EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

D-2-aminoisovaleric acid

Supplier Sponsors

Name:(2R)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
CAS Number: 640-68-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:211-368-9
Nikkaji Web:J9.198G
Beilstein Number:1721135
XlogP3:-2.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:117.14807000
Formula:C5 H11 N O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:cosmetic agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Pubchem Patents:Search
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 295.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 213.64 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:0.063000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 181.00 °F. TCC ( 83.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 0.289 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 7.446e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
Anhui Haibei
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
D-Valine ≥99% (Titration)
Changzhou Longo Chemical
Glentham Life Sciences
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
D-Valine ≥98%
For experimental / research use only.
D-Valine >98.0%(T)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-rat LD50 6093 mg/kg
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol. 64, Pg. 319, 1956.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
cosmetic agents
Recommendation for dextro-valine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for dextro-valine flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):640-68-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :71563
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
(2R)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
RTECS:YV9360000 for cas# 640-68-6
 (2R)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):71563
Pubchem (sid):135030561
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C06417
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01000
Export Tariff Code:2922.49.4050
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
(2R)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
(R)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
D-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
(R)-(-)-2-amino-3-methylbutyric acid
(R)-2-amino-3-methylbutyric acid
D-2-aminoisovaleric acid
 valine, D-


PubMed:Stereoisomeric Prodrugs to Improve Corneal Absorption of Prednisolone: Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of l-valine-degrading Candida maltosa DLPU-zpb for d-valine preparation from dl-valine.
PubMed:β-Lactam formation by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase during antibiotic biosynthesis.
PubMed:A Highly Stable D-Amino Acid Oxidase of the Thermophilic Bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus.
PubMed:Total synthesis of macrodiolide ionophores aplasmomycin A and boromycin via double ring contraction.
PubMed:mer-Hydridotris(tri-methyl-phosphane-κP)(d-valinato-κ(2) N,O)iridium hexa-fluorido-phosphate di-chloro-methane 0.675-solvate.
PubMed:Study of structural and dynamic characteristics of copper(II) amino acid complexes in solutions by combined EPR and NMR relaxation methods.
PubMed:Total synthesis of burkholdacs A and B and 5,6,20-tri-epi-burkholdac A: HDAC inhibition and antiproliferative activity.
PubMed:NAD-based inhibitors with anticancer potential.
PubMed:Identification, purification, and characterization of a novel amino acid racemase, isoleucine 2-epimerase, from Lactobacillus species.
PubMed:The crystal structure of an isopenicillin N synthase complex with an ethereal substrate analogue reveals water in the oxygen binding site.
PubMed:Efficient synthesis of D-branched-chain amino acids and their labeled compounds with stable isotopes using D-amino acid dehydrogenase.
PubMed:The interaction of isopenicillin N synthase with homologated substrate analogues δ-(L-α-aminoadipoyl)-L-homocysteinyl-D-Xaa characterised by protein crystallography.
PubMed:Total synthesis of bicyclic depsipeptides spiruchostatins C and D and investigation of their histone deacetylase inhibitory and antiproliferative activities.
PubMed:The crystal structure of isopenicillin N synthase with a dipeptide substrate analogue.
PubMed:A functional isopenicillin N synthase in an animal genome.
PubMed:Growth of transplastomic cells expressing D-amino acid oxidase in chloroplasts is tolerant to D-alanine and inhibited by D-valine.
PubMed:Integrated culture and purification of rat Schwann cells from freshly isolated adult tissue.
PubMed:A novel meso-Diaminopimelate dehydrogenase from Symbiobacterium thermophilum: overexpression, characterization, and potential for D-amino acid synthesis.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of smooth muscle cells from rat corpus cavernosum tissue for the study of erectile dysfunction.
PubMed:Increased penicillin production in Penicillium chrysogenum production strains via balanced overexpression of isopenicillin N acyltransferase.
PubMed:A vacuolar membrane protein affects drastically the biosynthesis of the ACV tripeptide and the beta-lactam pathway of Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Stereoselective evasion of P-glycoprotein, cytochrome P450 3A, and hydrolases by peptide prodrug modification of saquinavir.
PubMed:A new peptide isolated from a marine derived Streptomyces bacillaris.
PubMed:Identification of a novel tetrapeptide structure of the Mycobacterium avium glycopeptidolipid that functions as a specific target for the host antibody response.
PubMed:Determination of δ-[L-α-aminoadipyl]-L-cysteinyl-D-valine in cell extracts of Penicillium chrysogenum using ion pair-RP-UPLC-MS/MS.
PubMed:The crystal structure of isopenicillin N synthase with δ-((L)-α-aminoadipoyl)-(L)-cysteinyl-(D)-methionine reveals thioether coordination to iron.
PubMed:Szentiamide, an N-formylated cyclic depsipeptide from Xenorhabdus szentirmaii DSM 16338T.
PubMed:Helical water chain mediated proton conductivity in homochiral metal-organic frameworks with unprecedented zeolitic unh-topology.
PubMed:Motifs in the C-terminal region of the Penicillium chrysogenum ACV synthetase are essential for valine epimerization and processivity of tripeptide formation.
PubMed:Characterization of an autoinducer of penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Isopenicillin N synthase binds δ-(L-α-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-thia-allo-isoleucine through both sulfur atoms.
PubMed:Ocular sustained release nanoparticles containing stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir.
PubMed:Handedness inversion in preparing chiral 4, 4(')-biphenylene-silica nanostructures.
PubMed:Catalytic asymmetric amination of N-nonsubstituted α-alkoxycarbonyl amides: concise enantioselective synthesis of mycestericin F and G.
