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sorbitan stearate
sorbitan monostearate

Supplier Sponsors

Name:[2-[(2R,3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl] octadecanoate
CAS Number: 1338-41-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:215-664-9
FDA UNII:NVZ4I0H58X
Beilstein Number:6820761
MDL:MFCD00005366
XlogP3-AA:6.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:430.62582000
Formula:C24 H46 O6
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:emulsifiers, flavor enhancers, flavoring agents or adjuvants
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Additive: Sorbitan Monostearate
GSFA Codex: Sorbitan monostearate (491)
DG SANTE Food Additives:sorbitan monostearate
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:sorbitan monostearate
FEMA Number:3028 sorbitan monostearate
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):1338-41-6 ; SORBITAN MONOSTEARATE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.836 Polysorbate 60.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.838 Polysorbate 65.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.840 Polysorbate 80.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.842 Sorbitan monostearate.


FDA PART 173 -- SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Specific Usage Additives
Sec. 173.310 Boiler water additives.


FDA PART 173 -- SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Specific Usage Additives
Sec. 173.340 Defoaming agents.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.


FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart D--Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids
Sec. 178.3400 Emulsifiers and/or surface-active agents.


FDA PART 573 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS
Subpart B--Food Additive Listing
Sec. 573.960 Sorbitan monostearate.


FDA PART 73 -- LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION
Subpart B--Drugs
Sec. 73.1001 Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use exempt from certification.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to tan waxy solid (est)
Assay: 78.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 54.00 to 57.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 578.00 to 579.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Acid Value: 10.00 max. KOH/g
Saponification Value:147.00 to 157.00
Flash Point:> 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 6.423 (est)
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 0.01218 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. bland
Taste Description: bland
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: emulsifying agents
 
Suppliers:
American International Chemical, LLC.
SORBITAN MONOSTEARATE NF/FCC
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Sorbitan monostearate
Chemical-navi - Nikkol
NIKKOL SS-10MV
Odor: characteristic
Use: Lipophilic emulsifier (pharmaceutical grade); dispersant; excipient; plant-derived
Chemical-navi - Nikkol
NIKKOL SS-10V
Odor: characteristic
Use: Lipophilic emulsifier; plant-derived
Croda
Arlacel™ 2121
Odor: bland
Use: Outstanding O/W emulsifier with excellent spreading properties for a smooth and light skin feel. Improves water resistance of formulations and is compatible with organic and inorganic sun filters. Stabilises emulsions of every type of oily material in water, irrespective of its required HLB. Used in creams and milks.
Croda
Arlacel™ LC
Odor: bland
Use: Oil-in-water emulsifier. Can be used to control viscosity. Improves water resistance of formulations and is compatible with organic and inorganic sun filters.
ECSA Chemicals
Sorbitan Stearate
Company Profile
Graham Chemical
Sorbitan Monostearate
Kao Corporation
EMASOL S-10V
Flavor: characteristic
Emulsifiers for foods. Emulsifier and stabilizer for whipped cream. Effective food emulsifier for improving a problem of "OVER RUN".
Kao Corporation
KAOPAN SP-S-10
Odor: characteristic
Use: Emulsifier and conditioning agent (low substantive effect)
Kao Corporation
RHEODOL AS-10V
Odor: characteristic
Use: Emulsifiers for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics,
Kao Corporation
RHEODOL SP-S20
Odor: characteristic
Use: Emulsifier for cosmetics, Emulsifier and dispersant for pigments.
Lipo Chemicals
Liposorb® S
Odor: characteristic
Use: Liposorb® S is a low HLB emulsifier primarily used for oil-in-water emulsions in combination with a high HLB emulsifier. The emulsifier pair produces smooth lotions and creams in skin and hair care, make-up bases, and mild cleaning products.
Lonza Group
Glycomul™ S KFG
Lonza Group
Lonzest™ SMS
Mohini Organics
MONEMUL® - 60
Odor: characteristic
Use: MONEMUL® - 60 is Non-ionic, Lipophillic surfactant used for preparing water in oil emulsifiers, Emulsifier for food grade for silicone Emulsions/Defoamer, Paraffin wax emulsion for processing paper coating and industrial oil emulsions, Emulsifier for cold creams, Re-hydration aid in the production of active dry yeast, Emulsifier in mineral premixes and dietary supplements of animal feeds, Emulsifier for Whipped toppings, In milk powders improves the dispersion property, In baked goods acts as plasticizer for yeast. Used as an Antifog agent in Plastic clear films.
Mosselman
Sorbitan Monostearate 20 EO
Mosselman
Sorbitan Monostearate
Penta International
SORBITAN MONOSTEARATE NF GRADE
Penta International
SORBITAN MONOSTEARATE
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Sorbitan monostearate
Sigma-Aldrich
Sorbitan monostearate, FCC
Certified Food Grade Products
SysKem Chemie
Sorbitan Monostearate
Zschimmer & Schwarz
Lubricit SMS-H
Zschimmer & Schwarz
Lubricit SMS-VEG
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 31000 mg/kg
Food Research. Vol. 21, Pg. 348, 1956.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category:
emulsifiers, flavor enhancers, flavoring agents or adjuvants
Recommendation for sorbitan stearate usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -1400.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -140.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: -8.00000
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -6.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -5.00000
fruit ices: -5.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 9.000007500.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Re-evaluation of sorbitan monostearate (E 491), sorbitan tristearate (E 492), sorbitan monolaurate (E 493), sorbitan monooleate (E 494) and sorbitan monopalmitate (E 495) when used as food additives
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):1338-41-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :14928
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
[2-[(2R,3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl] octadecanoate
Chemidplus:0001338416
RTECS:WG2933500 for cas# 1338-41-6
 
