rats or on rats fed a high cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Long-term effects on retina of rhesus monkeys fed taurine-free human infant formula.
PubMed: Inotropic interventions in the assessment of myocardial failure associated with taurine deficiency in domestic cats.
PubMed: The effects of taurine in a rodent model of aging.
PubMed: Depletion of feline taurine levels by beta-alanine and dietary taurine restriction.
PubMed: Maillard reaction products in purified diets induce taurine depletion in cats which is reversed by antibiotics.
PubMed: [Past and present status in the design of infant formulas].
PubMed: Effect of folate supplementation on clinical chemistry and hematologic changes related to bidisomide administration in the rat.
PubMed: Dietary soybean protein decreases plasma taurine in cats.
PubMed: [New soy-based formulas].
PubMed: Plasma and whole blood taurine concentrations respond differently to taurine supplementation (humans) and depletion (cats).
PubMed: Plasma and platelet taurine are reduced in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects of taurine supplementation.
PubMed: Effect of food deprivation on glutathione and amino acid levels in brain and liver of young and aged rats.
PubMed: Rats fed a low protein diet supplemented with sulfur amino acids have increased cysteine dioxygenase activity and increased taurine production in hepatocytes.
PubMed: Taurine content in breast milk of Mexican women from urban and rural areas.
PubMed: [Taurine in the composition of a new dry milk product Femilak-2 intended for improving nutrition of nursing mothers].
PubMed: The taurine requirement of the kitten fed canned foods.
PubMed: Fecal bile acid excretion and taurine status in cats fed canned and dry diets.
PubMed: Microbial degradation of taurine in fecal cultures from cats given commercial and purified diets.
PubMed: [The influence of protein and phosphorous restricted diet supplemented with essential aminoacids (EAA) and their alpha-keto-analogues (KAA) on nutritional status of children with chronic renal failure (CRF)].
PubMed: Concentrations of amino acids in plasma and whole blood in response to food deprivation and refeeding in healthy two-day-old foals.
PubMed: Taurine supplementation for cats.
PubMed: Rapid assay of dinitrophenyl derivative of taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Infant formula development: past, present and future.
PubMed: Taurine and TPN solutions?
PubMed: Effects of different formula feeds on the developmental pattern of urinary bile acid excretion in infants.
PubMed: Retinal morphology and visual pigment levels in 6- and 12-month-old rhesus monkeys fed a taurine-free human infant formula.
PubMed: Influence of dietary taurine on vitamin D absorption.
PubMed: Preweaning diet affects bile lipid composition and bile acid kinetics in infant baboons.
PubMed: Reduction of liver taurine in rats by beta-alanine treatment increases carbon tetrachloride toxicity.
PubMed: Effect of taurine levels on liver lipid metabolism: an in vivo study in the rat.
PubMed: Interaction of taurine and related compounds with GABAergic neurones in the nucleus raphe dorsalis.
PubMed: Brain osmoregulation during extreme and moderate dehydration in a rat model of severe DKA.
PubMed: Laminar analysis of the number of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia in the visual cortex (area 17) of 6- and 12-month-old rhesus monkeys fed a human infant soy-protein formula with or without taurine supplementation from birth.
PubMed: Effect of dietary phosphoric acid supplementation on acid-base balance and mineral and bone metabolism in adult cats.
PubMed: Effects of massive small bowel resection on metabolism of bile acids and vitamin D3 and gastrin release in dogs.
PubMed: Kinetics of the sulphite-inhibited browning of fructose.
PubMed: Response of cats with dilated cardiomyopathy to taurine supplementation.
PubMed: Taurine induces bicuculline/strychnine-insensitive dose-dependent inhibition of cortical visual evoked responses.
PubMed: Effects of increasing brain GABA on the meal patterns of genetically obese vs. lean Zucker rats.
PubMed: Methionine intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), relationship to cataract formation and the metabolism of methionine.
PubMed: Thermogenic actions of tryptophan in the rat are mediated independently of 5-HT.
PubMed: Taurine balance is different in cats fed purified and commercial diets.
PubMed: Accumulation of hypotaurine in tissues and urine of rats fed an excess methionine diet.
PubMed: Taurine protects against oxidant injury to rat alveolar pneumocytes.
PubMed: Influence of casein and soy flour proteins on aminoacid content in the liver of experimental animals.
PubMed: Effect of meal-feeding and food deprivation on plasma and whole blood taurine concentrations in cats.
PubMed: Interaction of dietary protein differing in sulfur amino acid content and pectin on bile acid conjugation in immature and mature rats.
PubMed: GABA release in the zona incerta of the sheep in response to the sight and ingestion of food and salt.
PubMed: Bile acid conjugation pattern in the isolated perfused rat liver during infusion of an amino acid formulation.
PubMed: Effect of taurine on total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis.
PubMed: Bile composition of adult baboons is influenced by breast versus formula feeding.
PubMed: Laminar analysis of the number of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia in the visual cortex (area 17) of 3-month-old rhesus monkeys fed a human infant soy-protein formula with or without taurine supplementation from birth.