PubMed:Regulation and compartmentalization of β-lactam biosynthesis.
PubMed:Utilization of glycerol as cysteine and carbon sources for cephalosporin C production by Acremonium chrysogenum M35 in methionine-unsupplemented culture.
PubMed:Comparison of the secondary metabolites in Penicillium chrysogenum between pilot and industrial penicillin G fermentations.
PubMed:Nonlinear biosynthetic gene cluster dose effect on penicillin production by Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Crystallographic studies on the binding of selectively deuterated LLD- and LLL-substrate epimers by isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Synthesis of both enantiomers of hemiesters by enantioselective methanolysis of meso cyclic anhydrides catalyzed by alpha-amino acid-derived chiral thioureas.
PubMed:Determination of the absolute configuration of pentacoordinate chiral phosphorus compounds in solution by using vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy and density functional theory.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of novel actinomycin D analogs with amino acid substituted in the cyclic depsipeptides.
PubMed:The crystal structure of an LLL-configured depsipeptide substrate analogue bound to isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:An engineered yeast efficiently secreting penicillin.
PubMed:Total synthesis of the bicyclic depsipeptide HDAC inhibitors spiruchostatins A and B, 5''-epi-spiruchostatin B, FK228 (FR901228) and preliminary evaluation of their biological activity.
PubMed:Heterologous production of non-ribosomal peptide LLD-ACV in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:In vitro mutasynthesis of lantibiotic analogues containing nonproteinogenic amino acids.
PubMed:Structural studies on the reaction of isopenicillin N synthase with a sterically demanding depsipeptide substrate analogue.
PubMed:Chapter 16. Enzymology of beta-lactam compounds with cephem structure produced by actinomycete.
PubMed:(L)- or (D)-valine tert-butylamide grafted on permethylated beta-cyclodextrin derivatives as new mixed binary chiral selectors: versatile tools for capillary gas chromatographic enantioseparation.
PubMed:Do current bladder smooth muscle cell isolation procedures result in a homogeneous cell population? Implications for bladder tissue engineering.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of Stereoisomeric Dipeptide Prodrugs of Acyclovir Following Intravenous and Oral Administrations in Rats: A Study Involving In vivo Corneal Uptake of Acyclovir Following Oral Dosing.
PubMed:Chiral separation of dansyl amino acids by ligand exchange capillary electrochromatography in a low molecular weight organogel.
PubMed:Isopenicillin N synthase mediates thiolate oxidation to sulfenate in a depsipeptide substrate analogue: implications for oxygen binding and a link to nitrile hydratase?
PubMed:Human periosteum-derived cells from elderly patients as a source for cartilage tissue engineering?
PubMed:Synthesis, metabolism and cellular permeability of enzymatically stable dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir.
PubMed:Novel polyoxazole-based cyclopeptides from Streptomyces sp. Total synthesis of the cyclopeptide YM-216391 and synthetic studies towards telomestatin.
PubMed:Isolation and structure determination of malevamide E, a dolastatin 14 analogue, from the marine cyanobacterium Symploca laete-viridis.
PubMed:Use of multiple carboxylates to increase intracellular retention of fluorescent probes following release from cell penetrating fluorogenic conjugates.
PubMed:Chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity of F-ring opening reactions in the cephalostatin series.
PubMed:Empirical observations and mechanistic insights on the first boron-containing chiral selector for LC and supercritical fluid chromatography.
PubMed:Synthesis and solid-phase application of suitably protected gamma-hydroxyvaline building blocks.
PubMed:In vivo transport of the intermediates of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in tailored strains of Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Interactions of isopenicillin N synthase with cyclopropyl-containing substrate analogues reveal new mechanistic insight.
PubMed:Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry determination of (4S,2RS)-2,5,5-trimethylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, a stable adduct formed between D-(-)-penicillamine and acetaldehyde (main biological metabolite of ethanol), in plasma, liver and brain rat tissues.
PubMed:Recombinant polycistronic structure of hydantoinase process genes in Escherichia coli for the production of optically pure D-amino acids.
PubMed:Molecular analysis of TCR and peptide/MHC interaction using P18-I10-derived peptides with a single D-amino acid substitution.
PubMed:Transcriptional and bioinformatic analysis of the 56.8 kb DNA region amplified in tandem repeats containing the penicillin gene cluster in Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Gene clusters for beta-lactam antibiotics and control of their expression: why have clusters evolved, and from where did they originate?
PubMed:Transport of levovirin prodrugs in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line.
PubMed:A pilot trial testing the feasibility of administering D-penicillamine to extremely low birth weight neonates.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of a novel mouse lymphatic endothelial cell line: SV-LEC.
PubMed:Unique binding of a non-natural L,L,L-substrate by isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Lysine is catabolized to 2-aminoadipic acid in Penicillium chrysogenum by an omega-aminotransferase and to saccharopine by a lysine 2-ketoglutarate reductase. Characterization of the omega-aminotransferase.
PubMed:A new strategy for the selective determination of D-amino acids: enzymatic and chemical modifications for pre-column derivatization.
PubMed:Structural studies on the reaction of isopenicillin N synthase with the truncated substrate analogues delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-glycine and delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-alanine.
PubMed:Amino acid ester prodrugs of the anticancer agent gemcitabine: synthesis, bioconversion, metabolic bioevasion, and hPEPT1-mediated transport.
PubMed:A practical synthesis of Nalpha-Fmoc-L-pyrazinylalanine via Schöllkopf's chiral auxiliary.
PubMed:Characteristics of prolinase against various iminodipeptides in erythrocyte lysates from a normal human and a patient with prolidase deficiency.
