EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

sulfur dioxide
oxosulfane oxide

Supplier Sponsors

Name:sulfur dioxide
CAS Number: 7446-09-5Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:231-195-2
Nikkaji Web:J3.737K
Beilstein Number:3535237
XlogP3-AA:0.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:64.06340000
Formula:O2 S
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
182.3862 Sulfur dioxide View - review
EU SANCO Sulphur dioxide View - review
EU SANCO Sulphur dioxide - sulphites View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Sulfur Dioxide
GSFA Codex: Sulfur dioxide (220)
DG SANTE Food Additives:sulfur dioxide
FEMA Number:3039 sulfur dioxide
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):7446-09-5 ; SULFUR DIOXIDE
FDA Regulation:
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.892 Food starch-modified.

Subpart D--Chemical Preservatives
Sec. 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide.

Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina).
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: -73.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: -10.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:2533.468994 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density:2.26 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
ECSA Chemicals
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Sulfur Dioxide ≥99.9%
Chemical Sources Association
Need This Item for Flavor/Food?: You can contact the Chemical Sources Association
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
T - Toxic.
R 23 - Toxic by inhalation.
R 34 - Causes burns.
S 01/02 - Keep locked up and out of the reach of children.
S 09 - Keep container in a well-ventilated place.
S 23 - Do not breath vapour.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S 45 - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-rat LC50 2520 ppm/1H
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A148-952

inhalation-mouse LC50 3000 ppm/30M
Journal of Combustion Toxicology. Vol. 4, Pg. 236, 1977.

inhalation-frog LCLo 1 pph/15M
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1396, 1935.

inhalation-guinea pig LCLo 1039 ppm/24H
Contributions from Boyce Thompson Institute. Vol. 10, Pg. 281, 1939.

inhalation-human LCLo 1000 ppm/10M
Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 5, Pg. 198, 1972.

inhalation-human LCLo 3000 ppm/5M
Tabulae Biologicae. Vol. 3, Pg. 231, 1933.

inhalation-human TCLo 3 ppm/5D
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 22, Pg. 319, 1972.

inhalation-human TCLo 12 ppm/1H
Sangyo Igaku. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health. Vol. 14, Pg. 449, 1972.

inhalation-mammal (species unspecified) LCLo 3000 ppm/5M
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 138, Pg. 65, 1928.

Safety in Use Information:
Recommendation for sulfur dioxide usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): -180.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -400.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -2.50000
fruit ices: -2.50000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: -60.00000
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: -20.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of sulfur dioxide (E 220), sodium sulfite (E 221), sodium bisulfite (E 222), sodium metabisulfite (E 223), potassium metabisulfite (E 224), calcium sulfite (E 226), calcium bisulfite (E 227) and potassium bisulfite (E 228) as food additives
View page or View pdf

Safety assessment of the active substance potassium metabisulfite, for use in active food contact materials
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NIOSH Pocket Guide:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):7446-09-5
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :1119
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
sulfur dioxide
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
 sulfur dioxide
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:7446-09-5
Pubchem (cid):1119
Pubchem (sid):134988838
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C09306
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB34834
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
FAO:Sulfur dioxide
•the sulfur dioxide products are formulated as a compressed liquid that converts to a gas upon release. •grades: commercial; usp; technical; refrigeration; anhydrous 99.98% min. •the main grade of liquid sulfur dioxide is known as the technical, industrial, or commercial grade. this grade contains a minimun of 99.98 wt% sulfur dioxide & is a water white liquid free of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid. its most important specification is the moisture content, which is generally set at 100 ppm max. the only other grade sold is the refrigeration grade of liquid sulfur dioxide, which is a premium grade having the same purity and specifications as the industrial grade, except for moisture content, which is specified as 50 ppm max. at least one manufacturer sells a single grade for which specifications have been established as follows: color, apha 25 max; nonvolatile residue, 25 ppm max; moisture, 50 ppm max. •compressed gas: technical, food grades; liquefied gas •the fruit doctorcompressed sulfur dioxide; active ingredient: 100% sulfur dioxide •sea fresh 150; active ingredient: 100% sulfur dioxide
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 dioxide, sulfur
oxosulfane oxide
 sulfane, oxo-, oxide
 sulfur oxide
 sulfurous anhydride
 sulfurous oxide
 sulphur dioxide