PubMed: Deferred effects of preweaning nutrition on lipid metabolism.
PubMed: Evaluation of a taurine containing amino acid solution in parenteral nutrition.
PubMed: Effect of alcohol on blood levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acids in male Wistar rats.
PubMed: Taurine, a possible urinary marker of liver damage: a study of taurine excretion in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats.
PubMed: Amino acid concentrations in plasma and urine in very low birth weight infants fed protein-unenriched or human milk protein-enriched human milk.
PubMed: Elevation of retinol levels and suppression of alanine aminotransferase activity in the liver of taurine-deficient kittens.
PubMed: Effect of processing on fate of dietary [14C]taurine in cats.
PubMed: Uphill transport of beta-alanine in intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.
PubMed: Bioavailability, metabolism, and renal excretion of benzoic acid in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).
PubMed: Taurine and cholesterol supplementation in the term infant: responses of growth and metabolism.
PubMed: Determination of taurine in infant formulas using ultrafiltration and cation-exchange chromatography.
PubMed: Contrasting effects of water-soluble and water-insoluble dietary fibers on bile acid conjugation and taurine metabolism in the rat.
PubMed: Spectrophotometric determination of taurine in food samples with phenol and sodium hypochlorite as reagents and an ion-exchange clean-up.
PubMed: Improved selenium, carnitine and taurine status in an enterally fed population.
PubMed: The taurine content of common foodstuffs.
PubMed: Effects of formula protein level and ratio on infant growth, plasma amino acids and serum trace elements. I. Cow's milk formula.
PubMed: Serum unconjugated primary and secondary bile acids in patients with cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
PubMed: Bile acid conjugation and hepatic taurine concentration in rats fed on pectin.
PubMed: Taurine supplementation of formulas.
PubMed: The pattern reversal VEP in short-gestation infants on taurine or taurine-free diet.
PubMed: Overnutrition: an epidemic problem in pet animal practice?
PubMed: Taurine and auditory system maturation.
PubMed: Predominant conjugation with glycine of biliary and lumen bile acids in rats fed on pectin.
PubMed: Influence of vitamin B6 status on aspects of lead poisoning in rats.
PubMed: Theory into practice: the incorporation of new knowledge into infant formula.
PubMed: Taurine in pediatric nutrition: review and update.
PubMed: Randomized trial of taurine supplementation for infants less than or equal to 1,300-gram birth weight: effect on auditory brainstem-evoked responses.
PubMed: Growth and plasma amino acid concentrations in very low birthweight infants fed either human milk protein fortified human milk or a whey-predominant formula.
PubMed: Changes in taurine in aging fruit flies and mice.
PubMed: Taurine supplementation: theoretical and practical considerations.
PubMed: Nitrogen balance in adult hospitalized patients with the use of a pediatric amino acid model.
PubMed: Deviations in hepatic amino acid profiles of mouse following repeated hexachlorophene administration.
PubMed: Tissue taurine content and conjugated bile acid composition of rhesus monkey infants fed a human infant soy-protein formula with or without taurine supplementation for 3 months.
PubMed: Development of the nervous and cardiovascular systems in low-birth-weight infants fed a taurine-supplemented formula.
PubMed: Protein and energy intake during weaning. III. Effects on plasma amino acids.
PubMed: The role of breast milk in the development of the gastrointestinal tract.
PubMed: Taurine: is it required for infant nutrition?
PubMed: Physiology of chemoreceptor cells in the legs of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
PubMed: Effects of dietary taurine on tissue taurine and free amino acid levels of the chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, reared in freshwater and seawater environments.
PubMed: Effect of lead toxicity on the organ concentration of glutathione and glutathione-related free amino acids in the chick.
PubMed: Responses of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to chemical attractants.
PubMed: Human milk and preterm formula compared for effects on growth and metabolism.
PubMed: Taurine supplementation of a premature formula improves fat absorption in preterm infants.
PubMed: Effect of dietary taurine on cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the liver of mice fed a lithogenic diet.
PubMed: Indices of protein metabolism in term infants fed either human milk or formulas with reduced protein concentration and various whey/casein ratios.
PubMed: Protein quality in feeding low birth weight infants: a comparison of whey-predominant versus casein-predominant formulas.
PubMed: Fat absorption in preterm infants fed a taurine-enriched formula.
PubMed: Studies on LHRH and physiological fluid amino acids in human colostrum and milk.
PubMed: Sulphur amino acid levels in some tissues of the rat during pregnancy and lactation.
PubMed: Retinal degeneration in 3-month-old rhesus monkey infants fed a taurine-free human infant formula.
PubMed: Visual acuity loss in rhesus monkey infants fed a taurine-free human infant formula.
PubMed: The development of heart and brain function in low-birth-weight infants fed with taurine-supplemented formula.
PubMed: Taurine and the premature.
PubMed: [Supplementary parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Adaptation to amino acid intake].
PubMed: Milk protein intake in the term infant. II. Effects on plasma amino acid concentrations.