PubMed:Effects of amino acids and its metabolites on prolidase activity against various iminodipeptides in erythrocytes from normal human and a patient with prolidase deficiency.
PubMed:On the Mössbauer spectra of isopenicillin N synthase and a model (FeNO)7 (S = 3/2) system.
PubMed:Characterization of the control of intracellular [Ca2+] and the contractile phenotype of cultured human detrusor smooth muscle cells.
PubMed:Active-site-mediated elimination of hydrogen fluoride from a fluorinated substrate analogue by isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Synthetic peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits growth of human breast cancer: investigation of the pharmacophore and synthesis optimization.
PubMed:A conditional marker gene allowing both positive and negative selection in plants.
PubMed:[Production of soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in human endometrial cell culture].
PubMed:Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of new radioiodinated MMP inhibitors for imaging MMP activity in vivo.
PubMed:Comparative studies of potential cancer biomarkers carbon-11 labeled MMP inhibitors (S)-2-(4'-[11C]methoxybiphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-methylbutyric acid and N-hydroxy-(R)-2-[[(4'-[11C]methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]benzylamino]-3-methylbutanamide.
PubMed:ATPase activity of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases.
PubMed:The expression of sterigmatocystin and penicillin genes in Aspergillus nidulans is controlled by veA, a gene required for sexual development.
PubMed:Amino acid ester prodrugs of floxuridine: synthesis and effects of structure, stereochemistry, and site of esterification on the rate of hydrolysis.
PubMed:Synthesis, biodistribution and micro-PET imaging of a potential cancer biomarker carbon-11 labeled MMP inhibitor (2R)-2-[[4-(6-fluorohex-1-ynyl)phenyl]sulfonylamino]-3-methylbutyric acid [11C]methyl ester.
PubMed:Crystallographic studies on the reaction of isopenicillin N synthase with an unsaturated substrate analogue.
PubMed:Pigs' gastrointestinal microflora provide them with essential amino acids.
PubMed:The npgA/ cfwA gene encodes a putative 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase which is essential for penicillin biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans.
PubMed:Effects of L-dopa and other amino acids against paraquat-induced nigrostriatal degeneration.
PubMed:Structural studies on the reaction of isopenicillin N synthase with the substrate analogue delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-alpha-aminobutyrate.
PubMed:Regulation of L-cystine transport and intracellular GSH level by a nitric oxide donor in primary cultured rabbit conjunctival epithelial cell layers.
PubMed:Cloning and expression analysis of the pcbAB-pcbC beta-lactam genes in the marine fungus Kallichroma tethys.
PubMed:[The effect of interleukin-1 beta on cell growth of normal mouse pituitary cells and ACTH secreting adenoma].
PubMed:Morphological plasticity of olfactory ensheathing cells is regulated by cAMP and endothelin-1.
PubMed:Nonribosomal peptide synthetases-evidence for a second ATP-binding site.
PubMed:Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of MMP inhibitor radiotracers [11C]methyl-halo-CGS 27023A analogs, new potential PET breast cancer imaging agents.
PubMed:delta-(L-alpha-Aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase, that mediates the first committed step in penicillin biosynthesis, is a cytosolic enzyme.
PubMed:L-delta-(alpha-Aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteine-D-valine synthetase: production of dipeptides containing valine residue at its C-terminus.
PubMed:The glutathione metabolism of the beta-lactam producer filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Anti-Fas antibody induces apoptosis in cultured human renal interstitial fibroblasts.
PubMed:Alternative oxidation by isopenicillin N synthase observed by X-ray diffraction.
PubMed:Replacement of tyrosine-197 and the corresponding tyrosine-195 to isoleucine in Cephalosporium acremonium and Streptomyces clavuligerus isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Mutational analysis of conserved glycines 42 and 256 in Cephalosporium acremonium isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Chiral analysis of amino acids using electrochemical composite bienzyme biosensors.
PubMed:Total synthesis of bafilomycin A(1) relying on iterative 1,2-induction in acyclic precursors.
PubMed:Effect of exogenous lysine on the expression of early cephamycin C biosynthetic genes and antibiotic production in Nocardia lactamdurans MA4213.
PubMed:Efficient asymmetric synthesis of biologically important tryptophan analogues via a palladium-mediated heteroannulation reaction.
PubMed:Site-directed mutagenesis of proline-285 to leucine in Cephalosporium acremonium isopenicillin-N-synthase affects catalysis and increases soluble expression at higher temperatures.
PubMed:Nostocyclamide M: a cyanobacterial cyclic peptide with allelopathic activity from Nostoc 31.
PubMed:Anti-leukemia selectivity in actinomycin analogues.
PubMed:Quantitative analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum Wis54-1255 transformants overexpressing the penicillin biosynthetic genes.
PubMed:Alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetases in beta-lactam producing organisms. From Abraham's discoveries to novel concepts of non-ribosomal peptide synthesis.
PubMed:Mutational analysis of invariant valine B12 in insulin: implications for receptor binding.
PubMed:Studies of isopenicillin N synthase enzymatic properties using a continuous spectrophotometric assay.
PubMed:Structure-function studies of the non-heme iron active site of isopenicillin N synthase: some implications for catalysis.
PubMed:Detection and substrate selectivity of new microbial D-amino acid oxidases.
PubMed:Estrogens modulate the inhibitory effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on anterior pituitary cell proliferation and prolactin release.
PubMed:Molecular aggregation in crystalline 1:1 complexes of hydrophobic D- and L-amino acids. I. The L-isoleucine series.
PubMed:Inhibition of proliferation of contaminating fibroblasts by D-valine in cultures of smooth muscle cells from human myometrium.