Info:Sulphur Dioxide
PubMed:Online Analysis of H2S and SO2 via Advanced Mid-Infrared Gas Sensors.
PubMed:Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR studies during Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation in the presence of sulfite.
PubMed:The challenging SO2-mediated chemical build-up of protein aggregates in wines.
PubMed:Sulfur dioxide residue in sulfur-fumigated edible herbs: The fewer, the safer?
PubMed:Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.
PubMed:Improving Oenococcus oeni to overcome challenges of wine malolactic fermentation.
PubMed:Fluorescence Fingerprinting of Bottled White Wines Can Reveal Memories Related to Sulfur Dioxide Treatments of the Must.
PubMed:Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology.
PubMed:Quality and PR gene expression of table grapes treated with ozone and sulfur dioxide to control fungal decay.
PubMed:Sulfur Dioxide Enhances Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Accumulation and Alleviates Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminum Stress in Germinating Wheat Seeds.
PubMed:Light-induced Changes in Bottled White Wine and Underlying Photochemical Mechanisms.
PubMed:Effect of sulfur dioxide fumigation on survival of foodborne pathogens on table grapes under standard storage temperature.
PubMed:Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.
PubMed:Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.
PubMed:Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of sulfite in food.
PubMed:Brooktrout Lake case study: biotic recovery from acid deposition 20 years after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.
PubMed:Contribution of SO2 to antioxidant potential of white wine.
PubMed:Over-evaluation of total flavonoids in grape skin extracts containing sulphur dioxide.
PubMed:Headspace thin-film microextraction coupled with surface-enhanced Raman scattering as a facile method for reproducible and specific detection of sulfur dioxide in wine.
PubMed:Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.
PubMed:Influence of sulfur fumigation on the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of buds of Lonicera japonica.
PubMed:Biodesulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel using Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277.
PubMed:Characterization of novel killer toxins secreted by wine-related non-Saccharomyces yeasts and their action on Brettanomyces spp.
PubMed:A Response Surface Methodology study on the role of factors affecting growth and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces bruxellensis ISA 2211 in wine.
PubMed:Origin of the pinking phenomenon of white wines.
PubMed:Influence of closure, phenolic levels and microoxygenation on Cabernet Sauvignon wine composition after 5 years' bottle storage.
PubMed:Evaluation of the SO2 and NOx offset ratio method to account for secondary PM2.5 formation.
PubMed:Technological properties of indigenous wine yeast strains isolated from wine production regions of Turkey.
PubMed:Comparison of the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from the combustion of agricultural and forest biomasses.
PubMed:Loss of sulfur dioxide and changes in some chemical properties of Malatya apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) during sulfuring and drying.
PubMed:Comparison of four different methods for the determination of sulfites in foods marketed in South Korea.
PubMed:Probabilistic model for the spoilage wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis as a function of pH, ethanol and free SO2 using time as a dummy variable.
PubMed:Impact of sulfur dioxide and temperature on culturability and viability of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in Wine.
PubMed:Determination of free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide by ion chromatography through anion exchange column and conductivity detection.
PubMed:An ionic liquid-mediated electrochemiluminescent sensor for the detection of sulfur dioxide at the ppb level.
PubMed:Effects of various sulphuring methods and storage temperatures on the physical and chemical quality of dried apricots.
PubMed:Extraction and quantification of SO2 content in wines using a hollow fiber contactor.
PubMed:The decay of ascorbic acid in a model wine system at low oxygen concentration.
