propyl gallate
gallic acid, propyl ester
antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils. Antioxidant used in foods esp. animal fats and vegetable oils. Synergistic with other antioxidants such as Butylated hydroxyanisole DNB28-K and 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol HCH42-H. Esp. effective with polyunsaturated fats. Indirect food additive arising from paper or board packaging, adhesives and food contact polymers Propyl gallate is an anti-oxidant. It protects against oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and oxygen free radicals, in a catalytic manner similar to superoxide dismutase.; Propyl gallate, or propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate is an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and propanol. It is an antioxidant added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation.[citation needed] As a food additive, it is used under the E number E310.
  • Beijing Lys Chemicals
    • Beijing Lys Chemicals Co, LTD.
      From Grams to Tons
      Fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales.
      BEIJING LYS CHEMICALS CO, LTD, established in 2004, is a fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales. We mainly engaged in export and technology development of flavor and fragrance materials and pharmaceutical intermediates. We have nearly 500 kinds of products, from grams to tons, exported to USA, Europe, South Asia and etc. And we custom manufacture new products according to customers’ needs, and serve good quality products and service. Our goal is to become a fine chemical enterprise which could provide special products and services.
      Email: Mr. Jia
      Email: Mr. Guo
      Voice: 86-10-68418738
      Fax: 86-10-68418739
      Mr. Guo86-10-68483445
      Mr. Guo86-10-68418739
      10416 Propyl gallate
  • CTC Organics
    • CTC Organics
      For More Than 40 Year
      Your source for rare aroma chemicals for the flavor and fragrance industy.
      “The world is run by middle men.” The number of times I have heard Dr. Liu utter those words are innumerable. He loved reciting and recording famous quotes and had many of his own. Among his many talents, Dr. Liu had a unique genius in the area of chemistry. He had an uncanny understanding of the pulse of the chemical industry and was a superb salesman.
      US Email: Customer Service
      US Voice: (404) 524-6744
      US Fax: (404) 577-1651
      W1730 propyl gallate
  • M&U International
    • M&U International LLC
      Steady supply & demand
      Meeting customers increasing demands at home as well as abroad.
      M&U dedicates itself to the development and production of new products as well as continuously promoting those new products. We’ve maintained a steady supply&demand relationship with a large number of manufacturers at home and abroad. We’ve developed an extensive network and because of our relationships with these manufacturers, we’re able to provide a stable supply of great quality materials. We’re located in China’s largest communications hub, Shanghai and in the U.S. near one of the largest sea ports on the East Coast. The strategic locations of our facilities ensure convenient, prompt and secure delivery of our products to our customers. We warmly welcome your inquiries, come witness our solemn commitment for yourself.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Voice: +86-21-32515501 60762991 60762992
      Fax: +86-21-32515502 64204960
      US Voice: 908-359-9000
      US Fax: 908-359-9002
      A0388 PROPYL GALLATE, Kosher
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      16-77650 PROPYL GALLATE NF, Kosher
      16-77660 PROPYL GALLATE FCC, Kosher
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 800-244-1173
      US Fax: 800-368-4661
      Certified Food Grade Products
      W294705 Propyl gallate, ≥98%, FCC
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Email: Global Business
      Voice: +81-3-5640-8878
      Fax: +81-3-5640-8902
      US Voice: 800-423-8616
      US Fax: 888-520-1075
      Tokyo Tel:03-5640-8851
      Tokyo Fax:03-5640-8865
      G0018 Propyl Gallate >98.0%(T)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (Click)
CAS Number: 121-79-9Picture of molecule
Other: 56274-95-4
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 204-498-2
Nikkaji Web: J2.925D
Beilstein Number: 1877976
MDL: MFCD00002196
XlogP3: 1.80 (est)
Molecular Weight: 212.20164000
Formula: C10 H12 O5
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: antioxidants and preservatives
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1660 Propyl Gallate View-review
EU SANCO Propyl gallate View-review
EU SANCO Gallates, TBHQ and BHA View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Propyl Gallate
GSFA Codex: Propyl gallate (310)
DG SANTE Food Additives: propyl gallate
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials: propyl gallate
FEMA Number: 2947  propyl gallate
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Margarine
Sec. 166.110 Margarine.

Subpart G--Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances
Sec. 172.615 Chewing gum base.

Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings.

Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.380 Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.390 Zinc-silicon dioxide matrix coatings.

Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.170 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.

Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1010 Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1210 Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers.

Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

Subpart B--Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients
Sec. 181.24 Antioxidants.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1660 Propyl gallate.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white to pale beige crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 148.00 to  150.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 448.59 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 187.00 °F. TCC ( 86.11 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.800
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 water, 4176 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 propylene glycol
 water, 3500 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antioxidants
perfuming agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Propyl Gallate USP/NF/FCC
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Propyl gallate
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Propyl Gallate
CTC Organics
propyl gallate
Kraft Chemical
Propyl Gallate
M&U International
MinaCare GalPro (Propyl Gallate)
Odor: characteristic
Use: An antioxidant that exhibits antimicrobial activity. Propyl gallate has been reported to be an effective antioxidant-based hepatoprotector, both in vitro and in vivo. It has also been shown to prevent neuronal apoptosis and block the death of neurons exposed to FeSO4/GA as well as partially protect endothelial cells against TNF-induced apoptosis.
Penta International
Penta International
Propyl Gallate
Propyl gallate, ≥98%, FCC
Certified Food Grade Products
Sinoway Industrial
For experimental / research use only.
Propyl Gallate
(99% up, powder)
For experimental / research use only.
Propyl Gallate >98.0%(T)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24 - Avoid contact with skin.
S 37 - Wear suitable gloves.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  2100 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB245-441

oral-mouse LD50  1700 mg/kg
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Vol. 54, Pg. 239, 1977.

oral-rabbit LD50  2750 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB223-840

intraperitoneal-rat LD50  380 mg/kg
Food Technology Vol. 2, Pg. 308, 1948.

oral-hamster LD50  2480 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB223-840