PubMed:Chloptosin, an apoptosis-inducing dimeric cyclohexapeptide produced by Streptomyces.
PubMed:Asymmetric synthesis of alpha-amino acids based on carbon radical addition to glyoxylic oxime ether
PubMed:Mutational analysis of tyrosine-191 in the catalysis of Cephalosporium acremonium isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:PCR cloning, heterologous expression, and characterization of isopenicillin N synthase from Streptomyces lipmanii NRRL 3584.
PubMed:Thioesterase domain of delta-(l-alpha-Aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine synthetase: alteration of stereospecificity by site-directed mutagenesis.
PubMed:Parity violation of electroweak force in phase transitions of single crystals of d- and L-alanine and valine.
PubMed:Early cephamycin biosynthetic genes are expressed from a polycistronic transcript in Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:The reaction cycle of isopenicillin N synthase observed by X-ray diffraction.
PubMed:Site-directed mutagenesis of arginine-89 supports the role of its guanidino side-chain in substrate binding by Cephalosporium acremonium isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Metabolic control analysis of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway: the influence of the LLD-ACV:bisACV ratio on the flux control.
PubMed:Compartmentalization and transport in beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis by filamentous fungi.
PubMed:Recent advances in the structure and function of isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis: mechanism of carbon catabolite regulation of penicillin production.
PubMed:Glutamine-230 influences enzyme solubility but not catalysis in Streptomyces clavuligerus isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:In vitro transcriptional studies of the bkd operon of Pseudomonas putida: L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers.
PubMed:Cephalosporin C production by Cephalosporium acremonium: the methionine story.
PubMed:Mutational evidence for the role of serine-283 in Cephalosporium acremonium isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a novel glycine oxidase from Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:Analysis of glutamines in catalysis in Cephalosporium acremonium isopenicillin N synthase by site-directed mutagenesis.
PubMed:Enhanced penicillin production by oligosaccharides from batch cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum in stirred-tank reactors.
PubMed:Transport of L-valine-acyclovir via the oligopeptide transporter in the human intestinal cell line, Caco-2.
PubMed:New aspects of genes and enzymes for beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis.
PubMed:Catalytic activity in Cephalosporium acremonium isopenicillin N synthase does not involve glutamine-234.
PubMed:X-ray structures of new dipeptide taste ligands.
PubMed:Penicillin biosynthesis: energy requirement for tripeptide precursor formation by delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Acremonium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Analysis of the conversion of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-alpha-aminobutyrate by active-site mutants of Aspergillus nidulans isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Tumor growth inhibition and nutritional effect of D-amino acid solution in AH109A hepatoma-bearing rats.
PubMed:Molecular cloning of the actinomycin synthetase gene cluster from Streptomyces chrysomallus and functional heterologous expression of the gene encoding actinomycin synthetase II.
PubMed:Group specific antibodies against the putative AMP-binding domain signature SGTTGXPKG in peptide synthetases and related enzymes.
PubMed:Proteins of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway.
PubMed:Functional analysis of a conserved aspartate D218 in Cephalosporium acremonium isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Conformational analysis of potent sweet taste ligands by nuclear magnetic resonance, computer simulations and X-ray diffraction studies.
PubMed:Penicillin biosynthesis: intermediates of biosynthesis of delta-L-alpha-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine formed by ACV synthetase from Acremonium chrysogenum.
PubMed:L-delta-(alpha-Aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase: thioesterification of valine is not obligatory for peptide bond formation.
PubMed:Structure of isopenicillin N synthase complexed with substrate and the mechanism of penicillin formation.
PubMed:The glutamine ligand in the ferrous iron active site of isopenicillin N synthase of Streptomyces jumonjinensis is not essential for catalysis.
PubMed:Anaerobic crystallisation of an isopenicillin N synthase.Fe(II).substrate complex demonstrated by X-ray studies.
PubMed:Overexpression of the Nocardia lactamdurans alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetase in Streptomyces lividans. The purified multienzyme uses cystathionine and 6-oxopiperidine 2-carboxylate as substrates for synthesis of the tripeptide.
PubMed:delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase is a rate limiting enzyme for penicillin production in Aspergillus nidulans.
PubMed:Genetic and biochemical analysis of the cysteinyl residues of isopenicillin N synthase from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Pathway kinetics and metabolic control analysis of a high-yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum during fed batch cultivations.
PubMed:Endothelin receptor mediated constriction and dilatation in feline cerebral resistance arterioles in vivo.
PubMed:Proliferating and differentiating Schwann cell cultures from embryonic chick sciatic nerve maintained for months in vitro without antimitotics or growth factors.
PubMed:Organization and expression in Pseudomonas putida of the gene cluster involved in cephalosporin biosynthesis from Lysobacter lactamgenus YK90.
PubMed:Himastatin, a new antitumor antibiotic from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. III. Structural elucidation.
PubMed:Ferrous active site of isopenicillin N synthase: genetic and sequence analysis of the endogenous ligands.
PubMed:Identification of genes encoding for peptide synthetases in the gram-negative bacterium Lysobacter sp. ATCC 53042 and the fungus Cylindrotrichum oligospermum.
PubMed:Synthesis of p-phosphonomethyl-L-phenylalanine using camphor sultam or D-valine as chiral auxiliaries and its incorporation into integrin sequences.
PubMed:Coenzyme F390 synthetase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg belongs to the superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes.
PubMed:Thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry study of diastereomeric isoindole derivatives of amino acids and amino acid amides.
PubMed:Molecular mechanism of the multifunctional enzyme L-delta-(alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV) synthetase.
