laevo-valine
L-valine
 
Notes:
a branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. it promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. it is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Widely distributed in nature as one of the principal protein amino acids. Dietary supplement Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids whose carbon structure is marked by a branch point. These three amino acids are critical to human life and are particularly involved in stress, energy and muscle metabolism. BCAA supplementation as therapy, both oral and intravenous, in human health and disease holds great promise. "BCAA" denotes valine, isoleucine and leucine which are branched chain essential amino acids. Despite their structural similarities, the branched amino acids have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates, leucine solely to fats and isoleucine to both. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine and isoleucine respectively. Furthermore, these amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors.; Many types of inborn errors of BCAA metabolism exist, and are marked by various abnormalities. The most common form is the maple syrup urine disease, marked by a characteristic urinary odor. Other abnormalities are associated with a wide range of symptoms, such as mental retardation, ataxia, hypoglycemia, spinal muscle atrophy, rash, vomiting and excessive muscle movement. Most forms of BCAA metabolism errors are corrected by dietary restriction of BCAA and at least one form is correctable by supplementation with 10 mg of biotin daily. BCAA are decreased in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis, hepatic coma, cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia or portacaval shunt; L-valine is a branched-chain essential amino acid (BCAA) that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Valine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are leucine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair. This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production. Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and leucine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2. It is an essential amino acid found in proteins; Valine (abbreviated as Val or V) is an ?-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2. L-Valine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Its codons are GUU, GUC, GUA, and GUG. This essential amino acid is classified as nonpolar. Along with leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid. It is named after the plant valerian. In sickle-cell disease, valine substitutes for the hydrophilic amino acid glutamic acid in hemoglobin. Because valine is hydrophobic, the hemoglobin does not fold correctly.; Valine is an essential amino acid, hence it must be ingested, usually as a component of proteins. And will flow bood engorged pumps to the penile region. It is synthesized in plants via several steps starting from pyruvic acid. The initial part of the pathway also leads to leucine. The intermediate ?-ketovalerate undergoes reductive amination with glutamate. Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include:; aromatic amino acids (AAA)-tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, as well as methionine-are increased in these conditions. Valine in particular, has been established as a useful supplemental therapy to the ailing liver. All the BCAA probably compete with AAA for absorption into the brain. Supplemental BCAA with vitamin B6 and zinc help normalize the BCAA:AAA ratio. (http://www.dcnutrition.com)
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
      The Specialty Chemical Specialists
      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve as our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Our substantial portfolio of personal care ingredients now include a wide array of luxury and exotic components to compliment the key products we have always offered. We have expanded our offerings to the nutraceutical, industrial, and resin markets with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. We continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions. Please contact us to learn how we can help you reach your goals.
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      Product(s):
      VALINE, L-
       
  • Jiangyin Healthway
    • Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co.
      Independent Ingredients Supplier
      We provide custom synthesis and contract manufacturing from milligrams to metric tonnes.
      Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co., Ltd is a professional company, main engaged in manufacturing and exporting aroma chemicals ,food additives , cosmetic ingredient ,pharmaceutical intermediates & other fine chemicals; especially on aroma chemicals , as the major manufacturer of heterocyclic and sulphur aroma compounds , we are the leading independent ingredients supplier to the flavour and fragrance industries in China, can offer hundreds of different high quality aroma chemicals.
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      Product(s):
      105560 L-Valine
       
  • Penta International
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
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      Product(s):
      W527718 L-Valine, FCC
      SDS
       
  • TCI AMERICA
    • TCI AMERICA
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      Email: Sales
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      Product(s):
      V0014 L-Valine >98.0%(T)
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
(2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 72-18-4Picture of molecule
Other: 154605-70-6
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 200-773-6
FDA UNII: HG18B9YRS7
Nikkaji Web: J9.179K
Beilstein Number: 1721136
MDL: MFCD00064220
XlogP3: -2.30 (est)
Molecular Weight: 117.14807000
Formula: C5 H11 N O2
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
Flavis Number: 17.028 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 17.028  L-valine
FEMA Number: 3444  L-valine
FDA Mainterm: L-VALINE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white crystals (est)
Assay: 96.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 300.00 to  315.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 213.64 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure: 0.063000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 181.00 °F. TCC ( 83.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 0.289 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 7.446e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 5.85E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
odorless
  
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
masking agents
skin conditioning
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
Aceto
L-Valine
AIDP
L-Valine 98.5%-101.5%
Ajinomoto USA
AjiPure™ Valine
Flavor: characteristic
Manufactured under cGMP conditions using no materials of animal origin.