References:
 [2-[(2R,3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl] octadecanoate
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:1338-41-6
Pubchem (cid):14928
Pubchem (sid):134979649
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB29888
FooDB:FDB001123
Export Tariff Code:2915.70.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
Formulations/Preparations:
•a typical fluid emulsion shortening formulation contains 1.45% sorbitan monostearate. from table •grades: technical; fcc
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 emulsifying agents
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 
Synonyms:
1,4-anhydro-6-O-stearoyl-D-altritol
1,4-anhydro-D-glucitol 6-octadecanoate
1,4-anhydro-D-glucitol, 6-octadecanoate
1,4-anhydro-dextro-glucitol 6-octadecanoate
 anhydrosorbitol monostearate
 anhydrosorbitol stearate
 arlacel 2121
 arlacel 60
 arlacel LC
 armotan MS
 crill 3
 crill K 3
(2-((2R,3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-ethyl) octadecanoate
[2-[(2R,3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl] octadecanoate
 drewsorb 60
 durtan 60
 emasol S-10V
 emsorb 2505
 emultex SMS
D-glucitol, 1,4-anhydro-, 6-octadecanoate
D-glucitol, anhydro-, monooctadecanoate
 glycomul S
 glycomul S KFG
 hodag SMS
 ionet S 60
 ionet S-60C
 kaopan SP-S-10
 liposorb S
 lonzest SMS
 lubricit SMS-H
 lubricit SMS-VEG
 monemul - 60
 montane 60
 ms-33-F
 newcol 60
 nikkol SS 30
 nikkol SS-10MV
 nikkol SS-10V
 nissan nonion SP 60
 nonion SP 60
 norfox sorbo S-60FG
 rheodol AS-10V
 rheodol SP-S20
 rikemal S 250
 sorban AST
 sorbirol ISM
 sorbitan 0
 sorbitan C
 sorbitan monooctadecanoate
 sorbitan monostearate
 sorbitan monostearate FCC
 sorbitan, esters, monooctadecanoate
 sorbitan, monooctadecanoate
 sorbitan, monostearate
 sorbon S 60
 sorgen 50
 span 55
 span 60
 stearic acid, monoester with sorbitan
 

Articles:

PubMed:Spontaneous Surface Self-Assembly in Protein-Surfactant Mixtures: Interactions between Hydrophobin and Ethoxylated Polysorbate Surfactants.
PubMed:An electron spin resonance study of non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes).
PubMed:Formulation and characterization of drug loaded nonionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) for oral bioavailability enhancement.
PubMed:Paclitaxel loaded niosome nanoparticle formulation prepared via reverse phase evaporation method: an in vitro evaluation.
PubMed:Characterization of rheology and release profiles of olanzapine-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules in thermosensitive hydrogel.
PubMed:Physical stability of coconut oil lotions formulated using hydrophile-lipophile balance system of various emulsifier pairs.
PubMed:PEGylated non-ionic surfactant vesicles as drug delivery systems for Gambogenic acid.
PubMed:Development and in-vitro characterization of fish oil oleogels containing benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid as keratolytic agents.
PubMed:Characterisation and stability evaluation of bixin nanocapsules.
PubMed:Effect of sorbitan monostearate on the physical characteristics and whipping properties of whipped cream.
PubMed:Collagen loaded nano-sized surfactant based dispersion for topical application: formulation development, characterization and safety study.
PubMed:Design and optimization of surfactant-based nanovesicles for ocular delivery of Clotrimazole.
PubMed:Air-jet and vibrating-mesh nebulization of niosomes generated using a particulate-based proniosome technology.
PubMed:A design of experiments to optimize a new manufacturing process for high activity protein-containing submicron particles.
PubMed:Fractionation of ethylcellulose oleogels during setting.
PubMed:Development of a novel vesicular system using a binary mixture of sorbitan monostearate and polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters for rectal delivery of rutin.
PubMed:Sustained antioxidant activity of quercetin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules.
PubMed:Effect of formulation compositions on niosomal preparations.
PubMed:Efficacy of non-nutritive sorbent materials as intestinal-binding agents for the control of boar taint.
PubMed:Physicochemical properties and skin permeation of Span 60/Tween 60 niosomes of ellagic acid.
PubMed:Formulation and evaluation of meloxicam niosomes as vesicular carriers for enhanced skin delivery.
PubMed:Preparation of curcuminoid niosomes for enhancement of skin permeation.
PubMed:Spanlastics--a novel nanovesicular carrier system for ocular delivery.
PubMed:Improved photostability and reduced skin permeation of tretinoin: development of a semisolid nanomedicine.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetic study of niosome-loaded insulin in diabetic rats.
PubMed:Comparative study on the effects of some polyoxyethylene alkyl ether and sorbitan fatty acid ester surfactants on the performance of transdermal carvedilol proniosomal gel using experimental design.
PubMed:Magnetic SiO2 gel microspheres for arterial embolization hyperthermia.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of molecularly imprinted microspheres for dibutyl phthalate recognition in aqueous environment.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of niosomes containing ribavirin for liver targeting.
PubMed:Novel ultrasound contrast agent based on microbubbles generated from surfactant mixtures of Span 60 and polyoxyethylene 40 stearate.
PubMed:Studies on nonionic surfactant bilayer vesicles of ciclopirox olamine.
PubMed:Entrapment enhancement of peptide drugs in niosomes.
PubMed:[Anti-tumor compounds from submerger fermentation products of a Paecilomyces militaris strain].
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo evaluation of proniosomes containing celecoxib for oral administration.
PubMed:Sustained release from lipid-core nanocapsules by varying the core viscosity and the particle surface area.
PubMed:Effects of different nonionic surfactants on in vitro fermentation characteristics of cereal straws.
PubMed:An investigation into the role of surfactants in controlling particle size of polymeric nanocapsules containing penicillin-G in double emulsion.
PubMed:Moisturizing effect of oleogel/hydrogel mixtures.
PubMed:Effects of surfactant characteristics on drug availability from suppositories.
PubMed:The preparation of pellets containing non-ionic surfactants by extrusion/spheronization.
PubMed:Inhalable large porous microspheres of low molecular weight heparin: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of herbal creams for improvement of skin viscoelastic properties.