PubMed:Delta-L-(alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase: isolation of L-cysteinyl-D-valine, a 'shunt' product, and implications for the order of peptide bond formation.
PubMed:Continuous cultivation of Penicillium chrysogenum. Growth on glucose and penicillin production.
PubMed:Structural, physical, and biological characteristics of RNA.DNA binding agent N8-actinomycin D.
PubMed:A heuristic approach to the analysis of enzymic catalysis: reaction of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-alpha-aminobutyrate and delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-allylglycine catalyzed by isopenicillin N synthase isozymes.
PubMed:Metabolic flux distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum during fed-batch cultivations.
PubMed:delta-L-(alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase: the order of peptide bond formation and timing of the epimerisation reaction.
PubMed:Production of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine by entrapped ACV-synthetase from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Possible involvement of the lysine epsilon-aminotransferase gene (lat) in the expression of the genes encoding ACV synthetase (pcbAB) and isopenicillin N synthase (pcbC) in Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Cloning, sequencing and disruption of a gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus involved in clavulanic acid biosynthesis.
PubMed:Antagonistic activity of the food-related filamentous fungus Penicillium nalgiovense by the production of penicillin.
PubMed:L-leucine transport systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae participation of GAP1, S1 and S2 transport systems.
PubMed:[Biogenesis of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and penicillin in Penicillium chrysogenum: effect of the biocatalyst chrysin].
PubMed:Epimerization of the D-valine portion in the biosynthesis of actinomycin D.
PubMed:Substrate specificity of L-delta-(alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Cephalosporium acremonium: demonstration of the structure of several unnatural tripeptide products.
PubMed:Primary culture of salamander intestinal epithelial cells from nests: whole cell Na+ currents induced by valine.
PubMed:Transcriptional mapping of the genes encoding the early enzymes of the cephamycin biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Interdependence of gene expression for early steps of cephalosporin synthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:The thioredoxin system of Penicillium chrysogenum and its possible role in penicillin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Analysis of the regulation of penicillin biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans by targeted disruption of the acvA gene.
PubMed:Effect of bromocriptine and SMS 201-995 on growth of human somatotrophic and non-functioning pituitary adenoma cells in vitro.
PubMed:Enantioselective syntheses and calcium channel modulating effects of (+)- and (-)-3-isopropyl 5-(4-methylphenethyll) 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-pyridyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylates.
PubMed:D-valine selective medium does not inhibit human fibroblast growth in vitro.
PubMed:Effect of single base substitutions at glycine-870 codon of gramicidin S synthetase 2 gene on proline activation.
PubMed:Study of a reagent- and mediator-less biosensor for D-amino acids based on co-immobilized D-amino acid oxidase and peroxidase in carbon paste electrodes.
PubMed:X-ray absorption studies of the ferrous active site of isopenicillin N synthase and related model complexes.
PubMed:The enzymes involved in biosynthesis of penicillin and cephalosporin; their structure and function.
PubMed:Production, purification, and characterization of D-aminoacylase from Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. xylosoxydans A-6.
PubMed:Delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase, the multienzyme integrating the four primary reactions in beta-lactam biosynthesis, as a model peptide synthetase.
PubMed:Cyclosporin H is a potent and selective formyl peptide receptor antagonist. Comparison with N-t-butoxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanyl-L- leucyl-L-phenylalanine and cyclosporins A, B, C, D, and E.
PubMed:Low-molecular-weight thiols in streptomycetes and their potential role as antioxidants.
PubMed:Racemization during aminolysis of activated esters of N-alkoxycarbonylamino acids by amino acid anions in partially aqueous solvents and a tactic to minimize it.
PubMed:Characterization of a broad-range disulfide reductase from Streptomyces clavuligerus and its possible role in beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis.
PubMed:Subcellular compartmentation of penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum. The amino acid precursors are derived from the vacuole.
PubMed:Interleukin involvement in anterior pituitary cell growth regulation: effects of IL-2 and IL-6.
PubMed:Inhibition of IL-1 beta-induced peripheral inflammation by peripheral and central administration of analogs of the neuropeptide alpha-MSH.
PubMed:Production kinetics and stability properties of delta(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:The accumulation and metabolism of glycosphingolipids in primary kidney cell cultures from beige mice.
PubMed:Genetically variable taste sensitivity to D-amino acids in mice.
PubMed:L-lysine repression of penicillin biosynthesis and the expression of penicillin biosynthesis genes acvA and ipnA in Aspergillus nidulans.
PubMed:Identification of rate-limiting steps in cephalosporin C biosynthesis in Cephalosporium acremonium: a theoretical analysis.
PubMed:Development and characterisation of a rat brain capillary endothelial culture: towards an in vitro blood-brain barrier.
PubMed:Alpha-MSH peptides inhibit acute inflammation induced in mice by rIL-1 beta, rIL-6, rTNF-alpha and endogenous pyrogen but not that caused by LTB4, PAF and rIL-8.
PubMed:Regulation of Aspergillus nidulans penicillin biosynthesis and penicillin biosynthesis genes acvA and ipnA by glucose.
PubMed:X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the high-spin iron(II) active site of isopenicillin N synthase: evidence for Fe-S interaction in the enzyme-substrate complex.
PubMed:Thiolate ligation of the active site Fe2+ of isopenicillin N synthase derives from substrate rather than endogenous cysteine: spectroscopic studies of site-specific Cys----Ser mutated enzymes.
PubMed:Substrate specificity of isopenicillin N synthase.
PubMed:Biochemical studies on the activity of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Vasopressin-induced antipyresis in the medial amygdaloid nucleus of conscious rats.
PubMed:Enzymatic characterisation of the multifunctional enzyme delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Crystal structure of valinomycin-monohydrate cage complexes crystallized from dioxane.