PubMed:Effect of high pressure treatments on the physicochemical properties of a sulphur dioxide-free red wine.
PubMed:Reducing the sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines by solid-phase extraction.
PubMed:Sensorially important aldehyde production from amino acids in model wine systems: impact of ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, glutathione and sulphur dioxide.
PubMed:Coal plant: risk, disease and prevention with on environmental impact.
PubMed:Electrochemical oxidation of wine polyphenols in the presence of sulfur dioxide.
PubMed:Improved sample preparation and rapid UHPLC analysis of SO2 binding carbonyls in wine by derivatisation to 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine.
PubMed:Identification of muscadine wine sulfur volatiles: pectinase versus skin-contact maceration.
PubMed:Advances in the control of wine spoilage by Zygosaccharomyces and Dekkera/Brettanomyces.
PubMed:Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using headspace gas chromatography and electron capture detection.
PubMed:Sulphur cycling between terrestrial agroecosystem and atmosphere.
PubMed:Sulfur fumigation, a better or worse choice in preservation of Traditional Chinese Medicine?
PubMed:Hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase activity of Brettanomyces bruxellensis involved in volatile phenol production: relationship with cell viability.
PubMed:Genotoxic effects of sulfur dioxide in human lymphocytes.
PubMed:Assessment of endogenous antioxidative compounds and antioxidant activities of lager beers.
PubMed:A method to quantify quinone reaction rates with wine relevant nucleophiles: a key to the understanding of oxidative loss of varietal thiols.
PubMed:Reducing SO₂ in fresh pork burgers by adding chitosan.
PubMed:Surviving in the presence of sulphur dioxide: strategies developed by wine yeasts.
PubMed:Multistarter from organic viticulture for red wine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo production.
PubMed:Metabolism of SO₂ binding compounds by Oenococcus oeni during and after malolactic fermentation in white wine.
PubMed:Characterization of the "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state in the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces.
PubMed:Effect of alternative preservatives on the microbial quality, lipid stability and sensory evaluation of boerewors.
PubMed:Identification of adducts between an odoriferous volatile thiol and oxidized grape phenolic compounds: kinetic study of adduct formation under chemical and enzymatic oxidation conditions.
PubMed:[Determination of sulfur dioxide in traditional Chinese medicine by alkaline solution extraction and ion chromatography].
PubMed:Impact of acetaldehyde- and pyruvic acid-bound sulphur dioxide on wine lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Wine features related to safety and consumer health: an integrated perspective.
PubMed:Viability of common wine spoilage organisms after exposure to high power ultrasonics.
PubMed:A mass cyanide poisoning from pickling bamboo shoots.
PubMed:Ascorbic acid: a review of its chemistry and reactivity in relation to a wine environment.
PubMed:Evolution-based strategy to generate non-genetically modified organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains impaired in sulfate assimilation pathway.
PubMed:Occurrence, sensory impact, formation, and fate of damascenone in grapes, wines, and other foods and beverages.
PubMed:What is the most environmentally beneficial way to treat commercial food waste?
PubMed:Killer phenotype of indigenous yeasts isolated from Argentinian wine cellars and their potential starter cultures for winemaking.
PubMed:Potential of wine-associated lactic acid bacteria to degrade biogenic amines.
PubMed:Antioxidant action of glutathione and the ascorbic acid/glutathione pair in a model white wine.
PubMed:Effect of wine inhibitors on free pineapple stem bromelain activity in a model wine system.
PubMed:Micro-oxygenation of red wine: techniques, applications, and outcomes.
PubMed:Comparative study of the inhibitory effects of wine polyphenols on the growth of enological lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:[Adsorption performances for sulfur dioxide using imidazole ionic liquids].
PubMed:Identification of causative agents and species in shrimp implicated in a food poisoning case in Taiwan.