PubMed:Stability of luciferase plasmid entrapped in cationic bilayer vesicles.
PubMed:Formulation and optimization of piroxicam proniosomes by 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design.
PubMed:Influence of a niosomal formulation on the oral bioavailability of acyclovir in rabbits.
PubMed:Caffeine-loaded niosomes: characterization and in vitro release studies.
PubMed:Dermal delivery of selected hydrophilic drugs from elastic liposomes: effect of phospholipid formulation and surfactants.
PubMed:Sorbitan ester organogels for transdermal delivery of sumatriptan.
PubMed:The physicochemical characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of natural surfactants-based emulsions as vehicles for diclofenac diethylamine.
PubMed:Immuno-targeting of nonionic surfactant vesicles to inflammation.
PubMed:Evidence for vesicle formation from 1:1 nonionic surfactant span 60 and fatty alcohol mixtures in aqueous ethanol: potential delivery vehicle composition.
PubMed:Fatty alcohols or fatty acids as niosomal hybrid carrier: effect on vesicle size, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro dye release.
PubMed:Ultrasound enhancement of drug release across non ionic surfactant vesicle membranes.
PubMed:Low molecular weight heparin loaded pH-sensitive microparticles.
PubMed:Physico-chemical characterization and in vivo evaluation of indomethacin ethyl ester-loaded nanocapsules by PCS, TEM, SAXS, interfacial alkaline hydrolysis and antiedematogenic activity.
PubMed:Evaluation of the physical stability of two oleogels.
PubMed:Diffusion and mathematical modeling of release profiles from nanocarriers.
PubMed:[9-nitrocamptothecin nanostructured lipid carrier system: in vitro releasing characteristics, uptake by cells, and tissue distribution in vivo].
PubMed:Amphiphilogels as drug carriers: effects of drug incorporation on the gel and on the active drug.
PubMed:Organogels in drug delivery.
PubMed:Single-crystalline platinum nanosheets from nonionic surfactant 2-D self-assemblies at solid/aqueous solution interfaces.
PubMed:Composition analysis of two batches of polysorbate 60 using MS and NMR techniques.
PubMed:Preparation and evaluation of reverse-phase evaporation and multilamellar niosomes as ophthalmic carriers of acetazolamide.
PubMed:Mannosylated niosomes as carrier adjuvant system for topical immunization.
PubMed:Synthesis of high surface area hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by mixed surfactant-mediated approach.
PubMed:Effect of cholesterol and temperature on the elastic properties of niosomal membranes.
PubMed:Fluorometric sensing of alkali metal and alkaline earth metal cations by novel photosensitive monoazacryptand derivatives in aqueous micellar solutions.
PubMed:Effect of organogel components on in vitro nasal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride.
PubMed:The effect of ionic strength and hardness of water on the non-ionic surfactant-enhanced remediation of perchloroethylene contamination.
PubMed:Amphiphilogels for drug delivery: formulation and characterization.
PubMed:Phase distribution of hexachlorobenzene in a suspended-growth culture amended with a polysorbate surfactant.
PubMed:Formation and characterization of three-component-sorbitan monoester surfactant, oil and water-creams.
PubMed:A vesicular shuttle: transport of a vesicle within a flexible microtube.
PubMed:Physicochemical characterization of influenza viral vaccine loaded surfactant vesicles.
PubMed:Enzymatic dipeptide synthesis by surfactant-coated alpha-chymotrypsin complexes in supercritical carbon dioxide.
PubMed:Rheological properties of three component creams containing sorbitan monoesters as surfactants.
PubMed:Spray-dried indomethacin-loaded polyester nanocapsules and nanospheres: development, stability evaluation and nanostructure models.
PubMed:Final report on the safety assessment of sorbitan caprylate, sorbitan cocoate, sorbitan diisostearate, sorbitan dioleate, sorbitan distearate, sorbitan isostearate, sorbitan olivate, sorbitan sesquiisostearate, sorbitan sesquistearate, and sorbitan triisostearate.
PubMed:Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-6, -8, and -20 sorbitan beeswax.
PubMed:Effect of hydrophilic substances on liberation of quinidine from starch - alginate sphere.
PubMed:The Behavior of Sorbitan Surfactants at the Water-Oil Interface: Straight-Chained Hydrocarbons from Pentane to Dodecane as an Oil Phase.
PubMed:The Effect of Temperature on Sorbitan Surfactant Monolayers.
PubMed:Influence of pluronics on protein-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microparticles.
PubMed:Emulsification by ultrasound: drop size distribution and stability.