PubMed:Evaluation of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltripeptides in mice and a baboon.
PubMed:Specificity and kinetics of Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino acid oxidase.
PubMed:Oxygen utilisation by isopenicillin N synthase from Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Inhibition of fibroblast proliferation in L-valine reduced selective media.
PubMed:NMR studies of the active site of isopenicillin N synthase, a non-heme iron(II) enzyme.
PubMed:Kinetic analysis of cephalosporin biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Localization of the lysine epsilon-aminotransferase (lat) and delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (pcbAB) genes from Streptomyces clavuligerus and production of lysine epsilon-aminotransferase activity in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular characterization of the acvA gene encoding the first enzyme of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
PubMed:Genes directly involved in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of D-amino acid oxidase activity.
PubMed:The cephamycin biosynthetic genes pcbAB, encoding a large multidomain peptide synthetase, and pcbC of Nocardia lactamdurans are clustered together in an organization different from the same genes in Acremonium chrysogenum and Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Transport of L-leucine hydroxy analogue and L-lactate in rabbit small-intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.
PubMed:Primary culture of neonatal rat olfactory neurons.
PubMed:Isolation and partial characterisation of ACV synthetase from Cephalosporium acremonium and Streptomyces clavuligerus. Evidence for the presence of phosphopantothenate in ACV synthetase.
PubMed:Localization of the pathway of the penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Isolation of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine from culture broths by covalent chromatography.
PubMed:Purification and partial characterization of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:A technique for promoting Schwann cell growth from fresh and frozen biopsy nerve utilizing D-valine medium.
PubMed:The multifunctional peptide synthetase performing the first step of penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum is a 421,073 dalton protein similar to Bacillus brevis peptide antibiotic synthetases.
PubMed:Nonribosomal biosynthesis of peptide antibiotics.
PubMed:A new medium for in vitro peripheral nervous tissue myelination without the use of antimitotics.
PubMed:High performance liquid chromatographic assay of Amicar, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, in plasma and urine after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde for fluorescence detection.
PubMed:Purification from Cephalosporium acremonium of the initial enzyme unique to the biosynthesis of penicillins and cephalosporins.
PubMed:Analysis of delta-L-alpha-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine by ion chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of rabbit ovarian surface epithelium, granulosa cells, and peritoneal mesothelium in primary culture.
PubMed:Primary culture of proximal tubular cells from normal rat kidney as an in vitro model to study mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. Toxicity of nephrotoxicants at low concentrations during prolonged exposure.
PubMed:In vitro induction of prolactin production and aromatase activity by gonadal steroids exclusively in the stroma of separated proliferative human endometrium.
PubMed:Photoaffinity labelling of isopenicillin N synthetase.
PubMed:High level expression in Escherichia coli of a fungal gene under the control of strong promoters.
PubMed:Beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthetic genes have been conserved in clusters in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
PubMed:Purification of an inducible L-valine dehydrogenase of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).
PubMed:Characterization and complementation of a cephalosporin-deficient mutant of Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585.
PubMed:Biosynthesis and control of beta-lactam antibiotics: the early steps in the "classical" tripeptide pathway.
PubMed:The Aspergillus nidulans npeA locus consists of three contiguous genes required for penicillin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Characterization and regional distribution of strychnine-insensitive [3H]glycine binding sites in rat brain by quantitative receptor autoradiography.
PubMed:Regulation of ACV synthetase: biosynthesis and action.
PubMed:Cloning and heterologous expression of the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster from penicillum chrysogenum.
PubMed:Spectroscopic studies of isopenicillin N synthase. A mononuclear nonheme Fe2+ oxidase with metal coordination sites for small molecules and substrate.
PubMed:Characterization of a loss-of-function mutation in the isopenicillin N synthetase gene of Acremonium chrysogenum.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine in complex media by precolumn derivatisation with dansylaziridine.
PubMed:Regulation of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine and isopenicillin N biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum by the alpha-aminoadipate pool size.
PubMed:Stereospecificity of reactions catalyzed by bacterial D-amino acid transaminase.
PubMed:Beta-lactam biosynthesis in a gram-negative eubacterium: purification and characterization of isopenicillin N synthase from Flavobacterium sp. strain SC 12.154.
PubMed:Photoaffinity labelling of isopenicillin N synthetase by laser-flash photolysis.
PubMed:Measurement of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase activity in Streptomyces clavuligerus by high-performance liquid chromatography after precolumn derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde.
PubMed:delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Aspergillus nidulans. The first enzyme in penicillin biosynthesis is a multifunctional peptide synthetase.
PubMed:Purification of astroglial-cell cultures from rat spinal cord: the use of d-valine to inhibit fibroblast growth.
PubMed:Molecular modelling of structural changes which affect chromatographic selectivity in chiral separations.
PubMed:Establishment and characterization of mouse thymic epithelial cell lines.
PubMed:Factors affecting the isopenicillin N synthetase reaction.
PubMed:Culture of bovine mammary epithelial cells in D-valine modified medium: selective removal of contaminating fibroblasts.
PubMed:Substrate specificity of duckling hepatic and renal D-amino acid oxidase.
PubMed:The rabbit renotropic system.
PubMed:Immunolocalization of thymosin alpha 1, thymopoietin and thymulin in mouse thymic epithelial cells at different stages of culture: a light and electron microscopic study.
PubMed:Determination of beta-lactams and their biosynthetic intermediates in fermentation media by pre-column derivatisation followed by fluorescence detection.
PubMed:Renotropic stimulation in rat kidney cell culture.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of the isopenicillin N synthase of Streptomyces lactamdurans.