PubMed:Effects of several environmental factors on longevity and health of the human population of Zhongxiang, Hubei, China.
PubMed:Microoxidation in wine production.
PubMed:Molecular and physiological characteristics of a grape yeast strain containing atypical genetic material.
PubMed:Dose-dependent effect of nutritional sulfite intake on visual evoked potentials and lipid peroxidation.
PubMed:Sulphur dioxide affects culturability and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis.
PubMed:Determination of total sulfite in wine by ion chromatography after in-sample oxidation.
PubMed:Spectral features and stability of oligomeric pyranoanthocyanin-flavanol pigments isolated from red wines.
PubMed:Effect of sulfite on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat erythrocytes.
PubMed:Malolactic fermentation as a technique for the deacidification of hard apple cider.
PubMed:Determination of sulfite by pervaporation-flow injection with amperometric detection using copper hexacyanoferrate-carbon nanotube modified carbon paste electrode.
PubMed:Pharmacological evaluation of Alstonia scholaris: anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic and expectorant activities.
PubMed:The growth, survival and thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a traditional South African sausage.
PubMed:Sensory, chemical, and electronic tongue assessment of micro-oxygenated wines and oak chip maceration: assessing the commonality of analytical techniques.
PubMed:(Bi)sulfite oxidation by copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase: Sulfite-derived, radical-initiated protein radical formation.
PubMed:Applications of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. 2-propenesulfenic and 2-propenesulfinic acids, diallyl trisulfane S-oxide, and other reactive sulfur compounds from crushed garlic and other Alliums.
PubMed:Effects of sulfur dioxide on formation of fishy off-odor and undesirable taste in wine consumed with seafood.
PubMed:Control of rotting and browning of Longan fruit cv. Biew Kiew after harvested by sulphur dioxide treatment under various storage temperatures.
PubMed:Assessment of volatile and sensory profiles between base and sparkling wines.
PubMed:Controlling the fenton reaction in wine.
PubMed:Determination of free and total sulfites in wine using an automatic flow injection analysis system with voltammetric detection.
PubMed:Food waste conversion options in Singapore: environmental impacts based on an LCA perspective.
PubMed:Identification and characterization of Dekkera bruxellensis, Candida pararugosa, and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from commercial red wines.
PubMed:Changes on enological parameters of white wine packaged in bag-in-box during secondary shelf life.
PubMed:Induction of production and secretion beta(1-->4) glucanase with Saccharomyces cerevesiae by replacing the MET10 gene with egl1 gene from Trichoderma reesei.
PubMed:Development of a gas diffusion multicommuted flow injection system for the determination of sulfur dioxide in wines, comparing malachite green and pararosaniline chemistries.
PubMed:SPME-GC method as a tool to differentiate VOC profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts.
PubMed:Use of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant to reduce the content in gluconic acid of must obtained from rotten grapes.
PubMed:Effects of sulfur dioxide derivatives on expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human bronchial epithelial cells.
PubMed:Bacterial spoilage of wine and approaches to minimize it.
PubMed:Inactivation of different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in various apple ciders treated with dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) as an alternative method.
PubMed:Development of a method to measure hydrogen sulfide in wine fermentation.
PubMed:Sulfur volatiles in guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves: possible defense mechanism.
PubMed:New method for reducing the binding power of sweet white wines.
PubMed:Changes in the sotolon content of dry white wines during barrel and bottle aging.
PubMed:Development of bottom-fermenting saccharomyces strains that produce high SO2 levels, using integrated metabolome and transcriptome analysis.
PubMed:Survival patterns of Dekkera bruxellensis in wines and inhibitory effect of sulphur dioxide.