Ajinomoto USA
L-Valine
Flavor: characteristic
L-valine is an essential amino acid and, along with L-leucine and L-isoleucine, is part of the branched chain of amino acids. The body cannot manufacture L-valine, so it must be acquired via diet or supplementation. The male adult’s daily requirement is 10 mg per kg of body weight. L-valine is found in grains, dairy products (especially cottage cheese), mushrooms, meats, peanuts and soy proteins. Supplemental L-valine should always be combined with the L-isoleucine and L-leucine.
Anhui Haibei
L-Valine
Atlantic Chemicals
L-Valine
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
L-Valine
Charkit Chemical
VALINE, L-
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
L-Valine
Foodchem International
L-Valine
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Valine
Graham Chemical
L-Valine
Jiangyin Healthway
L-Valine
New functional food ingredients
Penta International
L-VALINE FCC, Kosher, Halal
Penta International
L-VALINE NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
L-VALINE USP, Kosher, Halal
Penta International
L-VALINE, Kosher
Prinova
L-Valine FCC; USP
Qingdao Dacon Trading
L-Valine
Risun Ingredients
L-Valine USP
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
L-Valine
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Valine, FCC
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
L-Valine >98.0%(T)
Zhong Ya Chemical
L-Valine
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-rat LD50  5390 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol. 58, Pg. 253, 1955.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-valine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 8
Click here to view publication 8
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -300.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -15.00000
beverages(alcoholic): -0.90000
breakfast cereal: -0.90000
cheese: --
chewing gum: -200.00000
condiments / relishes: -300.00000
confectionery froastings: -300.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -40.00000
fruit ices: -40.00000
gelatins / puddings: -80.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -300.00000
milk products: -40.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: -300.00000
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-valine produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum (KCCM 80058) for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-valine (ValAMINO«) produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum (DSM 25202) for all animal species, based on a dossier submitted by Evonik Industries AG
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-valine produced by Escherichia coli NITE SD 00066 for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-valine (L-valine, feed grade) produced by Escherichia coli NITE BP-01755 for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Ajinomoto Eurolysine S.A.S.
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 72-18-4
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 6287
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 (2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
Chemidplus: 0000072184
RTECS: YV9361000 for cas# 72-18-4
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References:
 (2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 72-18-4
Pubchem (cid): 6287
Pubchem (sid): 134972476
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
UM BBD: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00183
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00883
FooDB: FDB000465
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00152
Export Tariff Code: 2922.49.4950
MedlinePlusSupp: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 almond seed
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 apple fruit
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 apricot fruit
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 artichoke jerusalem artichoke tuber
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 asparagus shoot
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 avocado fruit
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 banana fruit
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 barley seed
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 basil leaf
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 basswood fruit
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 bean adzuki bean seed
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 bean asparagus bean fruit
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 bean asparagus bean seed
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 bean banner bean seed
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 bean black bean fruit
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 bean black bean seed
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 bean black bean sprout
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 bean butter bean seed
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 bean fava bean seed
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 bean field bean seed
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 bean mat bean seed
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 bean mung bean seed
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 bean mung bean sprout
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 bean winged bean leaf
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 bean winged bean seed
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 bean winged bean tuber
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 bean yam bean tuber
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 beet root
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 blueberry fruit
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 borage leaf
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 brazil nut
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 breadfruit fruit
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 breadfruit seed
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli leaf
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 brussel sprout leaf
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 buckwheat seed
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 burdock root
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 butternut seed
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 cabbage leaf
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 cacao bean
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 caraway seed
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 carob bean seed
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 carob bean seed
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 carrot root
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 cashew nut
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 cassava root
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 cayenne fruit
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 celery plant
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 celery shoot
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 chayote fruit
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 cherry sour cherry fruit
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 chestnut sweet chestnut nut
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 chickpea seed
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 chicory leaf
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 chive leaf
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 coconut endosperm
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 coconut leaf
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 coconut seed
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 coriander fruit
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 coriander leaf
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 coriander seed
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 corn seed
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 cucumber fruit
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 currant black currant fruit juice
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 date palm fruit
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 dill seed