unreported-rat LD50  2500 mg/kg
Voprosy Pitaniya. Problems of Nutrition. Vol. 25(6), Pg. 47, 1966.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: antioxidants and preservatives
Recommendation for propyl gallate usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -0.97000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -0.08000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -0.05000
fruit ices: -0.05000
gelatins / puddings: -0.03000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -0.16000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of propyl gallate (E 310) as a food additive
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View search
Daily Med: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 121-79-9
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 4947
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
Chemidplus: 0000121799
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: LW8400000 for cas# 121-79-9
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
 propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 121-79-9
Pubchem (cid): 4947
Pubchem (sid): 134973193
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C11155
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB33835
FooDB: FDB012003
Export Tariff Code: 2918.29.7500
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 corn seed
Search Trop  Picture
 not found in nature
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
 benzoic acid, 3,4, 5-trihydroxy-, propyl ester
 benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, propyl ester
 gallate, propyl
 gallic acid N-propyl ester
 gallic acid propyl ester
 gallic acid, N-propyl ester
 gallic acid, propyl ester
 nipagallin P
 nipanox S 1
 pro gallin P
 progallin P
 propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
N-propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
N-propyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid
N-propyl galiate
 propyl gallate FCC
 propyl gallate NF
 propyl gallate USP/NF/FCC
 tenox p g
 tenox PG
3,4,5-trihydroxy-benzoic acid propyl ester
3,4,5-trihydroxybenzene-1-propyl carboxylate
3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid n-propyl ester
3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester
3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, propyl ester
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
PubMed: Oxidative stability of cooked, frozen, reheated beef patties: effect of antioxidants.
PubMed: Effect of grape seed extract on oxidative, color and sensory stability of a pre-cooked, frozen, re-heated beef sausage model system.
PubMed: Frozen storage stability of antioxidant-treated raw restructured beef steaks made from mature cows.
PubMed: Optimization of the analysis of flavor volatile compounds by liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME). Application to the aroma analysis of melons, peaches, grapes, strawberries, and tomatoes.
PubMed: Properties of restructured beef steaks from forage- and grain-fed cattle as affected by antioxidant and flavoring agents.
PubMed: Production of tomato flavor volatiles from a crude enzyme preparation using a hollow-fiber reactor.
PubMed: Tannins and human health: a review.
PubMed: Alternative oxidase inhibitors as antiparasitic agents against scuticociliatosis.
PubMed: Sensitized chemiluminescence of 2-phenyl-4,5-di(2-furyl)-1H-imidazole/K3Fe(CN)6/propyl gallate system combining with solid-phase extraction for the determination of propyl gallate in edible oil.
PubMed: Development of new active packaging films coated with natural phenolic compounds to improve the oxidative stability of beef.
PubMed: Purification and characterization of peroxidase from avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv. Hass).
PubMed: Influence of antioxidant structure on local molecular mobility in amorphous sucrose.
PubMed: Geno- and cytotoxicity of propyl gallate food additive.
PubMed: Polar paradox revisited: analogous pairs of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants in linoleic acid emulsion containing Cu(II).
PubMed: Identification of novel dietary phytochemicals inhibiting the efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).
PubMed: Inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on tyrosinase and its application in controlling pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits.
PubMed: Increasing the applications of Crocus sativus flowers as natural antioxidants.
PubMed: Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.
PubMed: Effects of emulsifier hydrophile-lipophile balance and emulsifier concentration on the distributions of gallic acid, propyl gallate, and α-tocopherol in corn oil emulsions.
PubMed: β-Carotene assay revisited. application to characterize and quantify antioxidant and prooxidant activities in a microplate.
PubMed: Utility of 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan for the spectrofluorimetric determination of butylated hydroxyanisole and propyl gallate in foodstuffs.
PubMed: Natural and synthetic antioxidant additives for improving the performance of new biolubricant formulations.
PubMed: Antioxidants modulate molecular mobility, oxygen permeability, and microstructure in zein films.
PubMed: Structure and function of the oxidation products of polyphenols and identification of potent lipoxygenase inhibitors from Fe-catalyzed oxidation of resveratrol.
PubMed: Determination of antioxidant additives in foodstuffs by direct measurement of gold nanoparticle formation using resonance light scattering detection.
PubMed: Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils.
PubMed: Propyl gallate synthesis using acidophilic tannase and simultaneous production of tannase and gallic acid by marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032.
PubMed: Effect of grape seed extract on oxidative, color and sensory stability of a pre-cooked, frozen, re-heated beef sausage model system.
PubMed: The enhancement of propyl gallate-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells by a proteasome inhibitor MG132.
PubMed: Role of redox signaling regulation in propyl gallate-induced apoptosis of human leukemia cells.
PubMed: Determination of food grade antioxidants using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed: Assessment of washing with antioxidant on the oxidative stability of fatty fish mince during processing and storage.
PubMed: Suitability of saturated aldehydes as lipid oxidation markers in washed turkey meat.
PubMed: Six edible wild fruits as potential antioxidant additives or nutritional supplements.
PubMed: Screening of phenolic antioxidants for their inhibitory activity against foodborne Staphylococcus aureus strains.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids in lipid oxidation catalyzed by different prooxidants.
PubMed: Comparison of supplements to enhance recovery of heat-injured Salmonella from egg albumen.