PubMed:Effect of winemaking practices on color indexes and selected bioactive phenolics of Aglianico wine.
PubMed:Resistance to oxidation of white wines assessed by voltammetric means.
PubMed:New methodology for removing carbonyl compounds from sweet wines.
PubMed:Contribution of wine components to inactivation of food-borne pathogens.
PubMed:Determination of added sulfites in dried garlic with a modified version of the optimized Monier-Williams method.
PubMed:Inhibition of malolactic fermentation by a peptide produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.
PubMed:Effect of SO2 concentration on polyphenol development during red wine micro-oxygenation.
PubMed:[Regulation of phenol oxidase activity with sulfur dioxide as the base for production of high-quality instant green tea].
PubMed:Optical sensor for sulfur dioxide determination in wines.
PubMed:Combined effect of volatile antimicrobial agents on the growth of Penicillium notatum.
PubMed:[Determination of sulphur dioxide in commonly used Chinese herbal medicines with both food and medicine function for health care by ion-chromatographic method].
PubMed:Ground-level ozone in China: distribution and effects on crop yields.
PubMed:Scaling-up in industrial winemaking using low electric current as an alternative to sulfur dioxide addition.
PubMed:Degradation of free and sulfur-dioxide-bound acetaldehyde by malolactic lactic acid bacteria in white wine.
PubMed:Evidence for protein degradation by Botrytis cinerea and relationships with alteration of synthetic wine foaming properties.
PubMed:[Construction of high sulphite-producing industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].
PubMed:Formation of biogenic amines throughout the industrial manufacture of red wine.
PubMed:Genetic characterization of strains of Saccharomycescerevisiae responsible for 'refermentation' in Botrytis-affected wines.
PubMed:Effect of screwcap and cork closures on SO2 levels and aromas in a Sauvignon Blanc wine.
PubMed:Effects of pH, temperature and SO2 on the formation of pyranoanthocyanins during red wine fermentation with two species of Saccharomyces.
PubMed:Modulation of L-type calcium current in rat cardiac myocytes by sulfur dioxide derivatives.
PubMed:Thiamine deficiency due to sulphur dioxide preservative in 'pet meat'--a case of déjà vu.
PubMed:Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and malolactic bacteria: preliminary characterization of a yeast proteinaceous compound(s) active against Oenococcus oeni.
PubMed:Evidence for viable but nonculturable yeasts in botrytis-affected wine.
PubMed:Population dynamics of Oenococcus oeni strains in a new winery and the effect of SO2 and yeast strain.
PubMed:Dietary antioxidants and environmental stress.
PubMed:[The problem and improvement of colorimetric method for determination of sulfite in foods containing sulfur compounds].
PubMed:The effect of sulphur dioxide and oxygen on the viability and culturability of a strain of Acetobacter pasteurianus and a strain of Brettanomyces bruxellensis isolated from wine.
PubMed:Protective effect of ipratropium bromide on bronchoconstriction induced by sulfur dioxide exposure during apricot sufurization processes that causes asthma-like syndrome in agricultural environment.
PubMed:Microbial content of commercial South African high-moisture dried fruits.
PubMed:Fate of damascenone in wine: the role of SO2.
PubMed:Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from must of grape grown in experimental vineyard.
PubMed:Mass spectrometric evidence for the existence of oligomeric anthocyanins in grape skins.
PubMed:The 'buttery' attribute of wine--diacetyl--desirability, spoilage and beyond.
PubMed:Effects of derivatives of sulfur dioxide on transient outward potassium currents in acutely isolated hippocampal neurons.
PubMed:Purification of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Molecular characterization of lactic acid populations associated with wine spoilage.
PubMed:Effect of air pollution on peri-urban agriculture: a case study.
PubMed:Estimation of inorganic food additive (nitrite, nitrate and sulfur dioxide), antioxidant (BHA and BHT), processing agent (propylene glycol) and sweetener (sodium saccharin) concentrations in foods and their daily intake based on official inspection results in Japan in fiscal year 1998.