PubMed:Niosomes and polymeric chitosan based vesicles bearing transferrin and glucose ligands for drug targeting.
PubMed:Emulsification processes: on-line study by multiple light scattering measurements.
PubMed:The encapsulation of bleomycin within chitosan based polymeric vesicles does not alter its biodistribution.
PubMed:Niosomes as carriers of radiopaque contrast agents for X-ray imaging.
PubMed:Effect of the addition of oxybenzone or octyl-methoxycinnamate on particle size of submicron emulsions.
PubMed:Transesterification reaction between medium- and long-chain fatty acid triglycerides using surfactant-modified lipase.
PubMed:Proniosomes: a novel drug carrier preparation.
PubMed:Sorbitan monostearate/polysorbate 20 organogels containing niosomes: a delivery vehicle for antigens?
PubMed:Interaction of a nonionic surfactant-based organogel with aqueous media.
PubMed:Comparison of cytotoxicity of various surfactants tested on normal human fibroblast cultures using the neutral red test, MTT assay and LDH release.
PubMed:Inverse toroidal vesicles: precursors of tubules in sorbitan monostearate organogels.
PubMed:Water-in-sorbitan monostearate organogels (water-in-oil gels).
PubMed:Novel sorbitan monostearate organogels.
PubMed:Development of a topically active imiquimod formulation.
PubMed:The composition of NF-defined emulsifiers: sorbitan monolaurate, monopalmitate, monostearate, monooleate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, polysorbate 60, and polysorbate 80.
PubMed:Quantitative acoustic characterization of a new surfactant-based ultrasound contrast agent.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of multiple emulsion based systems for controlled diclofenac sodium release.
PubMed:The activity of doxorubicin niosomes against an ovarian cancer cell line and three in vivo mouse tumour models.
PubMed:Distribution, metabolism and tumoricidal activity of doxorubicin administered in sorbitan monostearate (Span 60) niosomes in the mouse.
PubMed:Lipase from Pseudomonas fragi CRDA 323: partial purification, characterization and interesterification of butter fat.
PubMed:Use of polymeric and non-polymeric surfactants in o/w emulsion formulation.
PubMed:High sensitization rate to emulsifiers in patients with chronic leg ulcers.
PubMed:Effect of macrophage activation on plasma disposition of niosomal 3H-methotrexate in sarcoma-180 bearing mice.
PubMed:[Effect of oral administration of sorbitan monostearate on prenatal and postnatal development of the rat].
PubMed:Spectrophotometric method for quantitation of peroxides in sorbitan monooleate and monostearate.
PubMed:Influence of surface-active food additives on the integrity and permeability of rat intestinal mucosa.
PubMed:C-Reactive protein induced agglutination of lipid suspensions prepared in the presence and absence of phosphatidylcholine.
PubMed:Interactions between tumor-promoting agents and histones studied by circular dichroism.
PubMed:Long-term toxicity study of sorbitan monostearate (Span 60) in mice.
PubMed:[Interaction between C-reactive protein and sorbitan monostearate].
PubMed:The effect of five ulcerating doses of alkyldimethylbenzylammoniumchloride (Zephiran) on the tumor promoting action of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (tween 60). An analysis of the dermal condition in tumor promotion.
PubMed:Histopathology of tumors induced in mice treated with polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate.
PubMed:Role of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate in skin carcinogenesis in mice.
PubMed:Studies of the action of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (tween 60) in skin carcinogenesis in the mouse.
PubMed:The evaluation of various emulsifiers including polyoxyethlene sorbitan monostearate (tween 60) for parenteral fat emulsions.
PubMed:The effect of feeding large amounts of emulsifiers polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate (tween 60) and sorbitan monostearate (span 60) to humans.
 
Notes:
stearic acid was the hm (74-82), no longer an active mh. Food emulsifier, stabiliser, defoaming agent, flavouring and flavour modifier, rehydration agent for active dried yeast, coating for fruit and vegetables and other food uses Sorbitan monostearate (also known as Span 60) is an ester of sorbitan (a sorbitol derivative) and stearic acid and is sometimes referred to as a synthetic wax. It is primarily used as an emulsifier to keep water and oils mixed. Sorbitan monostearate is used in the manufacture of food and healthcare products, and is a non-ionic surfactant with emulsifying, dispersing, and wetting properties.
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