PubMed: Propyl gallate inhibits the growth of HeLa cells via regulating intracellular GSH level.
PubMed: The effects of buthionine sulfoximine, diethyldithiocarbamate or 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole on propyl gallate-treated HeLa cells in relation to cell growth, reactive oxygen species and glutathione.
PubMed: Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).
PubMed: The anti-apoptotic effects of caspase inhibitors on propyl gallate-treated HeLa cells in relation to reactive oxygen species and glutathione levels.
PubMed: Lipoxygenase gene expression in ripening kiwifruit in relation to ethylene and aroma production.
PubMed: Relationships between free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in foods.
PubMed: Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of cooked, frozen pork patties.
PubMed: Identification of xenoestrogens in food additives by an integrated in silico and in vitro approach.
PubMed: Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes.
PubMed: Transcriptome analysis provides new insights into liver changes induced in the rat upon dietary administration of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.
PubMed: Hydroxytyrosol prevents oxidative deterioration in foodstuffs rich in fish lipids.
PubMed: Final report on the amended safety assessment of Propyl Gallate.
PubMed: Positive rates to propyl gallate on patch testing: a change in trend.
PubMed: Gallic acid, a metabolite of the antioxidant propyl gallate, inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication via phosphorylation of connexin 43 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 in rat liver epithelial cells.
PubMed: [Sensitization to gallates: review of 46 cases].
PubMed: Allergen avoidance. Gallates.
PubMed: The efficacy of protective effects of tannic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and propyl gallate against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and DNA damages in IMR-90 cells.
PubMed: Capillary electrophoresis-amperometric determination of antioxidant propyl gallate and butylated hydroxyanisole in foods.
PubMed: Effects of various plant polyphenols on bladder carcinogen benzidine-induced mutagenicity.
PubMed: Evaluation of occasional nonresponse of a washed cod mince model to hemoglobin (Hb)-mediated oxidation.
PubMed: Effect of molecular structure of phenolic families as hydroxycinnamic acids and catechins on their antioxidant effectiveness in minced fish muscle.
PubMed: Investigating the location of propyl gallate at surfaces and its chemical microenvironment by (1)H NMR.
PubMed: Inhibition of hemoglobin- and iron-promoted oxidation in fish microsomes by natural phenolics.
PubMed: Estrogenic potency of food-packaging-associated plasticizers and antioxidants as detected in ERalpha and ERbeta reporter gene cell lines.
PubMed: Antioxidant and modified atmosphere packaging prevention of discoloration in pork bones during retail display.
PubMed: Cellular and in vivo hepatotoxicity caused by green tea phenolic acids and catechins.
PubMed: Optimization of the analysis of flavor volatile compounds by liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME). Application to the aroma analysis of melons, peaches, grapes, strawberries, and tomatoes.
PubMed: Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals.
PubMed: In vitro effect of phenolic antioxidants on germination, growth and aflatoxin B accumulation by peanut Aspergillus section Flavi.
PubMed: Determination and confirmation of five phenolic antioxidants in foods by LC/MS and GC/MS.
PubMed: Model system for testing the efficacy of antioxidants in muscle foods.
PubMed: Alpha-tocopherol oxidation in fish muscle during chilling and frozen storage.
PubMed: Effects of tannic acid and its related compounds on food mutagens or hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA strands breaks in human lymphocytes.
PubMed: The use of chlorhexidine/n-propyl gallate as a urine preservative.
PubMed: Antioxidant capacity and lipophilic content of seaweeds collected from the Qingdao coastline.
PubMed: Antioxidant evaluation in dessert spices compared with common food additives. Influence of irradiation procedure.
PubMed: Properties of restructured beef steaks from forage- and grain-fed cattle as affected by antioxidant and flavoring agents.
PubMed: Hydrogen peroxide scavenging, antioxidant and anti-radical activity of some phenolic acids.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of 3-dehydroshikimic acid in liposomes, emulsions, and bulk oil.
PubMed: Propyl gallate is a superoxide dismutase mimic and protects cultured lens epithelial cells from H2O2 insult.
PubMed: Sequestering ability of butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, resveratrol, and vitamins C and E against ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl free radicals in chemical and biological systems.
PubMed: Synthesis of antioxidant propyl gallate using tannase from Aspergillus niger van Teighem in nonaqueous media.
PubMed: Anti-Salmonella activity of alkyl gallates.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of edible fungi (truffles and mushrooms): losses during industrial processing.
PubMed: [Simultaneous determination of five antioxidants in food by HPLC with fluorescence detection].
PubMed: Antioxidant functions of selected allium thiosulfinates and S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides.
PubMed: Ability of surfactant micelles to alter the partitioning of phenolic antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions.
PubMed: Promoting effects of combined antioxidant and sodium nitrite treatment on forestomach carcinogenesis in rats after initiation with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.
PubMed: Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of Mediterranean and tropical fruits compared with common food additives.
PubMed: Monoclonal antibody-directed analysis of benzo[a]pyrene metabolism in rat liver and extrahepatic tissues: effect of propyl and octyl gallate.
PubMed: Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean spices compared with common food additives.
PubMed: Effects of phenolic propyl esters on the oxidative stability of refined sunflower oil.
PubMed: Monoparameter sensors for the determination of the antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and n-propyl gallate in foods and cosmetics by flow injection spectrophotometry.
PubMed: [Determination of antioxidants BHT,BHA and PG in food with high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of resveratrol compared with common food additives.
PubMed: Effect of dietary treatment with n-propyl gallate or vitamin E on the survival of mice exposed to phosgene.
PubMed: Activities of antioxidants are affected by colloidal properties of oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions and bulk oils.