PubMed:Environmental conditions in the Rudnaya River watershed--a compilation of Soviet and post-Soviet era sampling around a lead smelter in the Russian Far East.
PubMed:Raisin dietary fiber composition and in vitro bile acid binding.
PubMed:Sulfur: its clinical and toxicologic aspects.
PubMed:Gluconic acid, its lactones, and SO(2) binding phenomena in musts from botrytized grapes.
PubMed:Extraction of anthocyanins and other phenolics from black currants with sulfured water.
PubMed:[Colorimetric determination of sulfite in "kanpyo" (dried gourd shavings) and "konnyakuseiko" (devil's-tongue fine powder) using sulfite oxidase and catalase].
PubMed:Effect of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production of volatiles in Napa Gamay wine and Petite Sirah wine.
PubMed:Volatile sulfur compounds in irradiated precooked turkey breast analyzed with pulsed flame photometric detection.
PubMed:SO2-catalyzed steam explosion of corn fiber for ethanol production.
PubMed:Development of a potentiometric method to measure the resistance to oxidation of white wines and the antioxidant power of their constituents.
PubMed:Debates over wine alcohol, Prussian blue, and sulphur dioxide.
PubMed:The debate over the pathogenic nature of plastered wine.
PubMed:Extraction and solubility characteristics of zein proteins from dry-milled corn.
PubMed:Reduction of patulin during apple juice clarification.
PubMed:Killer toxin of Kluyveromyces phaffii DBVPG 6076 as a biopreservative agent to control apiculate wine Yeasts.
PubMed:The determination of total SO2 in grape juice. A comparison among five methods.
PubMed:Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on erythrocyte antioxidant status, food intake, and lipid peroxidation during aging.
PubMed:Some considerations concerning multimedia-multipollutant risk assessment methodology: use of epidemiologic data for non-cancer risk assessment in Russia.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives. Fifty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.
PubMed:Effects of weak acid preservatives on the growth and thermal death of the yeast Pichia membranifaciens in a commercial apple juice.
PubMed:Characterization of residual lignin after SO(2)-catalyzed steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis of Eucalyptus viminalis wood chips.
PubMed:Influence of lactic acid on the solubilization of protein during corn steeping.
PubMed:Analysis of diacetyl in wine using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Analytical characterization of madeira wine.
PubMed:Fate of fumonisin B(1) in corn kernel steeping water containing SO(2).
PubMed:[Analysis of air pollution and prevalence rate of allergic diseases among elementary school children in Kawaguchi and Hatogaya city].
PubMed:Molecular analysis of yeast population dynamics: effect of sulphur dioxide and inoculum on must fermentation.
PubMed:Thiamine deficiency in a cat associated with the preservation of 'pet meat' with sulphur dioxide.
PubMed:Determination of the influence of organic acids and nisin on shelf-life and microbiological safety aspects of fresh pork sausage.
PubMed:Ethanol production from spent cherry brine.
PubMed:Action on preservatives in fresh pet food.
PubMed:Inactivation of MET10 in brewer's yeast specifically increases SO2 formation during beer production.
PubMed:New insights into risk factors of asthma.
PubMed:Effects of air pollution on hematological and plasma parameters in Apodemus sylvaticus and Mus musculus.
PubMed:Are megacities viable? A cautionary tale from Mexico City.
PubMed:Cultivation of plants in space: their contribution to stabilizing atmospheric composition in closed ecological systems.
PubMed:Behavioural disturbances in adult CD-1 mice and absence of effects on their offspring upon SO2 exposure.
PubMed:Polysaccharide production by Pediococcus pentosaceus from wine.
PubMed:Sulfite sensitivity: significance in human health.
PubMed:Sulphite analysis of food ingredients: false positive responses with butter flavourings in the optimized Monier-Williams method.
PubMed:Corn wet milling: separation chemistry and technology.
PubMed:The precipitation of symptoms by common foods in children with atopic dermatitis.
PubMed:Comparison of sulphur dioxide and metabisulphite airway reactivity in subjects with asthma.
PubMed:Heat-resistant fungi of importance to the food and beverage industry.