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 eggplant fruit
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 endive leaf
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 evening-primrose seed
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 fennel seed
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 fenugreek leaf
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 fenugreek seed
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 fig fruit
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 flax seed
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 garlic bulb
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 garlic leaf
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 ginger root
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 ginger shoot
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 ginger tuber
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 ginkgo biloba seed
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 goosefoot leaf
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 gourd calabash gourd fruit
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 grape fruit
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 guava fruit
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 guava strawberry guava fruit
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 kohlrabi stem
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 leek wild leek plant
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 lentil seed
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 lentil sprout
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 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
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 lettuce leaf
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 lotus indian lotus rhizome
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 lotus indian lotus seed
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 macadamia nut
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 mallow jew's mallow leaf
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 mandarin fruit
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 mango fruit
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 marango shoot
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 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
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 mustard white mustard seed
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 oat plant
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 oat seed
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 okra fruit
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 onion bulb
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 orange fruit
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 papaya fruit
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 pea black-eyed pea seed
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 pea fruit
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 pea pigeon pea seed
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 pea seed
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 pea shoot
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 peach fruit
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 peanut seed
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 pear fruit
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 peppermint leaf
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 pigweed leaf
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 pine pinyon pine seed
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 pineapple fruit
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 pistachio nut
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 plum fruit
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 pomegranate fruit
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 poppy opium poppy seed
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 potato sweet potato root
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 potato tuber
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 purslane herb
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 radish root
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 rice hay
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 rosemary leaf
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 rye seed
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 saffron bulb
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 sesame seed
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 shea tree seed
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 soybean seed
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 spearmint leaf
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 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach plant
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 spinach water spinach leaf
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 squash summer squash fruit
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 star fruit fruit
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 sunflower seed
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 taro leaf
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 taro root
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 tarragon leaf
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 tarragon root
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 tea leaf
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 thyme plant
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 tomato fruit
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 turnip indian turnip root
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 watercress herb
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 watermelon fruit
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 watermelon seed
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 wheat seed
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 yam mountain yam root
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Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 ajipure valine
2-amino-3-methyl butanoic acid
2-amino-3-methyl butyric acid
(2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
(S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
L-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
(S)-(+)-2-amino-3-methylbutyric acid
(S)-2-amino-3-methylbutyric acid
L-2-amino-3-methylbutyric acid
(S)-alpha-amino-beta-methyl butyric acid
laevo-alpha-amino-beta-methyl butyric acid
L-alpha-amino-beta-methylbutyric acid
(S)-a-aminoisovaleric acid
L-(+)-a-aminoisovaleric acid
L-(+)-alpha-aminoisovaleric acid
L-2-aminoisovaleric acid
laevo(+)-alpha-aminoisovaleric acid
 valine
(S)-valine
(S)-(+)-valine
L-valine
L-(+)-valine
L-valine FCC
L-valine FCC; USP
L-valine USP
 valine, L-
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Salting-In with a Salting-Out Agent: Explaining the Cation Specific Effects on the Aqueous Solubility of Amino Acids.
PubMed: Spectroscopic studies of amino Acid ionic liquid-supported schiff bases.
PubMed: Development of analytical methods for the determination of tenuazonic acid analogues in food commodities.
PubMed: Reduction of the off-flavor volatile generated by the yogurt starter culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in soymilk.
PubMed: Molecular and sensory characterization of gamma-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
PubMed: Conversion of L-leucine to isovaleric acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii TL 34 and ITGP23.
PubMed: ZnCl2-mediated practical protocol for the synthesis of Amadori ketoses.
PubMed: Reduction of the off-flavor volatile generated by the yogurt starter culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in soymilk.
PubMed: Hydrolysis of wheat gluten by combining peptidases of Flammulina velutipes and electrodialysis.
PubMed: Structures and reactions of compounds involved in pink discolouration of onion.
PubMed: Purification and structure analysis of mycolic acids in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
PubMed: Structural analysis of a new cytotoxic demethylated analogue of neo-N-methylsansalvamide with a different peptide sequence produced by Fusarium solani isolated from potato.