PubMed: Inhibition of beta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase activity by dietary flavonoids.
PubMed: Effect of preservation techniques and food additives on staphylococcal thermonuclease.
PubMed: Antioxidants in food and food antioxidants.
PubMed: Inhibition of xanthine oxidase and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HL-60 cells by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and propyl gallate.
PubMed: An analysis of the possibility for health implications of joint actions and interactions between food additives.
PubMed: Simultaneous stopped-flow determination of butylated hydroxyanisole and propyl gallate using a T-format luminescence spectrometer.
PubMed: Production of tomato flavor volatiles from a crude enzyme preparation using a hollow-fiber reactor.
PubMed: Multivariate analysis of superficial scald susceptibility on Granny Smith apples dipped with different postharvest treatments.
PubMed: Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise.
PubMed: Phenolics: blocking agents for heterocyclic amine-induced carcinogenesis.
PubMed: Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweeteners permitted as additives in food by mixed micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed: Mechanism of inhibition of tannic acid and related compounds on the growth of intestinal bacteria.
PubMed: Tannins and human health: a review.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of gallates: an electrochemical study in aqueous media.
PubMed: Derivatives of gallic acid induce apoptosis in tumoral cell lines and inhibit lymphocyte proliferation.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Forty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.
PubMed: Butylated hydroxyanisole blocks the inhibitory effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on collagen production in human dermal fibroblasts.
PubMed: Selective suppression of in vitro T-dependent humoral immunity by synthetic food additive antioxidants.
PubMed: Effect of deep-fat frying on fat oxidation in soybean oil.
PubMed: Antimicrobial action of some GRAS compounds against Vibrio vulnificus.
PubMed: Microbore liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the control of phenolic antioxidants in drugs and foods.
PubMed: Butylated hydroxyanisole specifically inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced cytotoxicity and growth enhancement.
PubMed: An investigation of the antibacterial effect of carrot on Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed: Protection by albumin against the pro-oxidant actions of phenolic dietary components.
PubMed: Shortcomings of current strategy for toxicity testing of food chemicals: antioxidants.
PubMed: An evaluation of the antioxidant and potential pro-oxidant properties of food additives and of trolox C, vitamin E and probucol.
PubMed: Effect of propylgallate on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and calcium mixture.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic determination of seven antioxidants in dry food.
PubMed: Improved method for determination of volatile nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers.
PubMed: Effect of four synthetic antioxidants on the formation of ethylene from methional in rat liver microsomes.
PubMed: Detection of oxygen activation and determination of the activity of antioxidants towards reactive oxygen species by use of the chemiluminigenic probes luminol and lucigenin.
PubMed: Studies on antioxidants: their carcinogenic and modifying effects on chemical carcinogenesis.
PubMed: Intake of phenolic antioxidants from foods in Canada.
PubMed: Toxicology of gallates: a review and evaluation.
PubMed: Methodology for studying antioxidant activity and mechanisms of action of antioxidants.
PubMed: Metabolic aspects of antioxidants and preservatives.
PubMed: No evidence of carcinogenicity of D-mannitol and propyl gallate in F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice.
PubMed: Effect of phenolic antioxidants on microbial growth.
PubMed: Different efficiency of various synthetic antioxidants towards NADPH induced chemiluminescence in rat liver microsomes.
PubMed: Short-term pathological and proliferative effects of butylated hydroxyanisole and other phenolic antioxidants in the forestomach of Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed: Corn oil and its minor constituents as inhibitors of DMBA-induced chromosomal breaks in vivo.
PubMed: High performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven antioxidants in oil and lard: collaborative study.
PubMed: NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Propyl Gallate (CAS No. 121-79-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).
PubMed: Influence of gallic acid esters on drug-metabolizing enzymes of rat liver.
PubMed: Increased sensitivity of heat-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to food-grade antioxidants.
PubMed: Drug-nitrite interactions in human saliva: effects of food constituents on carcinogenic N-nitrosamine formation.
PubMed: Modes of action of gallic acid in suppressing food intake of rats.
PubMed: Anticellular and immunosuppressive activities of foodborne phenolic compounds.
PubMed: Studies on liver microsomes of female rats fed purified diets varying in fat content and with and without propyl gallate.
PubMed: Radioprotecting effect of propylgalate and butylated hydroxyanisol.
PubMed: Enhancing and inhibiting effects of propyl gallate on carcinogen-induced mutagenesis.
PubMed: Effects of antioxidants on lipid peroxide formation in irradiated synthetic diets.
PubMed: Liquid chromatography with amperometric detection for determinging phenolic preservatives.
PubMed: High performance liquid chromatographic determination of nine phenolic antioxidants in oils, lards, and shortenings.
PubMed: Infantile methemoglobinemia caused by food additives.
PubMed: Cytogenetic activity of some common antioxidants and their interaction with x-rays.
PubMed: A rapid gas-liquid chromatographic method for the multi-determination of antioxidants in fats, oils and dried food products.
PubMed: Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene and other antioxidants on mouse lung metabolism.
PubMed: Rapid determination of butylated hydroxyanisole, tert- butylhydroquinone, and propyl gallate in edible oils by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Inhibition of nitrosamine formation in fried bacon by propyl gallate and L-ascorbyl palmitate.
PubMed: Fluorescence quenching of phenolic antioxidants and selective determination of propyl gallate.
PubMed: Long-term toxicity study of n-propyl gallate in mice.
PubMed: Peroxidation of subcellular organelles: formation of lipofuscinlike fluorescent pigments.
PubMed: The influence of propyl gallate and alpha-tocopherol on the survival time of rats during fasting.
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