PubMed:Sodium metabisulfite and SO2 release: an under-recognized hazard among shrimp fishermen.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activity of sulfur dioxide to certain lactic acid bacteria isolated from wines.
PubMed:Air pollution-type fluorosis in the region of Pingxiang, Jiangxi, Peoples' Republic of China.
PubMed:Sulphur dioxide sensitivity in South African asthmatic children.
PubMed:Sulphur dioxide, acid aerosols and particulates.
PubMed:In vitro model for the evaluation of toxicity and antinutritional effects of sulphites.
PubMed:Properties and use of sulphur dioxide.
PubMed:[The effect of ecotoxicological processes on animal husbandry in industrial countries].
PubMed:Effect of preservatives on patulin production by Penicillium expansum.
PubMed:Vitamin D deficiency and cancer of the breast: an unprovocative ecological hypothesis.
PubMed:Thiamin deficiency in cats and dogs associated with feeding meat preserved with sulphur dioxide.
PubMed:Determination of sulfur dioxide in grapes: comparison of the Monier-Williams method and two ion exclusion chromatographic methods.
PubMed:A review of sulphites in foods: analytical methodology and reported findings.
PubMed:An industrial hygiene evaluation of beet sugar processing plants.
PubMed:Evaluation of an HPLC method for the determination of sulphiting agents in foods.
PubMed:Determination of free (pH 2.2) sulfite in wines by flow injection analysis: collaborative study.
PubMed:Evaluation of Malolactic Bacteria Isolated from Oregon Wines.
PubMed:Inducing malolactic fermentation in wines.
PubMed:Neonatal development altered by maternal sulfur dioxide exposure.
PubMed:Sulphite content of orange crushes and drinks produced in Zimbabwe.
PubMed:False positive and false negative reactions encountered in the use of sulfite test strips for the detection of sulfite-treated foods.
PubMed:Sulfite sensitivity.
PubMed:Determination of sulfur dioxide in foods by modified Monier-Williams distillation and polarographic detection.
PubMed:Sulfite hypersensitivity. A critical review.
PubMed:Red wine asthma: a controlled challenge study.
PubMed:The effects of soft-drink preservatives on asthmatic children.
PubMed:Analysis for total sulfite in foods by using rapid distillation followed by redox titration.
PubMed:Sulfite sensitivity.
PubMed:Growth and Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria during and after Malolactic Fermentation of Wines at Different pH.
PubMed:Uses and analysis of sulfites in the corn wet milling industry.
PubMed:Reevaluation of Monier-Williams method for determining sulfite in food.
PubMed:Technological aspects of use of sulfiting agents in food.
PubMed:Adverse reactions to sulfites.
PubMed:Occurrence and properties of bacteriophages of Leuconostoc oenos in Australian wines.
PubMed:Review of sulfite sensitivity.
PubMed:Value of oral provocation tests to aspirin and food additives in the routine investigation of asthma and chronic urticaria.
PubMed:Grand rounds: adverse reactions to wine.
PubMed:[Chemical preservation of food].
PubMed:Sulphiting agents in foods: some risk/benefit considerations.
PubMed:Precipitating factors in asthma. Aspirin, sulfites, and other drugs and chemicals.
PubMed:Evolution of yeasts and lactic Acid bacteria during fermentation and storage of bordeaux wines.
PubMed:Presence of sulfur dioxide in commonly used bronchodilator solutions.
PubMed:Sulfiting agents can cause severe hypersensitivity.
PubMed:A GC method for the determination of sulphur dioxide in food headspaces.
PubMed:Formation and occurrence of nitrosamines in food.
PubMed:Control of the northern fowl mite on inanimate objects by fumigation: field studies.
PubMed:[Sensitivity of asthma patients to sulfur compounds in food, wine and injection solutions].
PubMed:Bronchospasm induced by metabisulphite-containing foods and drugs.
PubMed:Effect of sodium hydroxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide on the composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw.
PubMed:Sulfite oxidase deficiency: a high risk factor in SO2, sulfite, and bisulfite toxicity?
PubMed:Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat.
PubMed:Sulphur dioxide in foods and beverages: its use as a preservative and its effect on asthma.
PubMed:The chemical behaviour of food additives.
PubMed:[On the metabolism of sulphur dioxide in apples (author's transl)].