PubMed: Increased urinary excretion of inorganic sulfate in premature infants fed bovine milk protein.
PubMed: Taurine concentrations in the diet, plasma, urine and breast milk of vegans compared with omnivores.
PubMed: Protein nutrition and amino acid metabolism after 4 weeks of total parenteral nutrition with a mixture of 14 dipeptides: serendipitous observations on effects of sepsis in baboons.
PubMed: Nutrition, metabolism, and hypertension. A comparative survey between dietary variables and blood pressure among three nationalities in China.
PubMed: The role of narrowly tuned taste cell populations in lobster (Homarus americanus) feeding behavior.
PubMed: The effect of dietary protein on nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in portacaval-shunted rats.
PubMed: Utilization of isomers and analogs of amino acids and other sulfur-containing compounds.
PubMed: Taurine supplementation in infants receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition.
PubMed: Problems related to diet management of maternal phenylketonuria.
PubMed: Metabolic effects of a human milk adapted formula on sulfur amino acid degradation in full-term infants.
PubMed: Amino acid suppression of taurine-sensitive chemosensory neurons.
PubMed: Fasting and postprandial serum bile acid concentration with special reference to variations in the conjugate profile.
PubMed: Plasma amino acids in rheumatoid arthritis.
PubMed: Embryonic nutrition, growth and energetics in Zoarces viviparus L. as indication of a maternal-fetal trophic relationship.
PubMed: Free amino acid content in the skin mucus of goldfish, Carassius auratus L.: influence of feeding.
PubMed: [Free amino acids of various lacteal formulas used in Spain].
PubMed: Portal and vena caval plasma methionine concentrations in young pigs administered L-methionine, N-acetyl-L-methionine and N-acetyl-D-methionine.
PubMed: Role of taurine in feeding the low-birth-weight infant.
PubMed: Determinations of taurine in milk and infant formula diets.
PubMed: Retinal degeneration relating to taurine deficiency in a cat.
PubMed: Quality coding of a complex odorant in an invertebrate.
PubMed: Blood metabolite profiles of broodmares and foals.
PubMed: Nutritional factors and cardiovascular disease.
PubMed: Nutrition of the domestic cat, a mammalian carnivore.
PubMed: Feeding the low-birth-weight infant. IV. Fat absorption as a function of diet and duodenal bile acids.
PubMed: Feeding the low-birth-weight infant. III. Diet influences bile acid metabolism.
PubMed: Parenteral nutrition in preterm infants: influence of respiratory treatment and effect of different amino acid compositions.
PubMed: Feeding the low-birth weight infant: V. Effects of taurine, cholesterol, and human milk on bile acid kinetics.
PubMed: Feeding the low-birth-weight infant: II. Effects of taurine and cholesterol supplementation on amino acids and cholesterol.
PubMed: Feeding the low-birth-weight infant: I. Taurine and cholesterol supplementation of formula does not affect growth and metabolism.
PubMed: Determination of taurine in foods and feeds using an amino acid analyser.
PubMed: Effect of zinc deficiency on appetite and free amino acid concentrations in rat brain.
PubMed: Growth and plasma amino acid concentrations in term infants fed either whey-predominant formula or human milk.
PubMed: Taurine in human milk: growth modulator or conditionally essential amino acid?
PubMed: Diagnostic value of serum primary bile acids in detecting bile acid malabsorption.
PubMed: Milk protein quantity and quality in the term infant. II. Effects on acidic and neutral amino acids.
PubMed: Metabolism in the artificially reared rat pup: effect of an atypical rat milk substitute.
PubMed: Diet and biosynthesis as sources of taurine in the mouse.
PubMed: Taurine in the nutrition of the human infant.
PubMed: Elevation of cerebral levels of nonessential amino acids in vivo by administration of large doses.
PubMed: The oxidation of L- and D-cysteine to inorganic sulfate and taurine in the rat.
PubMed: Metabolic effects of short term food deprivation in the rat.
PubMed: A collaborative study on the determination of free amino acids in blood plasma.
PubMed: The effects of sodium arsenate on the free amino acid levels in erythrocytes and plasma in rats.
PubMed: Dietary casein levels and taurine supplementation. Effects on cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase activities and tuarine concentration in brain, liver and kidney of the rat.
PubMed: [Free amino acid content of tissues of rats which prefer either water or ethanol solutions].
PubMed: The new wonder ingredients in breast milk.
PubMed: Retinal degeneration associated with the feeding of dog foods to cats.
PubMed: Dietary-induced variations in urinary taurine levels of college women.
PubMed: Duodenal bile acid concentrations in fat malabsorption syndromes.
PubMed: Utilization of L-methionine sulfoxide, L-methionine sulfone and cysteic acid by the weanling rat.
PubMed: Effects of ketone bodies on amino acid metabolism in isolated rat diaphragm.
PubMed: Effect of ice storage upon the free amino acid contents of tails of white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus).
PubMed: Free amino acid pattern in Indian shrimp (Metapenaeus dobsonii).
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