PubMed:Biochemical and morphological characterization of primary kidney cell cultures from beige mutant mice.
PubMed:Effect of ammonium as nitrogen source on production of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase by Cephalosporium acremonium C-10.
PubMed:Dissimilar effects of L and D amino acids on the growth of Tetrahymena.
PubMed:Some N-acyl-D-amino acid derivatives having antibotulinal properties.
PubMed:Hydroxamate-induced spectral perturbations of cobalt Aeromonas aminopeptidase.
PubMed:Characteristics of long-term human epithelial cell cultures derived from normal human fetal kidney.
PubMed:[Inhibitory effect of ergot alkaloids on nucleosides transport in cultured bovine anterior pituitary cells].
PubMed:Fluorometric study on the interaction of amino acids and ATP with valyl-tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus.
PubMed:Interference by methionine on valine uptake in Acremonium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Inhibition of fibroblast proliferation in a culture of human endometrial stromal cells using a medium containing D-valine.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of benzylpenicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum and its Golgi apparatus.
PubMed:Purification of isopenicillin N synthetase from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Secretion of a 97 kilodalton glycoprotein by primary cultures of human ovarian epithelial tumor cells.
PubMed:Glycosphingolipid patterns in primary mouse kidney cultures.
PubMed:Characterization of hydantoinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain DSM 84.
PubMed:Glucose represses formation of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine and isopenicillin N synthase but not penicillin acyltransferase in Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Cyclization of phenylacetyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine to benzylpenicillin using cell-free extracts of Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Further studies on the cyclization of the unnatural tripeptide delta-(D-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine to penicillin N.
PubMed:Influence of the amino acid moiety on deconjugation of bile acid amidates by cholylglycine hydrolase or human fecal cultures.
PubMed:Synthesis of benzylpenicillin by cell-free extracts from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Primary glial cells and brain fibroblasts: interactions in culture.
PubMed:Echinococcus granulosus: absorption of cycloleucine and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid by protoscoleces.
PubMed:Pancreatic carboxypeptidase hydrolysis of bile acid-amino conjugates: selective resistance of glycine and taurine amidates.
PubMed:Isolation, sequence determination and expression in Escherichia coli of the isopenicillin N synthetase gene from Cephalosporium acremonium.
PubMed:Acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors: N-phthalyl-L-valine anilide and related compounds.
PubMed:Rat kidney epithelial cell culture for metal toxicity studies.
PubMed:Semisynthesis of linear gramicidins using diphenyl phosphorazidate (DPPA).
PubMed:Determination by high-performance liquid chromatography of some compounds involved in the biosynthesis of penicillin and cephalosporin.
PubMed:Structural effects of substitutions on the p21 proteins.
PubMed:Isopenicillin N synthetase of Penicillium chrysogenum, an enzyme that converts delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine to isopenicillin N.
PubMed:A coupled enzyme assay for isopenicillin N synthetase.
PubMed:Amino acid derived latent isocyanates: irreversible inactivation of porcine pancreatic elastase and human leukocyte elastase.
PubMed:In vitro growth and maintenance of two morphologically distinct populations of thymic epithelial cells.
PubMed:Enzymatic approach to syntheses of unnatural beta-lactams.
PubMed:[Morphological studies of cultured cells derived from human cervix with normal and abnormal epithelium].
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of vitamin-A-storing lung cells.
PubMed:Enzymatic conversion of the unnatural tripeptide delta-(D-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine to beta-lactam antibiotics.
PubMed:[Regulation of the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces galbus].
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis of the penicillin and cephalosporin nuclei from an acyclic peptide containing carboxymethylcysteine.
PubMed:Effects of D-valine on pulmonary artery endothelial cell morphology and function in cell culture.
PubMed:Effect of D-valine and cytosine arabinoside on [3H]thymidine incorporation in rat and rabbit epididymal epithelial cell cultures.
PubMed:Vasopressin: a potent growth factor in adrenal glomerulosa cells in culture.
PubMed:Studies of D-amino acid oxidase activity in human epidermis and cultured human epidermal cells.
PubMed:Stereospecificity of amino acid hydroxamate inhibition of aminopeptidases.
PubMed:The effect of anti-oxidants and medium composition on isolation and culture of alveolar type II pneumocytes.
PubMed:Structural features of cultured epithelial cells from the adult rat epididymis.
PubMed:A study of the biosynthesis of the tripeptide delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine in a beta-lactam-negative mutant of Cephalosporium acremonium.
PubMed:Studies on the ring-cyclization and ring-expansion enzymes of beta-lactam biosynthesis in Cephalosporium acremonium.
PubMed:Glycoprotein synthesis of renal collecting duct epithelium cultured as globular bodies.
PubMed:General properties of 14C-L-Valine-binding to human brain tissue.
PubMed:Evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediating glucocorticoid effects in developing chick liver. Fibroblast-hepatocyte factor.
PubMed:D-valine medium maintains prolactin production in primary culture.
PubMed:Cephalosporin formation by cell-free extracts from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:High performance liquid chromatographic assay of cyclization activity in cell-free systems from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Stoichiometry of oxygen consumption in the biosynthesis of isopenicillin from a tripeptide.
PubMed:Control of the actinomycin biosynthetic pathway in and actinomycin resistance of Streptomyces spp.
PubMed:Mouse mammary cells in D-valine medium.
PubMed:Cyclization of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine to penicillins by cell-free extracts of Streptomyces clavuligerus.
PubMed:Cell associated glycoproteins synthesized by cultured renal tubular cells.