PubMed:A brief review of analytical methods for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in foodstuffs.
PubMed:Conversion of hydroxo(aquo) cobalamin to sulfitocobalamin in the absence of light: a reaction of importance in the identification of the forms of vitamin B12, with possible clinical significance.
PubMed:Asthma induced by sulphur dioxide, benzoate and tartrazine contained in orange drinks.
PubMed:Crosslinking of nucleic acids and proteins by bisulfite.
PubMed:Genetic effects of bisulfite (sulfur dioxide).
PubMed:Effectiveness of various food preservatives in controlling the outgrowth of Byssochlamys nivea ascospores.
PubMed:Problems posed by essential food preservatives.
PubMed:Perspective on air pollution: the canadian scene.
PubMed:[Level and stability of resistance to SO2 in wild strain of Saccharomyces ellipsoideus (author's transl)].
PubMed:Concentrations of some sulphonates derived from sulphite in certain foods and preliminary studies on the nature of other sulphite derived products.
PubMed:[Adding calcium salts and sulphur dioxide for preserving firmness and colour of frozen cauliflower (author's transl)].
PubMed:The effect of sulphur dioxide on oxidising enzyme systems in plant tissues.
PubMed:[Application of polarography and oscillographic polarography with alternating current to food analysis].
PubMed:Transport and toxicity of sulphur dioxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae var ellipsoideus.
PubMed:[Additives and the vitamin content of foods].
PubMed:[Determination of sulfur dioxide in frozen peeled shrimp and dehydrated pineapple].
PubMed:[The determination of sulfur dioxide in jams and jellies].
PubMed:Breathing sulphur dioxide.
PubMed:Sulfur dioxide, a respiratory tract irritant, even if ingested.
PubMed:The acceptable daily intake of food additives.
PubMed:Too many foods in pursuit of too few preservatives.
PubMed:Preservatives in food. A commentary on the report of the Governmental Food Additives and Contaminants Committee on the Review of the Preservatives in Food Regulations, 1962.
PubMed:Sulphite-binding power of wines and ciders. 3. Determination of carbonyl compounds in a wine and calculation of its sulphite-binding power.
PubMed:Sulphite-binding power of wines and ciders. II. Theoretical consideration and calculation of sulphite-binding equilibria.
PubMed:Sulphite-binding power of wines and ciders. I. Equilibrium constants for the dissociation of carbonyl bisulphite compounds.
PubMed:Chemical changes occurring during the processing of sun-dried apricot juice.
PubMed:[Damage to vegetation and food caused by emissions from conventional power stations].
PubMed:Modified Monier-Williams apparatus for sulphur dioxide determination.
PubMed:The value of the mouse in carcinogenicity testing.
PubMed:[Methods of detection of aromatic amines in liquid sulfur dioxide designed for alimentary use].
PubMed:[Foreign substances in food. Calculated hazards of our time].
PubMed:On the toxicity of our environment.
PubMed:[Formation of hydrogen peroxide during gamma irradiation of corn starch].
PubMed:A review of the technological efficacy of some antimicrobial agents.
PubMed:Environmental pollution. Nuisance, menace or disaster?
PubMed:The air we breathe.
PubMed:[The amount of SO-2 from wine and beer in the Belgian diet: probable consumption of SO-2 in Belgium].
PubMed:Environmental factors in the aetiology of gastric cancer.
PubMed:Influence of yeast strain on binding of sulphur dioxide in wines, and on its formation during fermentation.
PubMed:Sulphite-induced thiamine cleavage. Effect of storage and preparation of minced meat.
PubMed:[Probable consumption of SO2 in Belgium].
PubMed:Air quality parameters for epidemiologic studies.
PubMed:Some novel adducts of sulphur dioxide with carbonyls and amino-acids.
PubMed:[On sulfur dioxide content in food].
PubMed:The chemistry and technology of the pretreatment and preservation of fruit and vegetable products with sulfur dioxide and sulfites.
PubMed:Behavior of sulphur dioxide in concentrated orange juice.
a highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. it is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. it is also an environmental air pollutant. Food preservative. Sanitising agent for food containers and fermentation equipment. Also used in foods as stabiliser, moisture control agent, flavour modifier and texturiser
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