PubMed: Leucine is essential for attenuating fetal growth restriction caused by a protein-restricted diet in rats.
PubMed: Effects of ┬╣Ôü┤C-labelled precursor feeding on production of beauvericin, enniatins H, I, and MK1688 by Fusarium oxysporum KFCC11363P.
PubMed: Changes in the metabolic profile of rat liver after ╬▒-tocopherol deficiency as revealed by metabolomics analysis.
PubMed: Spore germination of the psychrotolerant, red meat spoiler, Clostridium frigidicarnis.
PubMed: Origin and Incidence of 2-Methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, a Compound with a "Fungal" and "Corky" Aroma Found in Cork Stoppers and Oak Chips in Contact with Wines.
PubMed: Gellan gum as an immobilization matrix for the production of cyclosporin A.
PubMed: Global regulation of food supply by Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E.
PubMed: Statistical optimization for improved production of cyclosporin a in solid-state fermentation.
PubMed: Construction of a novel shuttle vector for use in Brevibacterium flavum, an industrial amino acid producer.
PubMed: Heating improves poor compliance with branched chain amino acid-rich supplementation in patients with liver cirrhosis: A before-after pilot study.
PubMed: Olfactory conditioning in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).
PubMed: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry characterization of ergocristam degradation products.
PubMed: Clostridium perfringens spore germination: characterization of germinants and their receptors.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.
PubMed: Amino acid and carbohydrate preferences in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice.
PubMed: Molecular and sensory characterization of gamma-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
PubMed: Identification of two novel pigment precursors and a reddish-purple pigment involved in the blue-green discoloration of onion and garlic.
PubMed: Sequence diversity of the peptaibol antibiotic suzukacillin-A from the mold Trichoderma viride.
PubMed: Clinical comparison of branched-chain amino acid (l-Leucine, l-Isoleucine, l-Valine) granules and oral nutrition for hepatic insufficiency in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LIV-EN study).
PubMed: Atmospheric oxygen and other conditions affecting the production of cereulide by Bacillus cereus in food.
PubMed: Suppression of the bitterness of enteral nutrients using increased particle sizes of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and various flavours: a taste sensor study.
PubMed: 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan suppresses food intake in food-deprived and stressed rats.
PubMed: A sensitive gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for detection of alkylating agents in water: application to acrylamide in drinking water, coffee and snuff.
PubMed: Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.
PubMed: Design of chiral monochloro-s-triazine reagents for the liquid chromatographic separation of amino acid enantiomers.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of strawberry aroma compounds through amino acid metabolism.
PubMed: Stereodifferentiation of 3-hydroxyisobutyric- and 3-aminoisobutyric acid in human urine by enantioselective multidimensional capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Olfactory discrimination of amino acids in brown bullhead catfish.
PubMed: Response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to supplements of individual essential amino acids in a semipurified diet, including an estimate of the maintenance requirement for essential amino acids.
PubMed: Muscle and liver protein synthesis adapt efficiently to food deprivation and refeeding in 12-month-old rats.
PubMed: Determination of D-malic acid in apple juice by liquid chromatography: collaborative study.
PubMed: The significance of apical K+ channels in mudpuppy feeding behavior.
PubMed: Nutritional profile and antimicrobial spectrum of the spice Aframomum danielli K. Schum.
PubMed: Isoleucine requirements of the chicken: the effect of excess leucine and valine on the response to isoleucine.
PubMed: L-tyrosine potentiates the anorexia induced by mixed-acting sympathomimetic drugs in hyperphagic rats.
PubMed: Performance and nutrient balance in growing swine fed low-protein diets supplemented with amino acids and potassium.
PubMed: Effects of valine on 15N incorporation into serum and tissue protein and non-protein fractions following 15N-L-leucine administration to normal and liver-injured rats.
PubMed: Comparative effects of individual amino acid excesses when added to a corn-soybean meal diet: effects on growth and dietary choice in the chick.
PubMed: Order of binding of substrate to valyl-tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus in amino acid activation reaction.
PubMed: Effect of nutritional method on adaptation of the intestinal remnant after massive bowel resection.
PubMed: Effect of food intake on intestinal absorption and mucosal hydrolases in alloxan diabetic rats.
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