PubMed:H-D-val-leu-lys-aminoisophthalic acid, dimethyl ester, is sensitive to streptokinase-activator not to plasmin.
PubMed:Kinetic characterization of [125I] iodo-prolactin in binding to primary monolayer cultures of rabbit mammary epithelium.
PubMed:Effect of various compounds on the reaction of tris-(2-chloroethyl)amine with ribonucleic acid in vitro and on its toxicity in mice.
PubMed:Selective growth of rabbit corneal epithelial cells in culture and basement membrane collagen synthesis.
PubMed:Cell-free cyclization of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine to isopenicillin N.
PubMed:Studies on the biosynthesis of isopenicillin N with a cell-free preparation of Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Deacetylation of PS-5, a new beta-lactam compound, I. Microbial deacetylation of PS-5.
PubMed:Selective isolation and culture of a proliferating epithelial cell population from the hamster trachea.
PubMed:Explantation and subculture of epithelial cells from human uterine ectocervix.
PubMed:Selection of epithelial cells in culture by D-valine medium.
PubMed:The synthesis of metallothionein and cellular adaptation to metal toxicity in primary rat kidney epithelial cell cultures.
PubMed:Cell-free conversion of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine into an antibiotic with the properties of isopenicillin N in Cephalosporium acremonium.
PubMed:Changes in growth and morphology of human gliomas and fibroblasts cultured in D-valine medium.
PubMed:[Effect of creatine and other phosphorylable amino compounds on the ileal absorption of Ca-45 in the rat].
PubMed:Immobilization and characterization of D-amino acid oxidase.
PubMed:Synthesis and evaluation of bis-dipeptide and bis-tripeptide analogues of actinomycin D.
PubMed:In vitro analysis of proliferating epithelial cell populations from the mouse mammary gland: fibroblast-free growth and serial passage.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of epithelial and connective tissue cells from rat palate.
PubMed:Actinomycin biosynthesis by protoplasts derived from Streptomyces parvulus.
PubMed:The stimulating effect of fatty acids and amino acid derivatives on the labellar sugar receptor of the fleshfly.
PubMed:Renal enzymes in kidney cells selected by D-valine medium.
PubMed:Biosynthetic studies with L-[2,3-3H2] valine as precursor of the D-valine moiety in actinomycin.
PubMed:Human lymphocyte response to D-valine media.
PubMed:Incorporation of double-labelled valine into delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine by Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:[Mode of action of D-amino acids on the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan (author's transl)].
PubMed:Steric effects on penicillin-sensitive peptidoglycan synthesis in a membrane-wall system Gaffkya homari.
PubMed:On the oxy analogues to the 3 leads to 1 intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded peptide conformations.
PubMed:The absolute configuration of the amino acids in delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)cysteinylvaline from Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Presence of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine in fermentations of Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:The total structure of the antibiotic longicatenamycin.
PubMed:Letter: The nonparticipation of alpha,beta-dehydrovalinyl intermediates in the formation of sigma-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine.
PubMed:D-Alanine-requiring cell wall mutant of Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Branched-chain amino acid substitutions in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic actinomycin.
PubMed:D-valine as a selective agent for normal human and rodent epithelial cells in culture.
PubMed:Regulation of leucine catabolism in Pseudomonas putida.
PubMed:Regulation of valine catabolism in Pseudomonas putida.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of peptides containing -aminoadipic acid and cysteine in extracts of a Cephalosporium sp.
PubMed:Isolation and nature of intracellular peptides from a cephalosporin C-producing Cephalosporium sp.
PubMed:Amino acid transport by the filamentous fungus Arthrobotrys conoides.
PubMed:Incomplete inversion of D-leucine and D-valine.
PubMed:Amino acid transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis.
PubMed:Mutual antagonism in the metabolism of D-valine and D-leucine and antagonism by their analogs.
PubMed:Studies of peptide antibiotics. XIV. Analogs of gramicidin S containing D-valine or -leucine in place of D-phenylalanine.
PubMed:Oxidation of D-amino acids by a particulate enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:The role of valine in the biosynthesis of penicillin N and cephalosporin C by a Cephalosporium sp.
PubMed:[Polarimetric study of metallic complexes of amino acids. I. Methods. Chelates of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), with D-valine and D-alanine].
PubMed:Studies on the inhibition of actinomycin biosynthesis by D-valine.
PubMed:Effect of amino acids on sugar absorption.
PubMed:Oxidation of D- and L-valine by enzymes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:Amino acid cross resistance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
PubMed:Peptide studies. V. Synthesis and racemization of some optically active tripeptides of L- and D-valine.
PubMed:Role of valine and isoleucine as regulators of actinomycin peptide formation by Streptomyces chrysomallus.
PubMed:Staphylococcal penicillinase. I. Inhibition and stimulation of activity.
PubMed:The isolation of D-valine from Penicillium chrysogenum.
PubMed:Growth promotion by D-valine and D-leucine.
PubMed:Peptide studies. II. Growth-promoting activity of peptides of L-leucine and L- and D-valine for lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Inhibition of actinomycin synthesis by D-valine.
PubMed:The biosynthesis of penicillin. 7. Further experiments on the utilization of L-and D-valine and the effect of cystine and valine analogues on penicillin synthesis.
PubMed:[Excretion of urea and of ammonium salts after the administration of L- and D-valine].
PubMed:UTILIZATION of D-valine.
PubMed:The growth effect of D-valine.
PubMed:Antigenic analysis of D-valine adapted Salmonella gallinarum.
PubMed:The utilization of D-valine for growth in rats.
PubMed:The utilization of D-valine for growth by the rat.
PubMed:The conversion of D-valine to glycogen in the rat.
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